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Flora of tropical Africa. By Daniel Oliver ... assisted by other botanists. 

London, L. Reeve,1 868-1 902. 
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Bra>chystephanus.'\ xcviii. acanthace.*: (clakke). 179 

Anthers J-J in. exserted ; pollen globose, slightly trigonous, obscurely 
S-banded, minutely tubercled. — B. yaundetisiSy Lindau in Engl. & 
Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 344. 

Upper Guinea. Camerooiis : Yaunde, Zenker ^ Staudt, 312 ! Lolodorf, Staudtf 
374 ! Efulen, Bates, 246. 

5. B. occidentalism Lhidau in EngL Jahrh. xx. 53. Stem 6 ft. 
high, nearly glabrous. Leaves 5J by 2J in., narrowed at both ends, 
when mature glabrate above, minutely hairy beneath ; cystoliths 
many, small; petiole \-\ in. long. Panicles 3 J by IJ in. long, lax, 
minutely pubexscent ; lower branches evolute into zigzag racemes ; flowers 
solitary ; bract scarcely y^ in. long, linear. 8epals \-\ in. long, linear, 
nearly glabrous. Corolla-tube ^ in. long ; lips \ in. long, slightly 
notched. Pollen globose, strongly echinate. Pistil of the genus. — 
liindau in Engl. &, Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 344. 

Xiower Guinea. Isle of St. Thomas, 2000 ft,, Mann, 1096! Quintas, 91! 
Welwitsch, 5208 ! 3Ioller, 16 ! 

6. B. (?) Mannii, 0. B. Clarke. Stem 2-8 ft. high. Leaves 6J 
by 2|- in., obovate- lanceolate, attenuate at both ends, neai-ly glabrous ; 
cystoliths scattered on the under surface and along the nerves on the 
upper surface; petiole up to f in. long; main nerves subparaUel, lU on 
each side the midrib. Panicle terminal, 3 by f in., viscid-pubescent; 
flowers solitary, the lower on short zigzag racemes ; bracts \ in. long, 
linear. Sepals J in. long and upwards, linear, viscid-pubescent. 
Corolla purple ; tube J in. long, linear. Filaments 2, long exserted, 
glabrous ; pollen globose, most minutely tubercled. Pistil glabrous ; 
ovary oblong ; stigma subcapitate ; disc small. 

JtO-wer Gulneat Gaboon : Sierra del Crystal, Mann, 1666 ! 
Anthers not seen ; hence the genus is not certain. 



43. JUSTICIA, Linn.; Benth. et Hook. f.Gen, PL ii, 1108. 

Calyx (small or medium) divided nearly to the base ; segments 5 
(or very rarely 4)^ linear or linear-Ianceolate, Corolla 2-lipped, 
nearly always hairy without; tube not (or scarcely) longer than the 
limb ; ant icons lip 34obed ; posticous lip entii^e or shoi tly 24obed ; 
palate often marked by spots or transverse wrinkles. Stamens 2 ; one 
anther- cell distinctly below the other, definitely tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, 
with 2 or 3 longitudinal smooth areas containing stopples, continued to 
the pole or not^ with longitudinal rows of tubercles often reduced to 
granuLar patches or obsolete. Ovary with 2 (or 1) ovules in each cell ; 
style linear, usually more or less haii^y in the lower half ; biiuu hos 2, 
minute, subequaL Capsule 4-seeded; stalk solid, usually fehorij not 
slender ; placenta not rising from the base elasticolly ; seeds rough or 
tubercular, rarely hairy. In J. heierocarpa, and a few allied species, 
besides the normal 4-seeded capsule there occur 1- seeded dimorphic. 



180 



XCVIII. ACANTHACE^E (cLARKE), 



[jTiisticia- 



1. J. JBetonica, 



spinous-win<yed capsules, — Herbs or shrubs. Leaves entire or obscurely 
wavy-crenate. Flowers small or medium-sized, purple-yellow or white, 
in spikes (strobilate or loose, or interrupted below), terminal or axillary, 
or in axillary clusters, or solitary, or in slender loose axillary spikes^ or 
in panicles, or in reduced (often panicled) cymes ; floral leaves broad, 
imbricated (as in strobilate spikes), or narrow, long, or small; bracts 
long elliptic, or narrow small, or 0, 

Species 200; throughout all warm regions, 

*Betonica. — Spikes strobiUae; floral leaves ovate, often 

somewhat 4- ranked. Sepals 5, except in 11, J, tenella. 

PoWen hardly tubereled. 

Floral leaves white reticulated w^ith green or purple 

veins. Capsule hairy. (Species 1-7 are all one in 

the opinion of T. Anderson and of S, Moore,) 

Floral leaves reticulated with green veins. 

Petiole ^~ in. long , . . . 

Petiole 0— V in, long. 

Leaves softly hairy beneath. 
Leaves np to 3 in. long , 
Leaves %-^ in. long 
Leaves nearly glabrous. 
Leaves 2| in. long 
Leaves 1^ in, long 
Leaves f in. long . 
Floral leaves reticulated with purple veins 
Floral leaves not white, reticulate- veined. 

Sepals 5. 

Leavef^ up to 7 in. longj floral leaves 

white margined *.•... 

Leaves up to 3 1 in. long ; floral leaves ^-^ in. long , 

Leaves up to 1 in. long, round . - - . 

Sepals 1 ; floral leaves ^ in, long , , . . 

**R06TELLTTLAEiA. — Flowers in terminal spikes, hardly 
strobilate, more or less interrupted at the base; floral 
leaves narrower than in subgenus Betonica^ upper 
imbricated. Flowers 1-3 under each floral leaf^ which 
becomes the "proper bract ^* when there is only 
i flower under it* 
Sepals 5 (in a few species the post! cons sepal much smaller 
than the others), not conspicuously white-margined. 
Floral leaves ovate or elliptic (see also 21 » J* ny€Lssana)^ 
[Species in tliis group of which the fruit is un- 
known may turn out to be of the genus 

Corolla § in. long or more. 

Flowers 3-2 under each floral leaf 
Flowers 1 under each floral leaf (bract) • 
Leaves acuminate ; ovary glabrous . 
Leaves subotuse; ovary shaggy 
Corolla ^-\ in. long. 



2, J. beionicQtdes. 

5* */. ruivenzoriensis, 

6. J, andongensis. 
4. J. trinervis, 

3. J, niJgherrensis* 

7, e/. versicolor. 



I in- 



long, 



8, J, Pseudorimgia. 

9. *7, paucinervia, 

10. «/, JSmini, 

11. */. tenella* 



12. J. pkyUosiachys. 

13. J. l(jbta, 

14. J. simplicispica. 



^ 3 



Leaves 5 in, in di am., very long petioled, cordate ,15. J.Jittomoides, 
Leaves f in. long; floral leaves orbicular * 



16 » J. mossambicensis. 



Justwia.] XCVIII. ACANTHAGE^E (cLARKE). 181 

Leaves | in* long; floral leaves narrowly elliptic * 17. J. baravensis. 
Floral leaves linear-oblong or linear (small narrow- 
elliptic in 21, J, nifas'fana). 
Sepals j\p-l in. long, linear-lanceolate or linear. 
Capsule soft with many minute defiexed hairs. 
Spikes f in, broad. 

Bracts and bractfoles without linear vellow- 
hairy tips. 
Leaves ovate to elliptic* 

Sepals hispid, and also with minute 

moniliform hairs • , ,18, J.flava, 

Sepals hispid, but with no moniliform 

hairs. , , . . ,19, J, palustris* 

Leaves lanceolate to linear . * . 20, J* kirkiana. 
Bracts and bracteoles with linear yellow-hairy 

tips . . , , . . .21. J, nya^sana. 

Spikes \ in. broad * • * . . 22, t7, Unearispica^ 

Capsule (as ovary also) quite glabrous. 
Spikes continuoas or nearly so. 

Petiole 0-i in. . < , • , . 23. J. longecalcarata. 

Petiole 5— 1 in, . , . . . , 24. J. tanaensis. 

Spikes more or less interrupted at the base. 

Spike linear-oblong, somewhat interrupted . 25. </, aridicola. 
Spike long-linear, much interrupted . • 26. J* stack^iarphe' 



toides^ 



Sepals t in, long, conspicuously white-margined* 

Leaves subsessile ; corolla § in, . . • . 27. J, togoensis* 

Leaves petioled ; corolla 1 in, . . , . 28. J^ nlngurica. 

Sepals 4, subequal, small, with very small flowers , , 29- J^ diffusa^ 

*^Calophakoides, — Flowers axillary, sessile, clustered or 
solitary ; uppermost chisters hardly confluent into a 
spike, 
fBranches herbaceous, Internodes long. Leaves more or 
less hairy. Flowers mostly 4 or 2 in each cluster 
under one floral leaf with minute (or no) bracts, 
though solitary flowers also occur. All the capsules 
seen in this group normal^ 4-seeded, exceeding \\n, 
long. [Species 30-34 of this group, together with 
37| may be treated as one (for which composite 
species T, Anderson devised the name J. neglecta) * 
Oliver accepted this view^ but kept 35. J. dys- 
choristeoides distinct-] 
Capsule glabrous; style-base usually hairy, and some- 
times tip of capsule slightly hairy. 
Sepal-tips lanceolate, or suhobtuse shortly linear-tipped^ 

Leaves dark green, lower long-petioled , ^ , 30. Jl insularis. 

Leaves pale green, short-petioled • » . . 31. J, calcarata. 

Sepal-tips linear, acute, hispid. 
Leaves 1-3 in. long* 

Sepals ^ in, long ; corolla | in, long . • • 32. J. Galeop^^is. 

Sepals ^ in. long ; corolla less than | in, long . 33, J. Lazarus. 
Sepals "I in. long. 

Corolla J-1 in. long, tube narrow . * .34, J\ UiAipiensis, 

Corolla ^ in, long, tube broad • • • 36. J. pingnior. 

TOL. V. 



Q 



182 



xcviii. acanthacejE (clarke). 



[Justicia* 



Leaves | in* long, very glabrous 
Capsule hairy. 

Leaves oblong, scabrid hairj . . * , 

Leaves lanceolate to linearj glabrate . 
Leaves ovate to lanceolate, hairy 

'ffffarnieria. ~ Branches herbaceous ; internodes long. 
Leaves more or less hairy. Flowers several or one in a 
cluster* Capsules normal, 4- seeded ; and also (often 
mixed therewith in the same cluster) abnormal, ovoid, 
subpyramidal, l-seeded capsules, with strongly toothed 
wings, — N.B, In J. Mollugo, J. shebelenMs^ J, hetero- 
carpa^ var. /3, and in J. leptocarpa no abnormal 
capsule? ha\^e been seen, and the plants may prove to 
belong to groups f or tft- Further, the typical 
dimorphic-fruited J. Melampyrum was esteemed by 
Oliver to be possibly only h seasonal form of 
J, insidaris, T. Anders, in group f- 
Flowers 5 in. long^ at least. Normal capsules more tlmn 

^ in* long* 
Lower leaves ovateJanceolate, base acute 
Low^er leaves long-petioled, base rounded 
Leaves ^ in* long, obovate, sabsessile 
Flow^ers scarcely ^ in. long. Noraaal capsules less than 

^ in* long. 
Lower leaves ovate-lanceolate* Flowers sessile. 

Sepals -g- in. long. Normal capsules -g— J- in. long , 
Sepals i in, long. Capsule ^ in. long . 
Lower leaves oblong-elliptic. Flowers subcymulose • 

Flowers scattered, many solitary, or axillary on short 
pedicels ; but clusters of 3-1 flowers frequently occur. 
[These form a badly -limited group, placed with 
Qendarussa by T* Anderson and Bentham. I do not 
see any particular affinity between J, Gendarussa and 
J. odora (the *'type^' of the present group), but I 
have no great improvement in the arrangement to pro- 
pose,] 

Mature leaves glabrous j in J. Fischeri sometimes with 
a few bristles on the margins, [Corolla |-§ in. 
long. Capsule glabrous,] 
Leaves linear; capsule § in* long , • * . 
Leaves ovate or oblong; capsule hardly \ in. long. 
Leaves hardly \ in. long; corolla purple . 
Leaves exceeding \ in. long ; corolla (where 
known) yellow. 
Leaves obtuse. 

Nerves obscure • . . , 

Nerves distinct ....,, 
Leaves apiculate *•*... 
Mature leaves (often minutely or thinly) hairy. 

Species of West Africa (leaves |- in, longj corolla 

violet) , 

Species of East Africa* 
Capsule glabrous* 

Leaves \ in, long j corolla ^ in. long 



. 35. tJ. dysckoristeoides, 

, 37* t/. sexangularis. 
« 38, J.JiIifolia, 
. 39, J. WhyteL 



ti 



40* 
41. 
42. 



J, Mel^mpyrum. 
J. Lindaui^ 
J, shehelensw. 



43. 

45. 



f/l heterocarpa^ 
J, leptocarpa, 
*7. Mollugo, 



46. f7. Lortetje, 



47, J- PMUipsim, 



48, J* odara* 

49, i7. sanmharensis. 

50, Jl Fischeri^ 



5L J, brevicaulu'. 



52, J, microphylla. 



Justicia.^ xcviii, acaxthace.e (clarke). 183 

Leaves 1 in. long; corolla | in. long . . 53. J, gesnerifolia. 

Capsule h;iiry. 

Leaves 1 in. long ; corolla about \ in. long . 54. J. diclipteroidei. 
Leaves \-\ in. long ; corolla ^-§ in. long . 55. J, urbaniana. 

****GEN]>.\Eirs3A. — Panicle terminal, or the axillary 
cymes running into an elongate terminal quasi-panicle. 
Bracts linear, sborter than the cal^x, incouiiipicuous ; 
floral leaves (if any) remote from the calyx, at the 
principal divisions of the panicle. [N.B, There is no 
essential difference between the inflorescence of a 
species &ueh as J, cor data and that oK suhgenua 
Eostellularia ; the primary branches of the *' panicle *' 
carrying small clusters of flowers at their tops are 
altogether homolo^ous with the lateral branches carry- 
ing sljort terminal spikes in Modellularia ; the 
tangible diffurence is that in the subgenus Oendarussa 
the bracts are narrow, not longer thtm the calyx.] 
Panicle linear, nearly continuous (a very glabrous 

shrub) ..,»,*.. 56. J, Gendamssa. 

Panicle more lax^ with the lateral cymes more or less 
evolutc. 
Flowers 1 in, long or more. 
Corolla very deeply 2 -lipped. 

Ovary glabrous j leaves nearly glabrous . . 57* */, Rendlei, 

Ovary and capsule hairy. 

Leaves up to 5 in, long, sparsely pubescent , 58. J, FreussiL 
Leaves 1-| in, long ; pubescence brown- 
glandular • •,... 59< J. salviijlora. 
Leaves § in. long, minutely densely grey- 
hairy , , . . . , 60, t7^. grisea. 
Corolla- tube much longer than the lips , , ,61, J. beleraponoideM, 
Flowers ^f in. long. 

Panicle branches divaricate or recurved; flowers 




Ovary and capsule glabrous. 

Panicle oblong ; floral leaves often large^ ovate 62, J, lawa. 
Panicle linear ; floral lea \res small, linear , 63. J^ vyramidaia. 

Ovary and capsule liairy , , , , , 64, J. exiensa. 

Panicle branches oblique, erect, with a cluster of 
3-1 flowers at the top. 
Branches and leaves glabrous , , , , 65, i7, eordata. 

Branches and leaves hairy . . , . 66, J, ^iloso^cordafa* 

Panicle branches of short 1-sided spikes; flowers 

solitary . , , . . * . 67- «/- masaiensis. 

Panicle compound; floral leaves or minute; flowers 

in small distant sessile clusters . . . 68, J, interrupt a. 

Panicle compound with capillary branches; flowers 

solitary ,.*,..* 69, J. glabra, 

*****Ansellia, — Spikes axillary, weak^ unilateial, witli few 
distaiit solitary flowers. Corolla small. Capsule small, 
ellipsoid, short-stalked, 4-seeded, very thin in texture ; 
seeds strongly rugose. These plants form a small, 
distinct, closely-allied group^ and appear to me related 
to some American species of Diantkera (hs D, ovata^ 



]84 xcviii. ACANTHACE-E (clarke). [JtisUcia. 

Walt. J IthyUglossa hiimilis^ Nees) ; but in Ansellia 

the tail of the lower anther is well developed, so that 

the group Ansellia cannot be united with Diantkera 

unless, with Lindau, the unniana^jeably lonfr series of 

species of Jusilcia be increased by sinking Diantkera 

altogether in it. Lindau assigns these species of sect. 

Ansellia as '* typical *^ examples of his section 

Mostellaria (characterised by Lindau as liaving 

flowers in dense spikes), Tlie sect. Anr^eUia, as 

intimated by T, Anderson^ is possibly best dealt with 

by making it a separate genus. 
Spikes usually with more than 2 flowers. 

Corolla about ^ in, long. (These three species in the 
arrangement of Lindau are but one,) 
Nearly glabrous* Leaves oblong or linear . . 70, «/, anstlliana. 

Pilose, Leaves 2-3 in. long, , . . . 71. */• matammenns^ 

Pilo&e or pubescent. Leaves ^-| in, long • « 72. J, uncinuJata^ 

Corolla \ in. lon^ or nearly so . . . • . 73. e/. crassiradix* 

Spikes 2- flowered ; leaves subsessile^ base truncate . . 74. J. Ntdtiiu 

1. J, Betonica^ Linn. Sp. Plant. 21. Shrubby, nearly glabrous. 
Leaves ;^* by IJ in,j ovate, acuminate, shortly acuminate at the base; 
petiole ^l-| in, long. Spikes 4| by | in, long, strobilate; bracts some- 
what 4 -ranked^ 2 ^7 3 ^^'^ ovate^ acute, white green-nerved ; bracteoles 
j- by -J in., similar to the bracts. Sepals \ in. long, linear, pubescent. 
Corolla i in. long, white, rose-spotted. Filaments glabrous, dilated at 
the top ; one anther-cell below the other, very long-tailed ; pollen 
ellipsoid with 2 stopples, the longitudinal band passing completely round 
the grain, with one row of patches on each side of each stopple. Pistil 
nearly glabrous. Capsule \ by i in., retrorsely hairy, 4 -seeded ; stalk 
-| in. long, solid, stout ; seeds rugose.- — T. Anders, in Journ. Linn, Soc. 
vii. 08 ; 0. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl, Brit. Ind- iv. 525. Adhatoda 
Betojiicfi, Nees in Wall, PL As. Rar. iii. 103, and in DC. Prod, xi* 385. 
Nicoteba Betonica^ Lindau in Engl. Jahrbv xviii. 06, 63, t. 2, fig. 56, 
and in EngL k Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv, 3 B, 320, and in Engl. Pfl. 
Ost-Afr. C. 370. — Kheede, Hort, Malabar, ii. t. 21 • 

upper Guinea. Sierra Leone (ex Lindau^ 

ImO^wbt Guinea. Angola and Damaraland (ex Lindmi)^ 

Ifile It and. Abyssinia ; Kordofan^ (ex Lindau)^ 

Mozamb* Dist. Portuguese East Africa: Goiongoza, Carvalko ! 

No exam file that matches at all closely the ovate-leaved J. Betoniea^ Linn, (type, 
Rheede, Hort. Makb, ii, t, 21), has been seen by me from Africa except Carvalho's; 
and the above disttihution is given on the authority of Lindau, who possibly 
(as T. Anderson) considered several of the succeeditig species as mere varieties of 
J. Setonica, But Lindau admits liicoteha nii(/keri^ensis and iV*. versicolor as 
species. 

This species also occurs iu India and Malaya. 

2. J. betonicoideSy C B, Clarke. Leaves 3 by J- J in., oblong or 
lanceolate, hairy beneath and on the nerves above, subsessiJe. Style 
rather densely hairy ; otherwise as J. Betonica, 



Jusiicia.] xcviii. acantuace.e (clarke). 185 

Srile Xand. British East Africa : Jiir ; Jur Glmttas, Schweinfurfh, 1423 ! 
Mittu, Schiveinftu'ik, 2793 ! Bongo, Sckweinfurtk, 2543 ! along Gilgil Kiver, nurtli of 
Lake Naivasha, 6000-7000 ft., Scott-ElUot, m^l ! 

Mozaxnb. Dlst. British Central Africa : Nyasaland ; Tanganyika Phiteaii, at 
Port Hill, 3500-4000 ft., Whyte ! 

The plants here collected do not match exactly. In ScoitSlliol, 6647, the bracts 
are more thuti ^ in. long, very uliite soarious ; in Sckweififurlh^ 1423, the stems are 
very hsiiry, the bracts more than ^ in. long, nuicronate ; in other examples the briicts 
are ^-^ in. long, green. 

3. J. nilgberrensiSy, Wall. Cat. 2435. Small, pi'ocumbent, nearly 
glabrous. Leaves J by ^ in., lanceolate, sessile. Bracts J by J in., 
greenish- white, green-veined ; bracteqles ^ in. long, lanceolate. Fila- 
ments glabrous, except close to their point of attachment ; otherwise as 
J. Betonica. — C, B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iv. 520 ; S. Moore in 
Journ. Bot. 1880, 309, partly. Adhatoda nilf/lte^i'icaj Nees in DC. 
Prod. xi. 386 ; Wight, Ic. t, 1544. Nlcoteba nil^herrensis, Lindau in 
Engl, (k Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 329. 

iMOvrer Guinea. Angola : Huilla, TVelwiisch, 5043 ! 

This specimen has acute leaves and laxer spikes than in the South Indian 
J. nilaherrensis. 



4. J, trinervia, Vahl, Enum. i. 156. Small, procumbent, nearly 
glabrous. Leaves lo by J in., oblong-elliptic, obtuse, sessile. Spikes 
1|^ by J in., flexuose; bracts J-J in. long, ovate, acute, green-veinetl. 
Flowers rather smaller than those of J. Betonica. — C. B. Clarke in 
Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iv. 526. J. Betonica, T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. 
Soc. ix. 510. Adhatoda trinerviay Nees in DC. Prod, xi, 380. A. varie- 
gata, Nees in DC. Prod, xi. 385; A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii. 154; 
Solms-Laub. in Schweinf. Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. 104. Kicoteha trinervia^ 
Lindau in Engl, tk Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 329. Getulurussa varie- 
gata, Hochst. ex Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 385. 

irile S^aiid. Abyssinia : Sana ; on dry hills near Dochli, Schim^^er, 516 1 
Also in Southern India. 

5. J. ruwenzoriensiS} C, B. Clarke. Stems 8 in. long, with 
patent white hairs. Leaves |-J in. in diam., ovate or round, softly 
hairy beneath ; petiole hardly any. Spikes 2 by |-J in. ; bracts I in. 
long, ovate or obovate, scarcely acute, hairy, greon- nerved. Corolla as 
of J. Betonica, but rather smaller. Filaments glabrous ; pollen with 3 
large stopples. Ovary hairy ; lower part of the style very hairy ; 
otherwise as ./. Betonica. 

XkXozam'b. Dlst. German East Africa : Ivaragwe, on dry hills, 4000-6000 ft., 
Scott 'Elliot, 3120 ! 

Possibly another variety of J. Betonica. 

G. J. andongensiSy C. B. Clarke, Branches 18 in. long, witli two 
hairy lines. Leaves 2 J by } in., cuneate-triangular at either end, 
glabrous or minutely hairy on the nerves beneath; petiole '*-iV *"• 
long. Spikes, flowers and bracts nearly as of ./. Betonica. Linn. Fila- 



180 xcvm. ACANTHACE.E (clarke), [Jasticia. 

ments glabrous ; pollen with 3 stopples. Style hairy. — J, Betonica^ 
B. Moore in Journ. Linn, Soc, xviii. tJOB, partly. 

!Lover Guinea. Angola : Pungo Andongo, JVelwitsch, 5111 ! Malange, 
Po^ge, 301 ! Amboland, Schinz, 36 ! 

The leaves of this plant, which are subsessile with both eiuU nearly alike, do not 
agree with the Indian J. Sefonica. But this niay be a form of J. nilgJierrensis 
(TTelivitsch, 5043), hs S. Moore took it to be. 

7, J. versicolor, C B. Clarke. Woody shrub; branches and 
innovations densely and minutely grey-hairy. Leaves 2 J by | in. 
oblong-elliptic, obtuse, when mature nearly glabrous; petiole 0-J in 
long. Spikes terminal, 3 by 1 J in. ; floral leaves j by i in., narrowly 
elliptic, obtuse, loosely imbricate, coloured, purplish-veined. Sepals 5 
J in. long, equal, narrow-lanceolate, 3-nerved, minutely hairy. Corolla 
|-1 in. long, pale- violet; tube very short; posticous lip subentire 
One anther-cell below the other, spurred ; pollen ellipsoid ; stopples 8 
bands reaching the poles, with rows of patches not of tubercles. Capsule 
nearly 1 in. long, densely shortly hairy, 4-seeded ; stalk short, thick 
solid ; placentae not rising elastically ; seeds irregularly tuberculate.— 
Nicoteha versicolor, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xxii. 118. 

Kower Guinea* Angola : Huilla, Welwitsch, 5049 ! Humpata, Newiotiy 117 \ 

No specimen at Kew. 




8. J. Pseudomngia, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 63. 
shrub, 8 ft. high, very slightly hairy. Leaves up to 7 by 2 J in., acumi- 
nate at either end, margin wavy ; petiole up to 1 in. long, but often 
(the wing from leaf-base being elongate). Spikes 4 by | in., strobilate ; 
bracts -| ^7 i ^^-j "with a white scarious margin ; bracteoles f by i in., 
similar. Sepals 5, ^—^ in. long, minutely hairy. Corolla ^ in, long, 
white ; filaments glabrous ; one anther-cell below the other, tailed ; 
pollen ellipsoid, with 2 stopples, and one row of circular patches on each 
side of each stopple. Pistil glabrous. Capsule J- J in. long, glabrous, 
4-seeded ; seeds rugose ; valves not rising elastically. — Lindau in 
Engl, it Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. 
U. t>< 4. 

irile Kand. British East Africa: Nyika country near Mornbasa, Wakefield f 

Mozamba Xklst* Zanzibar, Hildehrandf, 982 ! German East Africa : Usambara ; 
Mascheua, Moist, 8801 ! Kilimanjaro, ^000 ft., Johnston, 164 ! Ulngura, Siuhlmann, 
9037! 

9. J. paucinervia, T. Anders. MS, Stems simple, 8-12 in. long; 
innovations rusty with moniliform brown hairs. Leaves S^ by 1—2 in., 
oblong or ovate, narrowed at either end, nearly glabrous except the 
nerves; cystoliths numerous on both faces; petiole J-l| in. long. 
Spikes terminal, 2 by J in., very loose, obscurely strobilate; bracts J- J 
in. long; obovate, veined, fimbriate, almost lobed at the top, brown- 
ciliate, scarcely imbiicate ; bracteoles 0. Sepals 5, scarcely J in. long, 
linear, hairy. Corolla Jin. long. Filaments glabrous ; one anther cell 
below the other, tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, with 2 longitudinal bands and 



Justicia.] xcviii. acanthace^ (clarke). 187 

stopples, no tubercles. Ovary nearly glabrous; style-base somewhat 
hairy. 

lower Guinea. Gaboon : Sierra del Crystal, Mann, 1672 ! 

The stem and leaves of this species are unlike those of any other Justicia, but 
simulate tho§e of Disfwhoealyx angxistifoliaf 2). polyneuraf &c., which grow at the 
same place. 



10, J. Emini, Litidau in Engl. Jahrh, xx. fi8. Hairy. Upper 
leaves 1 in. long, ovate, subsessile; lower 2-3 in. long, narrowed at the 
base into a petiole \ in, long. Spike terminal, somewhat interrupted at 
the base ; bracts round ; flowers solitary ; bracteoles very small. Sepals 
5, equal, i in. long, linear, hair-y. One anther-cell below the other, 
tailed ; stopples 2 ; one row of obscure patches on either side each 
stopple. Ovary glabrous ; style-base hairy. — Lindau in Engl. & Prantl, 
Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373. 

M"IIe Iiaad. British East Africa : Mpororo; Ruhanda, Siuklmann, 2086! 

The locality is quoted as Bubanga b}' Lindau, but tliis is clearly an error, 
as, according to Stublmann, Kub^nga is the name of a Deity only. 

Lindatt separates l^icoteha (i.e. J. Sefonica) from Justicia by the pollen only, 
which is said to be ** banded '* in Nicoteha, *' tuhercled " in Justicia. The pollen is 
essentially the same in the two genera ; but the longitudinal row of tubercles on either 
side the stopple in Justicia is " obsolete " or depressed into circular (jranular patches 
in Nicoteba. As to the present species, however, placed by Lindau in Justicia, the 
tubercles are not more strongly indicated than they are in many species oi Nicoteha. 

11. J« tenellay T. Anders, in Joum. Linn. Soc. vii. 40. Slender, 4- 
12 in. long, nearly glabrous. Leaves up to 1 by f in., ovate, tip obtuse, 
triangular, base slightly decurrent ; petiole ^-J in. long. Spikes \-\ 
by i in., very dense, strobilate. Peduncles J-IJ in. long, axillary, 
2-0 together ; floral leaves somewhat 4-ranked, \ in. in diam., nearly 
round ; bract \ ^^ in. long, lanceolate ; bracteoles similar, rather 
smaller. Sepals 4, A- in. long, obtuse, minutely pubescent. Corolla 
i in. long, bluish-white. Stamens 2 ; anther-cells ellipsoid, one below 
the other tailed ; pollen very small, ellipsoid, with 3 stopples and 
longitudinal bands reaching the poles, but no tuberclas. Capsule J in. 
long, 4 -.seeded, glabrous ; stalk —^ in. long, solid ; placentae not rising 
elastically ; seeds smooth, with very short hairs on all sides. — Lindau in 
Bolet. Soc. Brot. x. 147. Rostellaria tenella^ Nees in DC, Prod. xi. 3rt!t ; 
Benth. in Hook. Niger Fl. 482. R. crenuhta, Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 3G0. 
R. parviflora^ Benth. in Hook. Niger Fl. 4J:^1. J^theilema riipestre, 
Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 262. Micranthus rnpestris, 0. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 
493 ; Lindau in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 20S. Thnnjia 
Bautnannii, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xxii. 120. Anisostnehij<t t< " , 
Lindau in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 329, fig. 132, E-G. 
Phaulopsis riipestris, Lindau in Engl, ife Prantl, Pflanzenfam. Nachtr. 
zu ii.-iv. 305. 

Upper Guinea. Senegambia, Meudelgt. 327! Sierra Leone: Le«ter IVhU, 
Scott-Elliott 38511 and without precise locality, Afzelius ! Fnffrau! Tc^land, 
1600 ft., Baumann, 221! BUtfner, 185! Cameroons: Rio del Rev, Johnston! 
Efulen, Bates, 272 ! Yaunde, Zenker, 299 ! 



188 xcviii. acanthacEjE (clarke). [Jttsticia. 

Itower Guinea* Princes Island, Barter, 19S5 ! Island of St. Thumiis, Don ! 
Webviis'ch, 5200! MoUer\ Gaboon: Sierra del Crystal, Mann, 1690! 

Moxamb. 3>lst. German East Africa: Usnramo, S^HA/waan, 8695 ! Uluguru, 
Stuhlmann, 8994 ! 

12. J. phyllostachys, C. B, Clarke. Hairy ; branches 2 ft. long, 
angular, dividing. Leaves up to 4 by If in., narrowed at both ends ; 
petiole \l in. long. Spikes up to 2J by 1 in,, dense; floral leaves § by 
\ in , acute (but the lower are often 1 in. long, approximating to ordi- 
nary leaves, so that the inflorescence appears leafy), with 3-1 flowers 
under each ; bracteoles 2, minute. Sepals 5, subequal, J in. long, linear- 
lanceolate. Corolla up to f in. long ; tube linear-cylindric ; very little 
inflated upwards; lips scarcely \ in. long, posticous oblong-elliptic, 
subentire. One anther-cell below the other, tailed : pollen ellipsoid, with 
2 stopples and several rows of tubercles on the bands. Pistil glabrous 
except a few scattered hairs on the style. Capsule i in. long ; 4-seeded, 
glabrous ; stalk solid, less than ^ in. long ; placentae not rising 
elastically ; surface of seeds irregularly corrugate. 

Xionrer Guinea. Angola : Cuiiene River, Johnston ! 

Mozamb* Dlst. Nyiisahmd ; between Jlpata and Tanganyika Platean, 2000- 
3000 ft,, Whifte! Nyika Plateau, 6000-7000 ft., Whyte, 118! Mount Chiradzali!, 
4000 ft., Whyte ! 

Tlie Nyiisalnnd plant is tlie typn of this species ; the plentiful material varies from 
scabrid to softly hairy. The Angola fragment is imperfect, and appears the same so 
far as it goes. Tlie lower antlier-cell is definitely tailed, but in one example only 
obscurely so. 

13. J. Iseta^ >S'. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1880, 311. Perennial, 3 ft. 
high, hairy. Leaves up to 5 by If in., elliptic-lanceolate, acute at either 
end ; petiole J in. long. Spikes forming a terminal panicle, 1 j by J in., 
or a compound panicle 3 by 2 in., continuous, rather lax ; biact J- J in. 
long, lanceolate from an elliptic base, minutely hairy ; bracteoles \ in. 
long, similar to the bracts. Sepals 5, J in. long, linear or oblong-linear ; 
two anticous rather broader ; posticous hardly smaller than the two 
adjacent, but sometimes wanting (fide S. Moore). Corolla ^ in. long, 
violet. One anther-cell below the other, tailed; pollen ellipsoid, with 
2 stopples and single rows of tubercles. Pistil glabrous, except a few 
minute h;iirs near the style-base. Fruit unknown. — J, malanganay 
Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 71, and in Engl. <fe Prantl, Pfianzenfam. 
iv. 3 B. 349. 

JmO-wct Guinea. Angola: Pungo Andongo, Welwitsck^ 5081! 5108 ! Malange, 
Bvchner, 118 ! 

14. J. simplicispicay C. B. Clarke, Stem 12-18 in. long, weak, 
hairy. Leaves 1-2 in. long, elliptic or oblong, obtuse at either end, 
hairy beneath, finally nearly glabrous. Petiole 0-^ in. long. Spike 
14 by |-1 in., lather dense; bracts each containing one flower (true 
bracts) f in. long, tip broad -elliptic, lanceolate; bracteoles 2, \ in. long, 
linear. Sepals 5, J-^ in. long, inear ; posticous one distinctly shorter. 
Corolla .^-f in. long. Filaments glabious ; upper anther-cell shortly 




icia.] XVCIII. ACANTHACEvE (cLARKE). 189 

tailed, lower with long tail, clavate, shortly 2-lobed at the tip ; poUea 
ellipsoid, longitudinally 3-banded without tubercles. Ovary shaggy. 

Sast Tropical .A-frlca. Without loenlitv, Scott-JBlUot .' 

Capsule not seen. This may be a Moneekma^ near M, depauueratum. 

15. J. fittonioideSy tS. Moore inJowni. Bot. 1878, 184. Nearly stem- 
less. Leaves 5 by 4 in., round ellipsoid, white-blotched, glabrous, 
minutely pubescent on the nerves beneath, base cordate; petiole .V-2 in. 
long. Peduncle axillary 2-4J in. long. Spike up to 2 by J in. j^ inter- 
rupted ; floral leaves J in. long, ovate, with 1-4 flowers (a condensed 
cyme) ; bract to flower i in. long, linear-oblong. Sepals 5, \ in. long, 
linear, pubescent. Corolla scarcely J in. long. Filaments glabrous; 
one anther-cell much lower than the other, tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, with 
3 stopples, the longitudinal ribs obscure, not reaching the pole. Ovary 
minutely hairy; style-base thinly hairy. Capsule |-J in. long, glabrous or 
nearly so, 4-seeded; stalk J- J in. long, solid, rather slender; seeds rough ; 
placentae not rising elastically. — Nicoteha Jlttonioides , Lindau in Engl. 
& Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 329, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 37(>. 

Wile Xiand. HVitish East Africa : NyiliJi country near Mombasa, W^akejield ! 

This is placed in Betonica by S. Moore, and in Nicoteha by Lindau. The pollen 
is right for Nicoteha, but the "bracts" described by S. Moore are not homologous 
with the bracts of J. JBetonica. 

16. J. mossambicensis, Lindau in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373. 

Annual, IJ ft. high, pubescent. Leaves f by J in., ovate, obtuse. 

Flowers 3-1, clustered in the axils of each floral leaf; floral leaves 

in spikes terminal and on very short axillary branches ; proper floral 

leaves round, \ in. in diam., imbricated, interspersed with oblong leaves 

J-| in. long ; calyx ~ in. long. Corolla J- J in. long. One anther-cell 

below the other strongly tailed. Ovary 4-ovulate {Lindau). — Adhatoda 

mossanibicensiSi Klotzsch in Peters, Reise Mossamb. 217 

Mozamba Disti Portuguese East Africa : Mozambique Isle, Peters ! in Berlin 
Herbarium. 

The example is young, and nearly all the spikes have been damaged by some 
insect. The very small tiowers point to sect. Harnieria, which the round bract* do 
not suit. 

17. J, baravensis, C B. Clarke. Branches 2 ft. long, crooked, 
divided, nearly glabrous, with many cystoliths. Leaves J by J in., 
ovate, minutely scabrous, hairy, finally glabrate ; petiole 0-^ in. long. 
Spikes terminal up to 2 by J in., more or less interrupted at the base ; 




long, hairy. Corolla (from fragments) J in. long. Capsule |^ in. long, 
sessile, 2-seeded, ellipsoid, with raanydetlexed hairs. Seeds compressed, 
black, ammonite- marked— i.e. resembling those of J.jlava, but suialler. 

wile Ziand. South Snimililaiul : Barava, Eihlebrandi^ 13091 
No specimen nt Ke\v . 



3 90 XCVIII. ACANTHACE^ (CLAEKE). [Justiciu. 

18. J. flavay Vahlf St/mb. ii. ITi, twt of Kurz. Herb, 2-4 ft. high, 
hairv. Lea vets up to 3 J by IJ in. (usually smaller), ovate-lanceolate, 
hairy on both surfaces, shortly decarrent on the petiole ; petiole 0-| in. 
long. Spikes terminal, 4-8 by \ in., continuous, or interrupted at the 
base, lower whorls sometimes distant and passing into axillary clusters ; 
floral leaves \—\ in. long, broad-lanceolate to linear -oblong, obtuse, con- 
taining 3-1 flowers, green, hairy ; flower-bract nearly similar but 
smaller. Sepals 5, x^-^ in. long, with long white hairs and also 
with very short moniliform hairs. Filaments glabrous ; one anther-cell 
below the other, tailed ; pollen ellipsoid with two stopples and a row of 
tubercles on each side of the stopple upon the longitudinal band. 
Ovary nearly glabrous except at the top ; style hairy below, branches 2, 
very short, oblong, subequal. Capsule \ by ^ in., 4-seeded, shortly and 
densely retrose-hairy ; stalk y\y— ^ io. long» nearly as thick as the cap- 
sule ; seeds globose, moderately compressed, yellow-brown, finally neax^y 
black, marked by corrugations perpendicular to the margin (as in many 
Ammonites). — J. plicata, Vahl, Enum. i. 156; Schumach. & Thonn. 
Beskr, Guin, PI. 11 ; T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 39 ; Oliv. in 
Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Bot. ii. J:i45 ; S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1880, 
310 ; Lindau in Engl, <k Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349. J, fasdataf 
Drege, Zwei Pfl. Docum. 160, 195; T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. 
Soc. vii. 39 ; Lindaii in Engl, tt Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349, 
and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr, C 373. ./. major^ T. Anders, in Journ. 
Linn. Soc. vii. 39 ; Lindau in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 
349, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373 ; and in Ann. Istit. 
Bot. Roma, vi. (1890) 83. J. minor ^ T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. 
Soc. vii. 39 ; Engl. Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr. 392; Lindau in Engl. & 
Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349; Bendle in Journ. Bot. 1896, 411. 
J. palusiris^ Oliv. in Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Bot. ii. 345 ; Lindau in 
Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost- 
Afr. C. 373 (including var. dispersa^ Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 72), not 
of T. Anders. J, suaveolens^ Lindau in Engl, ik Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 
iv. 3 B. 349. J. fallax, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 74, and in 
Engl, tfc Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349. J. fruiiculosa^ Lindau in 
Engl. Jahrb. xx. 75, and partly in Engl. &. Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 
3 B. 349. Dianthera americanciy a and /3 Forsk. Descr. ^gypt,- 
Arab. 9. D. Jtava^ Vahl, Symb. i. 5. Tyloglossa major and T. mincyr, 
Hochst. in Flora, 1843, 73. Adhatoda Jiava, Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 401 
A, plicata^ Nees in DC. Prod, xi, 401 ; Benth. in Hook. Niger Fl, 484 
A. stiaveolens, Nees in DC, Prod, xi. 401. A. major j Nees in DC. Prod, xi 
397; A. Rich, Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii. 156. A. minor^ Nees in DC. Prod 
xi. 400; A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii. 156 ; Solnis-Laub. in Schweinf 
Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. 103, 242; Zarb, Catal. Spec. Bot. Pfund, 32 
A.fasdataf Nees in DC. Prod, xi, 402. 

Vpper Onlneaa Gold Coast; Cape Coast Castle, Vogel ! Togoland, Buttner^ 
218 ! 258 ! 286 ! 289 ! 397 \ 618 ! Kling, 188 \ 190 ! Baumann, 393 \ Lagos, 
Millen, 32 ! 37 ! Rowland ! Niger Territory : by the River Quorra (Niger), I'ogelt 
167 ! Lower Niger ; Onitsa, Barter, 619 ! 1779 \ 

Vile Xand* Nubia : Hor Tamaiiib near Sunkin, Lord I £rkowit Mountain 



Justicia.] xcviii; ACANTnACE.E (clakke). 191 

near Suakin, Schweinfurth^ 256 ! Epitrea : Atdereso, 4000 ft,, Schweinfurlh ^ Miva^ 
1445! Ginda, 3000 ft*, Schweinfurfh ^ Eiva, 2128! Keren, Steudner, 15261 Habab, 
6000 ft,, Hildebrandt, 681 ! Abyssinia : Gondar, Boehm^ 53 1 mountains near 
Gagtros, 3500-6000 ft., JSckim^erl 172 ! 221)6 ! Modat, Schimper, 1043 ! Tacazze 
River, 4000 ft., Sehlmper^ 1251 ! and witljout precise locality, Schimper, 31 ! 429 ! 
685! 1224! Somaliland : on tbe coast at Barava, Kirk I Gralle Borani, 5iua, 240! 
I>aua River, Siva, 1193! Adda Galla, James Sf Thrupp I Darrar and Smith River, 
Donaldson Smith ! and without precise locality, Miss Sdifh Cole ! British East 
Africa : east side of Lake Albert Edward, ScoiiSlliot^ 8085 ! Uganda, Stuhlmann^ 
1367 ! Bukoba, StuMmann, 4005 ! Kavirondo ; Samia, ScoUStliot, 7082 ! Maaagu 
Mountain, 2000 ft., Johnston! Taita ; Ndara Mountain, 2000^3000 ft., ffitdehrmidt^ 
2451 ! Gregory I Ukamba, Mldebrandt, 2714 ! 2717 ! Oregory ! Sabaki River, 
Qregorif ! Ouruina, Rildehrandi^ 2334 1 Mombasa, Kirk! Hildehrandt^ lUtOl 
Scott'EUiot^ 6120 I 6125! Nyika country near Mombasa, Wakefield ! 

Itower Guinea. Angola : Loanda, W^elwiisch^ 5135 1 Pungo Andongo^ 
JTelwitsch, 5074! 5097! Golungo Alto, 1000^2500 ft, Welwitsch, 51831 Huilla, 
Welwitsch, 5035 ! 5036 ! Antunes, 142 ! Ambriz, Monteiro ! Malange, Buckner, 
461 

nCozaniba SIM. German East Africa: Kilimanjaro, Vblkens, 513! 440! 
Mej/er, 611 346! Weia ! Johmfoti^ 59! Usambara ; Tanga, Volkefis, 171! Rahe, 
Volkens, 2207 ! Mascbeua, Moht, 8732 1 8867 ! East Africa, Fischer, 87 ! Portuguese 
East Airiea : Mozambique^ Prelado^ 23 ! British Central Africa : Nyasaland, Masuka 
Plateau, 6500^7000, Whi/te ! 

The colour of the corolla is known to be yellow in J, plicata (the Upper Guinea 
plant)j ill the more ovate-leaved Angola plant, in the Abyssinia (Eritrea) plant, and 
in the Mozambique examples (inclutling the Natal J, Jawiafa^, The colour of the 
corolla is not known to me in J, major and */, minor (Abyssinia) ; but the type 
examples appear to me identical with the J. Jlava from Arabia and Eritrea {Schwein- 
fiirth). Species have been founded on the degree of denseness of the inflorescence, and 
the distance (^2 in.) by which the lowest whorl of 6 (or fewer) flowers stands apart 
from the next upper whorL S. Moore says that "' in this species there is considerable 
diversity in the size and number of seeds on tbe same specimen " ; and Lindau 
refers J, major to sect. Monechma^ J, plicata to sect, Mostellaria* I remark on 
these views that J^ major and J. plicata look to me identical, and that tbe seeds are 
most uniform in all the examples cited here. The most striking aberrations from the 
typical J. Jlava among the material above brought together are : 

(1) Bildebrandt, 1940, from Mombasa (and several similar examples from the same 
neighbourhood) J published by Lindau ^s J, palt^iris^ var. dispersai this has ovate 
leaves, 1 by § in. The indumentum of the calyx is that of J, Jlava (not of 
J^ palustris). 

(2) TFelwitseh, 5035, 5097, from Angola (and other examples from the same 
locality), published by S. Moore as J. plicata^ vur. ; this has ovate leaves, but is rather 
larger than Hildehrandt, 1940. 

(3) Mowland^^ Lagos plant, which has floral leaves up to ^ in. long, spikes dense 
(in one case going off into a close compound panicle). 

(4) Schweinfiirth^ 256, from Mount Erkowit, near Suakin, a small plant with 
small leaves, and the spike umeh interrupted below (with, in fact, axillary clusters of 
flowers). This may be a separable species ; but the fruit and seeds, the flower and 
calyx-indumentum, are as in J. Jlava. 

19. J, palustris^ T. Anders, in Jour7i. Linn. Soc. vii 38. Leaves up 

to ^ by 1 J in., oblong, tapering at either end ; petiole very short. Sepals 
hispid, without minute moniliform hairs ; otherwise as J.flava. — Zarb, 
CataL Spec- Bot. Pfund, 32; Lindau in Engl. & Prantl, Ptianzenfam. iv. 



i;r2 XCVIII. ACANTIIACE.E (cLAUKE). \jh(St 



icia. 



8 B. 270, fi<!f. lOK, E, and in Ann. Istit. Bot. Koma, vi. (IHINJ) 82. 
Tyhghssa ^xdustris and T. acuininata, Hochst. in Flora, 184o, 72, 1?i. 
Ad/uUoda pahtstris^ ^ees in DC. Prod. xi. 402; A. Rich. Tent. Fl. 
Abyss, ii. ir»7; Solms-Laub. in Schweinf. Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. 103. A.acu- 
minata^ Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 400 ; A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii. 156. 
Gendartissa pcdustrisy Hochst. in Flora, 1848, 72. 

nrile Iiand. Kordofiin, Kotschi^, 61 ! 80 I Gullabat, Schweinf urth^ 74 ! Ab^ ssiiiia : 
neiir Gaftn, Srhimper, 1211 ! near Goelleb, Schimper^ 139 ! 2156 ! Somaliland, Keller, 
194- ! 195: 180! 

Tliis species is here separated from J. jlava solely by the indumentum of the 
calyx. Several examples determined by Oliver and Lindau as J. palusfris have been 
cited accordingly under J, Jlava. The Somali example called J. palusiris by Lindtiu 
(Riva^ 1156) has not been seen ; Keller ^ 194, is smaller and greyer than J. palustriHf 
and is named J, suaveoleiis by Lindau, 

20. J. kirkianay T. Anders, in Jowni, Linn* Soc. vii. 31). Leaves 
13 by 1 in,, lanceolate, or (in one example) 4J by J in., linear, otherwise 
as J. Jlava. — Lindau in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 37;>. J. fasciatay Lindau 
in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 873. 

IVIozainl>< Si St, German East Africa : Usambara ; Duga, Solstf 3216 ! 
Portuguese East Africa : Lower Zambesi j Lupata, Kirk ! Shiramba, Kirk ! and Tete 
Hill, Kirk! Lake Nvasa, Simons ! 

Tiie example of Hoist, marked by Lindau J.fasciafa, Nees (i.e. for me J.Jlava)^ 
matches very well one of the type examples of J, kirkiana. That is to say, the 
present species might be an extreme form of J. jlava, but the flowers appear, when dried, 
white with purple marks, and were noted by Hoist as " white purple- stained." 

21. J. nyassana^ Lindau in Engl. Jahrh, xx. fid. Floral leaves 
lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, very acute ; bracts and bracteoles with 
linear yellow-hairy tips. Corolla |-J in. long. Capsule \-\ in. long, 
otherwise as ./. Jlava, — Lindau in Engl, k Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 
349, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373. 

IVIozamb' Dist. German East Africa : Usaramo, Sfuhlmann, 6875 ! Ukarai ; 
Mrogoro, 5iieA^»aMn, 8220 ! Usambara, .fffZ.?^, 485 ! British East Africa : Nyasaland ; 
Kondowe to Karonga, 2000-6000 ft,, Whyte ! Tanganyika Plateau, at Fort Hill, 
3500-4000 ft., Whyte I Mount Chiradzulu, 4000 ft., Whyte ! and without precise 
locality, Whyte^ 40 ! Buchanan, 290 ! 

Capsule 4-8eeded, but Lindau puts the species in sei:t. Moneehma. Lindau also 
says tlie spikes are subcapitate, the corolla glabrous ; he described from poor material. 
The coj*oli;i is perhaps purple. 

- 22. J, linearispica, C. B. Clarke. Root woody; branches 0-1 in. 
long, minutely pubescent. Leaves 1 by J in., oblong, subobtuse at 
either end, sessile, when mature glabrous. Spike 4 by ^ in., much 
interrupted at the base ; floral leaves scarcely -^ in. long, lanceolate, 
2-1 -flowered — i.e. containing usually one corolla and an empty bract to 
upper flower. Sepals 4, J in. long, linear-lanceolate, hairy and with 
stalked glands, the 5th posticous much smaller. Corolla J in. long. 
One anther-cell below^ the other, tailed ; pollen with 2 stopples banded, 
tubercles minute. Ovary shaggy, style glabrous. Capsules J by 
scarcely yV in., linear, hairy. 




JuSttcia.] XCVIII. ACANTHACE.E (cLARKE). 193 

Mozamb. Dlst. British East Africa: Stevenson Road, betAeen Lake Nyasa 
and Lake Tanganyika, Scoti^ElUot, 8267 ! 

This species m manifestly close to J. slackytarphetoides ; the inflorescence \\m\ 
flowers are very similar thougli smaller; the leaves are diverse. 

23. J. longecalcarata, Lindau in EngL Jahrb. xx. 73, Innova- 
tion? dense with yellow strigose hairs. Leaves 3 by | in., glabrate 
except for obscure hairs on the midrib beneath; petiole \ in. long. 
Spikes ^-J in. long, hairy; bracts and bracteoles linear- oblong, obtuse. 
Calyx, corolla, stamens, and pistil nearly as of J. Jiava. Capsule J in. 
long, 4-seeded, glabrous.— Lindau in EngL k Prantl, Pflanzenfam". iv; 
3 B, 349, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373. 

ITil© Kand. British East Africa: Ukamba, Hildehrandty 2721! South of 
Lake Baringo at Xyemps, Gregory ! 

Kosaxiib. Dist. German East Africa; Kilimanjaro; Volkens^ 1764! 2184! 
and on the plain between Upper Pangani River and Hinio River, south-east of 
Kilimanjaro, 2200-2600 ft., Volkens, 563 ! 

In Folkens, 2184, the entire spikes are hardly ^ in, long ; the fine examples of 
Gregory have inflorescences up to 9 in. long: the lowest whorl of flowers 2j in. 
distant, 

24. J* tanaensis^ C, B. Clarke. Branches 2 ft. long, glabrate, 
full of cystoliths ; innovations with strigose hairs. Leaves 3 J by 1 J in*^ 
narrowed at both ends, nearly glabrate, full of cystoliths ; petiole h-l in. 
long ; upper leaves smaller, passing gradually into floral leaves, 1 by j^ in. 
Spikes terminal, interrupted, nearly glabrous; flowers 3—1 in each 
floral leaf -axil- Sepals 5, -| in. long and upwards, linear- oblong, white- 
margined, slightly scabrous. Corolla ^ in. long or rather more, bluish 
(Thomas)^ hairy without. One anther-cell below the other, long-tailed. 
Capsule J in. long, rather stout, 4-seeded, glabrous. 

If lie ^and. British East Africa ; fana River, Thomas, 38 ! 

The smooth capsule brings this next J. longecalcarata. The long-pettolcd green 
leaves do not match, 

25. J, aridicola^ Eendle in Journ. Bot. 1896, 410. Woody ; 
branches grey-tomentose* Leaves |- by ^-^ in., elliptic to round, grey- 
tomentose or finally nearly glabrate ; petiole 0—^ in. long. Spike 2 A by 
^ in., with 6 whorls, lower approximate, topmost hardly confluent ; 
floral leaves J- J in. long, linear, somewhat obovate, with 3-1 flowers. 
Sepals 5, |- in. long, linear, subequal, pubescent, Corel hi ^-f in. long. 
One anther-cell below the other, long-tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, with 2 
bands and stopples, a row of tubercles on either side of the sto|iple. 
Style with very few scattered hairs. Capsule J in, long, 1-ieeded, 
glabrous ; stalk ^^ in, long, solid ; placentae not rising elastically ; seeds 
tubercled, much as in J.flava. 

wile Xtand. Somaliland : Adda Galla, James ^ Thrnpp ! Hammar, Miss Edith 
Cole ! Darar, Donaldson Smilh ! 



194 xcviii. ACAKTUACE.E (clarke), [Justicia. 

26. J, stachytarphetoides, C, B. Clarke. Hairy, 3-8 ft* high. 
Leaves 4ch by 2 in,, broad-elliptic, acuaiinate at either end; petiole 
^-1 in, long. Spikes 8-13 by h in,; lowest whorls 1 in, apart, upper 
confluent, 3-l-flo%vered ; outermost bract (floral leaf) ^in. long, elliptic, 
acute ; bract and bracteoles (or sterile bracts ?) i in. long, lanceolate, 
hairy. Sepals 5, J in, long, subequal, linear. Corolla J in, long. One 
anther-cell lower than the other, obUque, long-tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, 
with 2 longitudinal bands, lai'ge stopples, no tubercles. Young pistil 
glabrous. — Diivernoia stachyiarphetoides^ Lindau in Engl, Pfl. Ost-Afr, 
C, 372, and in Engl, k Prantl, Pflanzenfam, iv. 3 B, 339. 

niozamli. Dist. German East Africa : Uniba River Valley, Smith! Usaramo, 
JSiuhlmann, 8121! Portuguese East Africa: Bein^, Sehleehfer f Lower Zambesi; 
Shupm}g<A^ Kirk f Scott! 

The capsule lias not been seen, and possibly may be densely minutely hairy, 
though the young pistil is glabrous under the uiicroscope. It is difficult to form 
genera that are ** natural ^' in the Order AcantkacecB^ but it is surely too un- 
natural to place this species under Duvernoia, Lindau appears to have done this on 
one character only — viz,, that the lines of tubercles often seen on the smooth bands 
of the pollen in JuHicia are here not actual tubercles, but obscurely indicated by 
markings (as is the ca^^e hi some species placed by Lindau in Jiusticia). 

27» J. togoensis^ Lifidau hi Engl. Jahrb. xx. 72* Small herb- 
Leaves 1^ by f in., elliptic, hairy, subsessile. Inflorescence terminal, 
J in, long^ dense ; bracts f by j^ in., very hispid ; bracteoles 4 in. long, 
linear. Sepals |- in. long, linear-oblong, white-edged, hispid. Corolla 
f in. long. Lower anther-cell tailed. — Lindau in Engl. & Prantl, 
Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349. 

Upper Crulnea. Togoland, ButtneTy 222 ! 

The example is young, the spike not grown out ; the affinity is perhaps with 
J^Jiava^ as Lindau suggests. 

28. J. ulugurica^ Lhuiau in EngL Jahrh. xxii, 126. Branches 
woody. Leaves 1 by ^ in,, ovate, acute^ glabrous. Spikes terminal, 
loose, short ; bracts \ in. long, lanceolate ; bracteoles minute. Sepals 
§ in. long, subulate, glandular, hairy. Corolla green or light violet; 
tube § in. long and more ; limb \ in* long. Lower anther-cell tailed* 
Fruit wanting. 

Moxaoili* Dlst. German East Africa : Ukami ; Uluguru, Siuhlmann, 8866 ! 

29. J. diffusa^ JVilkL Sp. PL i. 87. Stems 8-24 in. long, weak, 
hairy. Leaves 1|: by ^— f in., elliptic or ovate, narrowed at either end, 
sparsely hairy; petiole 0-iin, long. Spikes 1-1 J by J-J in., sparsely 
hairy ; bracts i in. long, narrow-lanceolate^ green with scarious margins ; 
bracteoles similar to the bracts but smaller. Sepals 4, J in. long, 
narrow-lanceolate. Corolla | in. long, purple or rose. ' Filaments 
glabrous; one anther-cell below the other, tailed; pollen ellipsoid, with 
2 longitudinal bands, not tubercled. Ovary nearly glabrous ; style 
thinly hairy, branches 2, subequal, minute. Capsule i in, long,, 



Justicia.] xcviii. acanthace^ (clarke). I'.i.j 

4-seecled, minutely hairy (at least on the top and sutures) ; seeds with 
simple tubercles all over. — T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. ix. "jll* ; 
C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iv. 538. J. p7*ocu7)ibensy Linn. F\, 
Zeyl. 7, at least in part ; T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 40 ; 
Engl. Ilochgebirgsrt. Trop. Afr. 3l)*J. J. simplex^ Lindaii iu Enjil. Jc 
Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349. Rostellularia di^ttsa, Xeesin Wall. 
PI. As. Rar. iii. 100, and in DC. Prod, xi, 37L i?. ccbysHnicat Nees in 
DC. Prod. xi. 372; A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii. 153. Barlema pumiln, 
Hochst. ex Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 372. 

mile Xiand. Abyssinia : Tigre ; lower part of Mount Sholoda, Sckimper^ 21 1 
on mountains near Axutn, Sckimper, 1524 ! and without precise locality, Schimper, 

63U ! Quart ifi-Dilloii ^ Petit, 285 ! 

All tins African material is alike, but in matching it against the numerous sub» 
species of J. procumbens found in India, diftercnt views have been taken, some 
uniting it with J. simplex, D, Don. 

30. J, insularis, T. Anders, vii Joitm. Linn. Soc. vii. 40. Herba- 
ceous; branches 8 ft. long, straggling, angular, more or less hispid; lower 
nodes distant, often flower- bearing. Leaves up to 3^ by |— 1 in., narrowed 
at either end, slightly hairy on both surfaces or glabrate; petiole ^-1 in. 
long. Flowers 3-1 in each axil, sessile; floral leaves -|-J in. long, round or 
obovate, some narrower often added. Sepals 5, subeqnal, J-J in. long, 
broad-lanceolate or subovate, scarcely acute, sparsely hispid. Corolla 
exceeding h in. in length, purple; tube very Uttle dilated at the top ; 
ant icons lobe much longer than the posticous 2-fid lobe. Filaments 
glabrous; one anther-cell below the other, tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, w4th 
2 stoppleSj longitudinally banded, with several rows of tubercles on 
the band. Ovary glabrous ; style base hairy. Capsule exceeding ^ in. 
long, glabrous, 4 -seeded, with a short thick solid stalk ; seeds reticu- 
late rugose. — Lindau in Engl, (fc Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 34 iJ, 
and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373, partly. J. rostellarioideSj Lindau in 
Engl. Jahrb. xx. 69, and in Engl. &, Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 34'.). 
J. karschiana, Biittner iu Yerhandl, Bot. Ver. Brandenh. xxxii. 1800, 
40. Adhatoda diffusa, Benth. iu Hook. Niger Fl. 483. 

upper Cultieat Sierra Leone, Afzelius! Lagos, Howland ! Yoruba, Milhon, 
40 1 Togoland, Klinq, 187! Bilff tier, 110 I 187! 228! Cnmeroons: Rio del Rev, 
Johnston ! Staudt, 83 ! 469 ! Yaunde, Zenker, 5fi4 ! 612 ! ZenAer tj- Siaudt, 343 ! 
Batanga^ Bates, 41 ! Fernando Po, Vot/el ! Man», 16&! 

Iiower Guinea. Gaboon : Munda ; Sibiinge Farm, So^aux, 296 ! Butfncr, 
463 1 Angola : San Salvador, Suttner, 457 ! 

Soyaux, 296, is identical with Vogel's Fernando Po plant. Vogel'a specimen at 
Kevv is noted on the herbarium sheet *• dimorphic fruit," which is very hkely to be 
the case ; but I can find no dimorphic fruit on any of the West African species of this 
group. It 19 possible that the herbarium note was groui. . 1 uu J. Litidaui^ which 
is extremely like J. insidaris, but has linear very acute sepaU. 

ol. J. calcarata, Ilochst. hi Flora, 1B43, 73, in oftff. Rootstock 

woody, oblique. Branches 2 ft. long, weak, with soft spreading haii*s in 
places. Leaves up to 3 by 1 in., tapering at either end, with scattered 



196 XCVIII- ACA2TTHACE.E (CLARKE). [JustlCia. 

hairs on both surfaces or glabrous except the midrib beneath : petiole 
0-J in. long. Flowers 3-1 in each axil, sessile^ floral leaves J- J in, 
long, ovate or elliptic, some narrower oblong often added. Sepals T), 
subequal, -^-^ in. long, broadly lanceolate or linear-obovate, scarcely 
acute, glabrous or very minutely hispid. Corolla exceeding h in. in 
length, purple ; tube very little dilated at the top ; anticous lobe 
distinctly longer than the posticous 2-fid lobe. Filaments glabrous ; 
one anther-cell below the other, tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, with 2 stopples, 
longitudinally banded, with several rows of tubercles on the band. 
Ovary glabrous; style-base hairy. Capsule J in. long, glabrous, 
4-seeded, with a short thick solid stalk ; seeds reticulate rugose.—-/, 
neglectay T, Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 40 (Abyssinian plant only) ; 
Zarb, Cat. Spec. Bot, Pfund. 32 ; Engh Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr, 393 
(Abyssinian plant only), J. Rostellariay Lindau in Engl. & Prantl, 
Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B, 349, and in Engl. Pil. Ost-Afr. C, 373, in small 
part, and in Ann. Istit, Bot. Roma vi., 1896, H2. Tyloglossa SchimpeH, 
Hochst, in Flora, 1843, 73. Adhatodci Rostellaria^ Nees in DC. Prod. 
xi, 897 ; Solms-Laub. in Schweinf. Beitr. FL Aethiop, 103, 242 ; Zarb, 
Cat. Spec. Bot. Pfund, 32. Rosiellaria Schimperi^ Hochst, in Flora, 
1843, 73 in obs. 

wile Xiand, Kordofan> P/w»d^ 39 ! 432! Eritrea: Marakliat Valley, Sagiineiti, 
7000 ft., Schweinfurth Sf Siva, 1708! Gallabat^ Schweinfurihj 75! 76! Abyssinia: 
near Adowa, Svhimper, 106 ! 1101 ! Sfetidner, 1522! Quartin-lUllon ^ Petit, 294! 
and without precise locality, Schimper, 964 ! Plowden I British East Africa : Bongo ; 
Gurfala, Schweinf urtk» 2241 ! 

This species should perhaps be united with J. insularis, from which it hardly 
differs except by its green (not dark) colour. T. Anderson united it with J. Galeopsis, 
which has a different calyx. The sheet iu Kew Herbarium, with Hochs tetter's 
printed ticket, " Ti^loglossa rostrata^ Schimper, 1657 and 1659,^* is marked Adhatoda 
Rostellaria^ /3 humilis^ Nees, and contains Juslicia calcarata and A'^t/sfasia Schimperi^ 
mixed. As to the specific name to be selected, J, calcarata^ Hoehst., represents the 
plant here described, while J. neglecta^ T, Anders, (still more J. Rostellariay Lindau) 
represents an ngglomeration of plants here separated. 

32. J. Galeopsisy T. Anders. MS. Petioles shorter than in 
J. insularis, tlie leaves being mostly oblong, subsessile. Sepals ^ in. long 
and upwards, linear, very subulate upwards; otherwise as J. insularis, 
— J. neglecUij T. Anders* in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii, 40, partly. Adhatoda 
Kotschyi, Benth. in Hook. Niger Fl. 483. 

Upper Guinea. Upper Senegal, Lecard^ 145 ! Gambia, SJcuesI Sierra Leone : 
Sugarloaf Mountain, SeoU-Elliot, 3974! Regent, ScotU Elliot, 41^2 1 and without 
precise locality, Afzelius ! Forsttr ! Don! Winwood Read e I Dahomey, Burton! 
Lagos: AbbeokutH, Irving, 65! on the road to Akokulu, Millen^Gll and witlioiit 
precise locality, Rowland ! Millen, 169 1 Niger Territory : Nupe, Barter, 1038 ! 
Cameroon?, 700 ft., Fcusarge, 19a ! 2U ! 27a! 38a I 71a I 

Xrile ^and. Jur, Schweinf urth, 1744! 

This species differs from J, insularis^ T\ Anders,^ in the long subulate tips to the 
sepals, Millen, 169> has very thick sterna, ^ in, in diam,, and glabrous succulent leaves, 
and may be specifically separable, Millen, 61, excellently dried, ha? full purple- red 
flowers, while there is on it the collection note of Millen (doubtless correct), '^yellow," 



tTtisiicia.] xcviii. AOANTHACEiE (clarke). 197 

33. J. Lazarus, S. Moore in Joum. Bot. 1880, 313. Sparingly 
pubescent or glabrate. Leaves 1-2 in. long, ovate or elliptic, upper 
often narrower, oblong; petiole 0-^ in. long. Sepals ^ in. long, linear- 
subulate, pubescent. Corolla J in. long, or less, otherwise resembling 
J. Galeopsis. — J. insularisj S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1880, 341 ; Liiiduu 
in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373. J. thomeeyisis, Lindau in Eng). Jahrb. xxii. 
12G j and in Engl, <k Prautl, Pfianzenfam. iv. 3 B, 349. 

]Lower Guinea. Angola : Golungo Alto, 1000-2400 ft., Welwitsch^ 6117 ! 
5143! 5211! Pungo Andongo, Welwitsck, 5093! Huilla, TTeltvifsch, 5051! 505**! 
Antunes ! Islands of St. Thomas, De Louza ! 

This is very like J. Melampyrum^ S. Moore, but lias the capsule glabrous. 

34. J. leikipiensis, S. Moore in Journ, Bot. 1894, 137. Stems 
angular, glabrous or patently hispid. Lower leaves 2 by J in., lanceo- 
late or ovate-lanceolate, upper linear 1|^ by \~\ in., subsessile. Sepals 
\—^ in. long, linear-subulate, minutely pubescent. Corolla |-1 in. 
long; tube narrow, only slightly funnel-shaped upwards; otherwise as 
J. Galeopsis. — Lindau in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373. J. neglecta^ 01 iv. 
in Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix. 129. Justiciar sp. n, 6, T. Thorns, in Speke, 
Kile Append. G43. 

Nile £and> Eritrea ; Habub, Schweinfurtk, 459 ! Abyssinia : Sokota, Rohlfs 
Sf Stecker ! Aman Eske, 7000 ft., Schimpery 418 ! British East Africa : Unyoro, 
Speke Sf Or ant ! Uganda, Wilson, 91 ! LykipiH, Gregory ! 

35. J, dyschoristeoideS) C, B. Clarke. Stems trailing, with 
many erect branches. Leaves ^ by | in., obtuse, very glabrous. Sepals 
^ in. long, lanceolate, scarious, thinly hispid, minutely red-dotted. 
Corolla J in. long. Capsule slightly exceeding J in. in length, glabrous ; 
otherwise as J. calcarata. — Justicia^ sp. aff. J. tieglecfa^j Oliv. in Trans, 
Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Bot. ii. 345. 

Afozamba Blst. German East Africa : KiUinanjaro, 4000-6500 ft., Johnston, 

This plant bears a remarkaljle general likeness to Dysckorisie radicans ; the habit, 
stems, leaves, inflorescence, general size of tiowers and erect fruits, might deceive any 
collector in the Held. 

36. J. piuguior, C. B. Clarke. Stout, hairy. Leaves 2J by I m,^ 
ovate, hairy on both surfaces ; petioles less than J in, long. Flowers 
3-1, sometimes more, in dense axillary clusters; floral leaves J-j in. 
long, ovate; proper flower-bracts or minute. Sepals \-h in. long, 
linear, hispid. Corolla i-§ in. long, purple, broad. One antber-celi 
wholly below the other, tailed ; pollen long ellipsoid, with 2 stopples and 
several rows of tubercles on each side of them. Ovary glabrous ; sty It- 
base hispid ; disc unusually large, cup-shaped. Capsule A in. long, 
glabrous ; stalk very short ; seeds 4-tubercled. 

vile Iiand. British East Africa : Lykipia, 6000-8000 ft., r/iO?n so » .' Kunenzori ; 
Toru Dist., Kivatu, 8300 ft., Scott-Elliot, 7G56 ! 

Tills species difl'ers much from all the preceding, and should perl.aps U removed to 
another part of the genus. 



198 XCVIII. ACANTHACEiE (cLABKE). [JustlCUi. 

37. J, sexangtilariSy Lindau in Engl, d' PratiM, Pflanzenfam. iv. 
3 B. 349. Stems 2U in., branched, 6-angular, scabrid- hairy. Leaves 
up to 2 by J in., oblong, subobtuse, minutely and sparsely scabrid, 
hairy, subsessile. Flowers 3- 1 in an axil (no terminal spike) ; floral 
leaves oblong. Sepals J in. long, linear, subobtuse, microscopically 
scabr id-hairy. Corolla J in. long, purple. Capsule J- J in. long, narrow- 
ellipsoid, slightly hairy near the top ; stalk very short ; seeds 4, densely 
tubercled. — J. palustris, T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 38, partly. 
Tyloglossa Kotschyi, Hochst. in Flora, 1843, 74. Adhatoda Kotschyi, 
Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 397 (excluding var. /3). RosteUaria sexangularis, 
Hochst. in Flora, 1843, 74. 

Vtile Xtand. Kordofan : Melbes, KoUchy^ 293 ! 

Nees (in DC. Prod. xi. 397) joined this plant with a Senegnmbian plant, probably 
J. GaleopsiSy T. Anders., with which this species might be united. I have not found 
the scrap of D. Don's collecting w\iich Bentham (in Hook. Niger Fl. 483) thinks may 
have been Adhatoda Kotschyiy Nees. It was by souie slip that T. Anders, reduced 
this species to J. palustris, T. Anders., which has (as T. Anderson sa^s) "flowers 
in terminal spikes." 

38. J. fiUfolia, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 70. Straggling, 
sparingly hairy ; branches elongate with long internodes. Leaves 3 in, 
long, lanceolate and ovate-lanceolate, nearly glabrous ; petioles up to 
IJ in. long ; upper leaves (sometimes nearly all the leaves) narrow, 
linear-oblong or oblong, ^-J in, broad. Flowers 1-3 together in the 
distant axils, often surrounded by several shortened floral leaves 
\—\ in. long, elliptic or orbicular. Sepals \ in. long, narrow-lanceolate, 
acute, hispid. Corolla J— J iu. long, white with purple marks. Ovary 
hairy. Capsule \ in. long, hairy all over. — Lindau in Engl. & Prantl, 
Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B, 349, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373. 

Mozamb* Slst* German East Africa: Ukami; Mrogoro, Stuhhnann^ S2^^ \ 
Portui^nese East Africa : Lower Zambesi ; Shup»nga, Kirk .' iJrittsh East Africa : 
N,>asHland: near Blantyre, Last! Buchanan^ 51: Mandala, Scoti ! Zomba, 5000- 
6000 ft. J Whyte! Kondowe to K a ronga, 2000-6000 ft., JFhtfte ,' and bj the River 
Shire, Kirk ! 

Last's specimen, from which Lindau described, has lost all the lower leaves, the 
upper nre very narrow, as usual in this species. 

39. J. WTiytei, S. Mooi^e in Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Bot. iv. 32. 
Eootstock stout, woody; branches 1-2 ft. long, hairy. Leaves lanceo- 
late, lower often ovate, hairy; petiole 0-\ in. long, mostly very short. 
Flowers axillary, 1-3 together. Sepals ^ in. long, linear, acute, hairy. 
Corolla J in. long, purple. Pollen of Justicia with 3 stopples [Lindait) 
or with 2 (in example supplied by Lindau). Capsule exceeding J in. 
long, hairy. — Lindau in Engl. Pfi. Ost-Afr. C. 373. J. RosteUaria, 
Lindau in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349, and in Engl. Pfl. 
Ost-Afr. C. 373, in great part. «/. fruticulosa^ Lindau in Engl. »fc Prantl, 
Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349, partly. 

Upper Oalnea. Cameroons : 4000 ft., Passarge^ 129 ! 

Wile Xand. Eritrea : Erkowit Mountain, i^ckweinfurth, 256 ! British East 




JusHcia.] xcviii. acanthace.e (clarke), 199 

Africa : Lykipia, Thommn ! near Lake Naivasha, 6000 ft,, Scott-Elliot, 7038 ! 
Ukaiubi^, Scoit'ElUot, 6306 partly ! 6489! 

Moxamli. Xllst« German JEiii^t Africa : Karagwe; Bnkv^h^^ Sttihlmann^ ^12^ 
Kilimanjaro: Lake Chala^ Volkens^ 319! and Marangu, 5000 ft, Volkens^ 711! 
Usiimbara, Hoist, 8914 1 8935 partly! British Centra! Africa: Nynsaland ; Shire 
Highlatids, on Mount Ndirandi, ScoU^Elliot ^ %i&l \ Mount Mlanjej Whtfte ! 136! 
Masuka Plateau, 6500-7000 ft,, Whyte ! and without precise locality, Buchanan^ 
304! 641! 711 \ 

In the examples called J, MosteUaria by LindaUj the leaves nre more ovate than 
in the type J* Wh^lei (with lanceolate leaves); but the acute linear sepals and hairy 
capsule do not bring it near J^ 'calcarata. The other part of Scott'Elliot, 6306, 
is Disperma MUmandschartcum, 

40. J. Melampyramf S\ Moo^^e in Trans. Linn. Soc, ser. 2, BoL iv, 
32. Sparingly minutely hairy ; branches weak, 1-2 ft, long. Leaves 
mostly elliptic -oblongj short-petioled, l|-2 in, long ; but on some speci- 
mens are leaves (from the lower half of the branch) broadly ovate with 
longer petioles. Flowers axillary, about 3 in each axil ; floral leaves 
often round or ovate, ^J in. in diam., but longer oblong floral leaves 
occur. Sepals J-i in, long^ lanceolate, acute, hispid. Corolla J- J in, 
long. Normal capsule J in, long, thinly hairy all over with 4-tubercled 
seeds; abnormal capsules ^ in, long, nearly glabrate. — Lindau in EngL 
Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373. J. insularis (an var. ?), Oliv. in Trans, Linn. 
Soc, xxix. 129. Justiciar sp* n. 7, T. Thoms. in Speke, Nile Append. 
643. Adhatoda striata, Klotzsch in Peters, Reise Mossamb. 21 C. 

Sflle band. British East Africa : Ruwenzori, Scott- Elliot^ 7764 ! 

Xiower Guinea. Angola ; Malange, Buchner^ 121 I 

nCozanib. Olst- German Eii^t Africa : Dar-es-Salaam^ Siuklmann^ 7557 ! 
^u^nmy Stuhlmann^ 4161 ! and without precise localityj SpeJce ^ Grant I Portuguese 
East Africa : Rios de Sena, Peters^ 8 ! Mossambique, PreZado, 12 ! raonntains east of 
Lake Nyasa, Johnson! British Central Africa; Kondowe to Karonga, 2000-6000 ft,, 
Whyte! Masuka Plateau, 6500-7000 ft., Whyte ! Nyasa Ian d ; Fort Johnston, Seoit- 
Ellioty 8411! Blantyre, Buchanan^ 126! Whyte! Mount Zomba, 4000^6000 ft., 
Whyte ! Mount Mlanje, Whyte^ and without precise locality, Buchanan^ 535 ! 980 ! 

41, J, Hiindauly C B. Clarke. Branches patently hispid. Leaves 
(even the uppermost) ovate-lanceolate, hairy. Floral leaves obovate, 
round. Corolla |r in. long. and upwards. Normal capsules exceeding 
^ in, in length ; abnormal l-seeded capsules fully ^ in, long, with 
strongly tubercled wings. — J. heterocarpaj Lin<lau in Engl *fe Prantl, 
Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B, 349, fig, 139, K-0, and in Engh Pfl. Ost-Afr, C. 
373, partly, 

irile ]&and. British East Africa : Tana River, Thomas^ 59 ! 

ASozamli* Dlst* German East Africa : Usainbara, Kwa Mshuza^ Hoist ^ 4324 ! 

Lindau^ in calling this J. heterocarpa^ supposes that the large tlowers produce the 
normal capsules, while the abnormal capsules nrise from very small (or cleistogamou^) 
flowers similar to those seen on J, heterocarpa. This is very probably so* But the 
t7, heterocarpa^ T* Anders., appears to me to differ by its dense clusters and long- 
tipped white-hairy sepals; moreover, though the examples of J, heferocrrrpa, 
T. Anders., ghow abundant normal capsules, they do not show a single eorollM 
approaching in size that of Hoht^ 4324. 



200 xcviii* ACAKTHACE^ (clarke), [Justicia. 

42. J* ahebelensis^ Rendle in Journ. Bot. 181)0,409, Very woody, 
much-branched undershrub ; branchlets haiiy or glabra te. Leaves 
h by -|-^ in,, obovatCj rounded, hairy ; petiole scarcely ^^ in. long. 
Flowers 4— 1^^ subsessile in remote leaf-axils. Sepals 5, i in. long, bubu- 
late, hairy* Corolla ^^ in. long, yellow. Lower anther-cell tailed. 
Capsule unknown. 

Iflle Ziand. SoinHlilatid : River Shebele, Donaldson Smith ! 

43. J, lieterocarpa^ T. Anders, in Joitrn. Linn. Soc, viL 41, 
Annual, 8-20 in, high ; pubescent. Leaves 1^ by ^— | in., ovate or 
ovate-lanceolate, minutely pubescent or glabrate ; petiole up to ^-J in. 
long. Axillary clusters dense, of 2-4 or more flowers. Sepals | in, 
long, linear, tips acute white- hairy. Corolla -|-J in, long. Capsule 
|— ^ in. long; seeds 4, tubercled ; abnormal 1-aeeded capsules seen in 
all the examples cited. — C, B- Clarke in Hook, f, Fh Brit, Ind, iv. 531 ; 
EngL Hochgebirgsfl. Trop, Afr. 393; Lindau in Engl. Pfl. Ost^Afr. C, 
373, partly, Hamieria diniorphocm^a^ Solms-Laub, in Schweinf. Beitr, 
Fh Aethiop. 110, 243. 

Nile Xiand. Nubia: mi\%t up to 4000 ft., Bent! Schweinf urih , 83! 34V! 
Eritrea: Mount Gbeciein, near Massowa, Schiveinfurih Sf Miva, 120! Keren, 
Steudner, 1505 ! Bogo?, nUdehrandt ! Abyssinia : Togodele, Ekrenberg I Gageros, 
4000 tt,, Sckimper^ 162! 2300! and without precise locality, Schimper, 1296a! 
Somaliknd: \i2i\\\, James ^ Tkrupp ! Warandab, AlpZ/^r, 214 ! British East Africa: 
on rocks above Lrike ElQieteita, Scott-Ellioiy 6630 ! 

Mozamb, Dlst* German East Africa : Kilimanjaro ; Marangu, 4800 ft.^ 
Volkens^ 900! British Central Africa; Kamboli, Nuit ! 

44. J, leptocarpa, Lindau in Engl, Jahrh. xx. 70. Closely 
resembles ./. heterocaiya^ but is rather larger in all its parts. Clusters 
dense, of many flowers. Sepals ^ in. long, linear-lanceolate to linear, 
acute, green with white margins, white-hairy. Capsule -i in. long, 
sparsely hairy; abnormal capsules rarely found. — Lindau in Engl. 
& Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv, 3 B, 340, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr, C. 
373. 

ITile Ziandu Eritrea : Keren^ Steudner, 1505 ! near Saati, Schweinfurth ^ 
Siva, 500 ! 

MCozamb. Dlst. German East Africa: Kilimanjaro; Marangu, 2700 ft., 
Volken^', 2167 ! Usambara ; Kwa Mshuza, Ilolsf^ 8903 ! Plains near Pangani, 
Volkens^ ^t>^\ Masheua, 5^0/^^, 8799 ! British Central Africa: Ngamiland; Kwebe^ 
Lugardj 129 ! 

Volkens, 454, appears identical with Steudner^ 1505^ which Sohns-Laubach marked 
J. heterocarpa^ possibly correctly. But I cannot Hnd an abnormal capsule on these 
examples. 

45. J. MoUugo^ C B. Clarke. Scabrous hispid. Leaves numerous, 
up to I by \-\ in,, oblong. Axillary clusters subcymosely developed; 
flowers pedicellate. Corolla scarcely i in. long. Capsules \-\ l^ngj 
with many-celled hairs on the upper part ; none abnormal, — J, lepto- 
carpa^ Lindau in EngL k Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B- 340, partly. 

BCozamb. Blst. British Central Africa: Nja?nlaiid ; Ivaronga, 2000-6000 ft.^ 

JVht^te ! and without precise locality, Buchanan ! 



Justicia.] xcviii. acaxthace-E (clauke), 201 

40. J. Ijortese, Rendle inJovrn. Hot, 1897, 87U. Brandies 8-1 in. 
long, slender, woody, round, glabrous, with long internodes. Leaves 
1 by y\j^ in., linear, glabrous. Flowers 2 (or oftener 1) sessile in remote 
axils ; bract and bracteoles less than y^^ in. long. Sepals 5, nearly i in. 
long, subequal, linear, minutely pubescent. Corolla J— | in. long; 
anticous lip longer than the posticous. One anther-cell much below 
the other, i^trongly tailed. Capsule | in. long, 4-seeded, glabrous ; stalk 
^ J in. long, solid, thick ; placentae not rising elastically ; seeds tuber- 
cular-scabrous. 

Xrile I^and. Somaliiand'; Upper Sheikh, and Waggar Mountains, Mrs. Lort- 

PhiiUps! 

47. J. Phillipseae, Rendle in Jownx, Bot. 1897, 378. Root stout. 
Branches scarcely t> in. long, slender, divaricate, glabrous ; internodes 
long. Leaves up to ^ by J- J in., ovate, scarcely acute, glabrous ; petiole 
up to ;^ in. long. Flowers solitary, rarely 2 together, axillary, sessile ; 
bract 0. Sepals 5, equal, -^ in. long, linear, with few hairs, veiy few 
gland-tipped. Corolla J in. long, purple, glabrous without, very 
sparingly hairy within. One anther-cell below the other, tailed. Cap- 
sule I in. long, 4-seeded, smooth ; stalk short, solid, thick. 

irile Iiand. Somnliland : Golis Range, Mrs. Lort-FhUUfn I Waggar 
Mountains, Mrs, Lort'l^hillips ! Upper Sheikh, Mrs. Lort'Pliillips ! imd between 
Dobtir and Hammer, Mrs. Lort'TMllips ! Donaldson Smithy 337 I 

48. J. odora, Vahl, Enum, i. 1G4. Undershrub, 1-2 ft. high, 
glabrous (except the calyx and corolla) ; twigs woody, glaucous. Leaves 
1 by \-\ in. (in Thomas^ 81, up to "d by 1 J in.), obtuse, base narrowed ; 
petiole U-yV in. long. Flowers axillary, solitary or more rarely 2-3 
together, the cyme being then developed with obovate floral leaves 
^-^ in. long. Sepals 5, ^ in. long, linear, microscopically pubescent. 
Corolla h in. long, yellow {Tko'nias), One anther-cell below the other, 
tailed ; pollen of Justicia^ stopples 2. Capsules J in. long, rather stout, 
4-seeded, glabrous ; stalk nearly J in. long, thick, solid ; seeds tuber- 
cular-scabrous. — T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 42 ; Lindau in 
Ann. Istit. Bot. Roma, vi. 1896, 82 ; Rendle in Journ. Bot. 180G, 308. 
J. polf/mmyha^ Schinz in Verhandl. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. xxxi. (1889) 
208 ; Lindau in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. S B. 349. J. leuco- 
dermis^ Schinz in Verhandl. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. xxxi. (1881)) 202. 
? Diantkera odora^ Forsk. Fl. ^gypt.-Arab. 8. Adhatoda odm-cij Nees 
in DC. Prod. xi. 399. A. Ilyp&ncum^ Solms-Laub. in Schweinf. Beitr. 
Fl. Aethiop. 102. 

TflTlle £aud. Nubia : Suakim, Schweiufurth, 042 ! Abysfinia : Sfawerr, 3000 ft., 
Schimper, 136 ! Tacazze River, 3000—1000 ft., Schimper, 2135 ! and without precise 
locality. Schi?nper, 1447! Somaliiand: W'idaba, Miss Edilh Cole! Tola ^ I'uhi ?) 
lliver, Kirk ! Habr Aual, Eobecchi, 262 ! Donaldson Smith ! Tjina River, Thofiia.\, 
81 ! Habiib, 3000 ft., Hildehrandt, 454 ! 

Kower Guinea* Amboland : Oshiimlo, Schinz, 32 ! 

Mozamb' Blst. Ngamiland : nenr Ivwebe, Lu^qard, 72! 
" Whet) dried smells as Anfhoxanfhttm^'* Nees. 



202 XCVIII. ACANTHACEiE (CLARKE). [Justicia. 

49. J, sanaibarensisy Lindau in Engl. Jahrh. xx, 71. Stout 
shrub; branches pubescent. Leaves up to 2J by 1 in., ovate, obtuse, 
when mature glabrous ; petiole ^ in. long ; upper leaves scarcely 1 in. 
lone:, subsessile, round elliptic, passing into small round floral leaves. 
Flowere 3-1 in each axil \ bracts and bracteoles minute or 0. Calyx i in, 
long. Corolla ^ in. long. One anther-cell lower than the other, 
spurred. Capsule J in. long, 4-seeded, glabrous; stalk short; seeds 
tubercular-scabrous. — Lindau in Engl, tk Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. ^5 B. 
840, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373. 

nXozazQba 91st. Zanzibar, Ilildehrandt^ 983 ! German East Africa, .Wanninff- 
ion / 

60. J. Fischeriy Lindau hi Engl. Jahrh, xx. Go. Glabrous; branches 
woody. Leaves |-2 in. long, ovate ; base rounded ; tip triangular- 
apiculate ; primary nerves prominent beneath ; margins white, thickened 
and often hispid -cili ate ; petiole hardly any. Flowers 3-1 in the axils 
of distant leaf-pairs ; bracts J by ^ in., elliptic. Sepals 5, equal, -J in. 
long, glabrous, lanceolate with linear tip. Corolla J- J in. long, yellow. 
One antlier-eell below the other, tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, banded, with 

2 stopples ; tubercles obsolete. Ovary glabrous ; style-base hairy. 
Capsule J in. long, glabrous, stalked, 4-seeded. — Lindau in Engl. & 
Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. 

Mosamli^ DlBt. German East Africa : Usambara ; Kwa Msbuza, Molst^ 
8897 ! and without precise locality, Fucker, 89 ! 490! 

Var. ? Imierirens^ C, B, Clarke. Leaves | bj 4 in,, oblong or narrow elliptic, 
narrowed at basej green when dried, primary nerves obscnre beneath, margin not 
thickened but hispid-ciliate ; petiole gVr^iJ ^"* ^^^i^* distinct; otherwise as 
J. Fhcheru — J, Imtevirens^ Eendle in Journ, Bot* 1896, 409- 

Nile Ziaxid. Somaliland : between Lake Stephanie and Lake Eudolph, 
Donaldson iSmith I 

This looks distinct from Fischer's plant ; but in Holst^ 8897, there are on one 
branch leaves varying from narrow cuneate- oblong apiculate to ovate obtuse, 

51. J. brevicauMs, S, Moore in Joum. BoL 1880, 341. Rhizome 
thick* Branches 2-3 in. long, hairy. Leaves | by J in., obovate-oblong, 
subobtuse, hairy, finally more or less glabrate, siibsessile. Pedimeles 
xip to I in. long, axillary, 1-flowered, hairy; bracteoles 2 a little below 
the flower, y\^ in. long, linear, hairy. Sepals 4 in. long, linear-oblong, 
hairy. Corolla J in. long or rather more, violet (S\ jVomx). Lower 
anther-cell shortly tailed ; pollen ellipsoid with 2 stopples and bands, 
no tubercles.— EngL Hochgebirgsfl. Trop, Afr. 393. 

Xower Guinea- Angola : Huillaj WelmiUch^ 5774 ! 

52. J. microphyllay Lindau in Engl, d) Prantl^ Pfianzenfmn. iv. 

3 B. 349. Procumbent, woody, IJ ft. long. Leaves up to \ by 
^in., ovate-oblong, pubescent. Flowers axillary, solitary; bracts | in. 
long, obovate. Sepals \ in. long. Corolla | in. long. Anther-cells 
obliquely opposite* Capsule rather more than J in. long, 4-seeded, 



JiLtilicia.] xcviii, acanthace^e (claeke). '20ii 

glabrous.--Lindau in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373. Adhatoda 7Hicro/>/a/Ua, 
Kiotzsch in Peters, Reise Mossamb. :^17. 

Mozamb. 3>ist. Portuguese East Africa : Mozambique Isle, Feiers I 
The material for this species is in sueh a stute that I can add little to Lindau's 
account. But there are ripe capsuleti and the species is certainly a Justieia. 

53. J. gesnerifolia, Hendle in Joum. Boi. 18^)0, 398 (gesncriflw^a, 
Rendle, l.c, 414). A woody, small, much branched, pubescent shrub; 
branches 6 in. long, angular. Leaves 1 by J in., spathulate-obovoid, 
green, minutely pubescent on both faces, subsessile. Flowers axillary, 
solitary, | in. long, corolla-tube much inflated. Lower anther-cell 
tailed; pollen ellipsoid with 2 longitudinal bands. Capsule r in. long, 
4-seeded, glabrous. 

wile l^and- Somaliland : Shebele River, Donaldson Smith ! 
The name intended by Kendle was ffesnerijiora. 

54. J. diclipteroideSy Lindau hi Enyl. Jahrh. xx. Go. Herbaceous ; 
branches numerous, 8 in. long, pubescent upwards. Leaves up to 1 by 
4 in., ovate or narrow elliptic, acuminate or obtuse, pubescent; petiole 
0-i in. long. Flowers axillary, solitary or 2 together ; bracts very 
small. Sepals i in. long, subulate, hairy. Corolla less than ^ in. long, 
purple-red. Capsule ^ in. long, stalked, 4-seeded, sparsely hairy. — 
Lindau in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzeiifam. iv. 3 B. 349, and in Engl. Pfl. 
Ost-Afr. C. 373. 

zrile :Landa Hrltish East Africa : Ukambvi, Mildehrandty 2726 ! Duruina, 
Hildehrandf, 2331! Taita Mountains, Gregory! and Leikipia, Nyuti River, 
Gregory ! 

55. J. urbaniana^ Lindau in Engl. Jah'h. xx. G4. Small, slender, 
very rigid shrub ; branches hispid or strigose. Leaves V-J in. long, 
elliptic or oblong, sparsely hairy; petiole O-yg- in. long. Flowers 1-2 
in the leaf-axils ; bracts yV-^ in. long, obovate or roundish. Sepals 
^-\ in, long, linear, minutely hairy. Corolla \--\ in. long. One anther- 
cell below the other, tailed : pollen ellipsoid, banded, with 2 stopples 
and rows of tubercles. Capsule ^ in. long, 4-seeded, pubescent. — 
Lindau in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349. 

If lie Kand. Somaliland : Ahl Mountains, Hildelrandi^ 860b .' Maid, Hilde' 
brandty 1402 ! Darror, James S^ Thrvpp ! 

56. J. Gendamssay Linn.f. SuppL 85, Shrubby, 2-4 ft. high. 
Leaves 4 by } in., glabrous ; petiole j in. long. Spikes terminal, 4 by 
4 in., almost continuous, lax, often running into a panicle by the 
development of the cymes in the lower axils ; bracts linear, scarcely ^ 
in. long. Sepals J in. long, nearly glabrous. Corolla | in. long, or 
rather more, nearly glabrous, white or rose with purple spots ; tube 
very little widened upwards. One anther-cell lower than the other, 
tailed ; pollen with 2 stopples, banded, %\ithout tubercles (or with 



204: xcviii. ACANTHACE.E (clabke). [JusHcia. 

tubercles according to landau in Engl, Jahrb. xviii. 64, t. 2, fig. 95), 
Capsule ^ in. long, clavate, glabrous ; seeds unknown. — Jacq. Eclog. 
PI. t. life. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fi. Brit. Ind. iv. 532; Lindau in 
Engl. (fcPrantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 347, fig. 139, B, and in Engl. 
P9. Ost-Afr. C. 373. Gendarussa vulgaris^ Nees in Wall. Pi. As. Rar. iii. 
1U4, and in DC, Prod. xi. 410 ; Wight, Ic. t. 468. 

Mozamb. Dlftt. Zanzibar, Siuklmann, 698! 1058! German East Africa: 
Usambiira ; Tungn, Volkens, 146 ! Portuguese East Africa : Gorongoza, Carvalho ! 

Tbe Zanzibar examples of this common Soutb- Asian plant (now widely spread in 
warm coiiintries) were probably introduced into Afruia ; it may be otlierwise with the 
Tanga example. 

57, J* Rendlei) 0. B. Clarice. Branch 3 J ft. long, stout, 
nearly glabrous. Leaves 3 by IJ in., narrowed at both ends, nearly 
glabrous ; petiole f-1^ in* loJ^g- Cymes axillary, short, 3—8- 
iiowered, arranged in terminal panicles ; floral leaves J-1 in. long, 
resembling the lower leaves but smaller. Sepals 5, \ in. long, linear- 
lanceolate, pubescent. Corolla Ij in. long; tube J in. long, rather 
thick ; lips broad, curved. One anther-cell transverse, the other below 
it, with a fine longish tail, or several short fine tails or nearly tailless ; 
pollen globose with 3 stopples, longitudinal smooth depressions very 
narrow and not reaching the poles, without rows of tubercles. Pistil 
glabrous. — Duvemoia speciosa^ Kendle in Journ. Bot. 1890, 129, 411. 

M'lle ^and. Somaliland: Sheikh Husein, Donaldson Smith! 

58. J. Preussii, C. B. Clarke. Stem 6-9 ft. high, with deflexed 
hairs. Leaves 5 J by 2 in., elliptic, acute at either end, when young hairy, 
when mature hairy on the nerves of both surfaces ; petiole J-J in. long. 
Inflorescence terminal, 6 by 1 in., a constricted linear panicle, grey- 
hairy ; branches very short 1-4-flowered cymes, with a floral leaf at 
the base of each branch, ;|^ to f in, long, elliptic, acute ; flower-bract 
scarcely i in. long, linear. Sepals ^ in. long, equal, linear-lanceolate, 
grey hairy. Corolla 1 J in. long, clear blue, hairy without ; tube J in. 
long ; anticous lip |-1 in, broad, with 3 short ovate lobes ; posticous 
lip J in. broad, oblong, nearly entire. Stamens 2 ; filaments glabrous; 
anther-cells 2, one completely below the other, elliptic ; upper oblique 
transverse, hairy, with a minute basal spur or muticous; lower 
distinctly spurred ; pollen ellipsoid, longitudinally banded, with one row 
of depressed tubercles on either side of each of the 3 stopples. Style- 
ba.'^e hairy, tip very shortly and equally 2-fid. Capsule J by |^ in., 
thickly hairy, 4-seeded ; stalk J in. long ; seeds rugose. — J. spectaMlis, 
T. Anders, MS. Salviaccmthics Preussii^ Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 75, 
and in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 351, fig. 107, G, 
fig. 141, A. 

Upper Guinea. Cameroons : Baea, 3000 ft., Freuss, 676 ! Cameroon 

Mountain, 2000 ft., Mann^ 1298 ! 

This is separated generically from Justicia by LindHU on the ground that the 
upper anther- cell is sometimes shortly tailed, as is the case in several other species of 
Justicia (as in J. ■fimjjUcispica). 



Jtisticta.'l xcviii. ACANTHACEiE (clabke). 2o5 

50. J, salviiflora, C. B. Clarke. Young branches and inflores- 
cence densely covered with brown gland- tipped hairs. Leaves 1 1 by 
I in., ovate, narrowed at either end, hairy ; petiole J in. long. Tnflore.s- 
cence terminal, leafless, loosely and irregularly panicled ; bpacts hardly 
^ in. long, linear. Calyx 1- in. long, divided nearly to the base into 
equal linear-lanceolate segments. Corolla-tube J in. long; lips J in. 
loi^g) g^piJ^gi upper strongly curved. Filaments glabrous ; one anther- 
cell entirely below the other, strongly tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, with 
3 stopples ; longitudinal bands without tubercles. Ovary densely 
glandular hairy; style hairy at the base only, branches 2, subequal, 
minute, — Duverrioia salvii/lora, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 4:i, and 
in Engl, it Prantl, Pfianzenfam. iv. 3 B. 330, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Air. 
C. 372. 

nXozamb. Sist. German East Africa : Massaini, Fischer, 506 1 Utagsira, 
Stuhlmanrit 207. 

60. J. grisea^ C. B. Clarke. Shrub, densely minutely grey 
pubescent. Leaves | by J in., ovate, very pubescent, finally glabrate. 
Spikes terminal and axillary, short, few-flowered; bracts |- by -ji,- in., 
glandular hairy. Sepals J in. long, pubescent. Corolla IJ in. long; 
lips 1^ in. long, broad, curved. One anther-cell lower than the other, 
long-spurred ; pollen ellipsoid, banded, without tubercles. Ovary 
hairy. — Duvernoia somalensis^ Lindau in Ann. Istit. Bot. Roma, vi. 
[1896] 81. 

Nile Xand, Somalilatwl ; Daua River, Hiva, 427 ! 

61. J« beloperonoideSj Lindau in Enyl. Jakrh. xxii. 127. 
Branches 2 ft. long, woody. Leaves 1 by J in., ovate, hairy, soon 
glabrate; base obtuse, sometimes subcordate; petiole 0-^^^ in. long. 
Cymes 2—1 ■ flow ered, in the penultimate axils ; bracts linear, small. 
Sepals J in. long, linear, haiiy and with a few stalked glands. Corolla 
carmine-red ; tube §-| in. long, cylindric, much curved, narrowly 
funnel-shaped upwards ; lips J- J in. long. One anther- cell below the 
other, distinctly tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, banded, with 2 longitudinal 
rows of tubercles on either side of each of the two pores. 

TCozambi Illsta German East Africa : Uluguru near Lukwangulu, 8000 ft., 
Stuhhnann, 9141 ! 

62. J. laxa^ T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 43. Shrubby, 
4-5 ft. high; young parts densely minutely grey tomentose, becoming 
nearly glabrous. Leaves 9 by 4 J in., narrowed at either end ; petiole 
1-2 in. long. Panicle terminal, 10 by G in., open ; branches dis- 
tant, rectangular, spreading, subdeflexed, often again divided, with 
an ovate floral leaf 1-1 J in. long at the bi^.se of most of the branches; 
pedicels ^J in. long ; bracts J in. long, linear, often several indicating a 
condensed cyme with only one flower developed. Sepals 5, subefjuai,. 
J-J in. long, narrow-oblong, acute, nearly glabrous. Corolhi J-§ in. 
long, greenish-white {G. Slann). One anther-cell below the other, 
distinctly tailed ; pollen ellipsoid; with 3 stopples; beside each sfojilo 



206 xcviii. ACANTHACE.E (clarke). [JusHcta. 

a single longitudinal row of round spots, not tubercles. Capsule 1 in. 
long, 4 -seeded, pubescent ; stalk J in. long, solid ; seeds tubercular- 
scabroui*. — Adhatoda paniculata, Benth. in Hook. Niger Fl. -482. 
Vuvernoia paniculaia^ Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 43, and in Engl, k, 
Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 339. 

Vpper Guinea. Cameroons, Freuss, 1350! Fernando Po, VogeU 144 ! Manny 63 \ 
Var. contracta^ C. B. Clarke. Panicle branches shortened, liardly exceeding 

1 in. in length : floral leaves (all but the lowest) reduced, \ in. long, linear. Capsule 1 in. 

long, 4-seeded ; stalk exceeding ^ in. in length, narrow, solid ; seeds tubercuhir. 

Upper Guinea. Cameroons: Efulen, Bate^t^ 367 ! Jensoki, Buchholz! Lotodorf, 
Staudt, 418 ! 

£ower Guinea. Gaboon : Munda ; Sibange Farm, Sot/auXf 399 ! 

(?3. J* pyramidata, C B. Clarke. Upper part of the stem 
viscous rusty with many-celled hairs. Leaves broadly ovate or obovate, 
rusty hairy on the'midrib beneath. Panicles 8 by j in.; floral leaves 
A in, long, linear. Corolla light-red (G. Mann) ; otherwise as J. laxa. — 
Duvernoia pyramidatay Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xxii, 1 24. 

Upper Guinea. Cameroons : Yaunde, Zenker ^ Staudt, 460 ! Bipinde, 
Zenker, 1047 ! 

Xower Guinea. Gaboon : Sierra del Cryst;*!, Mantis 1671 ! 

These e-xamples match one another closely, and appear distinct enough from typical 
J. laxa, but J. laxa^ var. contracta, is about half way between. 

64. J. extensa^ T. Anders, in Jmim. Linn* Soc. vii. 44. Panicle 
6-10 in. long, oblong or ovate. Calyx hairy. Filaments minutely 
hairy; pollen ellipsoid, banded, with 2 stopples, and one row of 
depi^essed tubercles on each side of each stopple. Ovary shaggy. 
Capsule rather shorter than that of J. laxa, shortly hairy all over. — 
S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1880, 341. Duvernoia extensa^ Lindau in 
Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 372, D. Stuhhnanni^ Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. 
XX. 43, and in Engl. & Prantl, Pflunzenfam. iv. 3 B. 339. 

Upper Guinea. Sierra Leone : near Kambia, Scoit-EUiot^ 4210 ! Aslianti, 
Cummins, 61 Lagos : Eppab, Barter^ 3301! Musin Road, Milleiiy 21 of 1892 collec- 
tioti I near Lagos, Moivland^ 12 ! 34 ! Crosi River, Johnston ' 

laOMrer Guinea. Angola, Welwitsch, 1248 ! 

VSozaml). Hist. Between Tanganyika and Victoria Nyanza, 3000 ft., StuM- 
mann, 2953 ! 

The breadth and degree of compounding of the panicle varies considerably. The 
panicle is more hairy than that of J. laxa, but the mature leaves are often sinning 

glabrous. 

65. J, cordata^ T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 44. Shrub, 
neai'iy glabrous except the flowers ; branches woody. Leaves 1 by 
^ in., ovate, subsessile ; base truncate or cordate. Peduncles 2~l2 ^^• 
long, rigid, angular, obliquely erect, from the lower and upper axils ; 
flowers 1-3, clustered in a congested c^'rae at the apex of a peduncle, 
bracts smaller than the sepals. Sepals 5, equal, ^ in, long, lanceolate; 
minutely and sparsely pubescent. Corolla-tube scarcely J in. long ; 



Justicia.] xcviii. acanthace^ (clarke), 207 

lobes J in. long, anticous 3-Iobed, posticous erect, curved, su ben tire, 
hooded. Anther-cells separated by a broad connective, obliuue, one 
slightly lower and with a short distinct tail ■ pollen small, oblong- 
ellipsoid, banded longitudinally, with "2 large stopples, no tubercles. 
Ovary glabrous; style-base very sparsely hairy. Capsule | in. long, 
glabrous; stalk | in. long, very thick, solid.^ — Engl, Hochgebirgsti. 
Trop. Afr. 3D3. J, ci/nanchifolia^ K. Br. in Salt, Abyss. Append. G2. 
Lepto&tackya cordaia^ Nees in DC, Prod. xi. 878. Rhapkidoapora 
C07xlata, Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 41)9; A, Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii. ICl; 
Solms-Laub, in Schweinf.' Beitr. F]. Aethiop. 113, 244; Lindau in 
Engl, k PrantI, Pllanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 329, fig. 110, N a (not h), and in 
Engl. Pil. Ost-Afr. C. 370. Gendaritssa cordatat Hochst. ex Nees in 
DC. Prod. xi. 379, and 499. 

wile X.and. Eritrea: Bellaka, 5000-6000 ft., Hildebrandt, 4i&l I Hnbab, 
Hildebrandt, 632 ! IJarasio Valley, 5000 ft., Schweinfurth ^ Siva, 699 ! uear Acriir, 
6200 ft,, Sehweif)furtk ^ Siva, 759! 1231! and Keren, Steudner, 1518! Abx^sinia: 
mountain sides along the river Tacazze, Sckimper, 1250! and without precise locality, 
Sckim^er, 2'i2 I 1384! Salt/ 

Moacamb. Hist. German East Africa I Kilimanjaro, 3500 ft., Volkens, 1735 ! 

66. J. plloso-cordatay C. B, Clarke. Branches 3 ft. long, softly 
hairy. Leaves 2^ by 1 in., subobtuse at either end, hairy, very hairy 
on the nerves ; petiole scarcely y^ in. long. Peduncles 1 in. long, 
axillary, solitary, hairy, 1 -flowered ; bract J in. long, linear-lanceolate, 
Sepals 5, ^— | in. long, linear-lanceolate, minutely hispid. Corolla J in. 
long ; stamens and ovary as of J. cor data, 

lower Guinea. Angola : Malange, Mechoiv^ 453 ! 

This plant greatly resembles J. cordata^ except in its hairiness. Tlie 1-flowered 
peduncles do not make much difference, for the arrangement of the bracLs shows that 
the flower (in J. piloso-cordata) represents a reduced congested cyme. 

67. J, masaiensiSy C. B. Ctarke. Shrub; branchlets woody, 
quadrangular, hairy ; internodes J- J in. long. Leaves up to J oy 
A in., subsessile, round-elliptic, glabrate, reticulated beneath, tip 
obtuse, apicuiate. Spikes 0—1 in. long, lateral 3-1 -flowered ; bracts 
smaller than the calyx; flowers solitary. Calyx J in. long; lobes 5, 
somewhat united at the base, linear, triangular, sub-3-nerved, minutely 
scabrous. Corolla | in. long, very hairy without ; tube J in. long, 
lips broad. On© anther-cell below the other, rather strongly tailed ; 
pollen ellipsoid, stopples 2 ; a row of spots on each side of each 
stopple. 

Wile Xiand. British East Africa : Scoit-EUhf, 6634 ! 

68. J. intemiptay C B. Clarke. Shrub. Leaves up to 7 by 3 in., 
ovate, acute at either end, glabrous; petiole up to 1 in. loiig. Panicle 
8 in. in diam., open, nearly leafless; flowers in sessile distant clu.<ste!s 
on the branches ; bracts J in. long, linear. Sepals J in. long, lanceolate, 
minutely hairy. Corolla f in. long ; tube \ in. long. Lower anther- 



XCVIII. ACANTIIACE.E (cLARKE). [Justicia, 

cell with a distinct small spur, sometimes altogether muticous ; pollen 
ellipsoid, banded ; stopples 2, without rows of tubercles. — Duvernoia 
interrupta, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xxii. 123. 

Mozaint). Slst. German East Africa : Ukami ; Uluguni, StuMmann, 8967 ! 

CO. J. glabra, Roxb. Hort. Beng. 4. Pubescent or nearly 
glabrous except the flowers, slender, erect or rambling. Leaves 2 J 
by 1 in. (occasionally up to 5 by 3 in.), ovate, acuminate; petiole 
U— i in. long, or in the lower leaves 1—2 in. Peduncles slender ; 
cymes loose ; upper peduncles running into large loose panicles ; bracts 
to the flowers minute, linear ; floral leaves at the base of peduncles often 
J-1 in. long, ovate. Sepals \-\ in. long, linear, pubescent or nearly 
glabrous. Corolla J— J in. long. One anther-cell below the other, 
tailed. Pollen ellipsoid, with 3 stopples and longitudinal rows of 
spots. Capsule § in. long, shortly hairy all over, 4-seeded ; stalk ^ in. 
long, slender; plabentse not rising elastically ; seeds covered with long 
scabrous tubercles. — Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. Carey & Wall. i. 132 ; T. Anders, 
in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 4^^ (including var. puhescens), Rha2^hidospora 
glabra, Nees in Wall. Plant. As. Rar. iii. 115, and in I)C. Prod. xi. 499 ; 
Wight, Ic. t. 1554; Solms-Laub. in Schweinf, Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. 244; 
Lindau in Engl, k Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 329, and in Engl. Pfl. 
Ost-Afr. C. 370. R. abyssinica^ Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 500 ; A. Rich. 
Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii. 101. Gendarussa dichotoma, Hochst. ex Nees in 
DC. Prod. xi. 508. 

Vile laSLnC Eritrea: Embat Kalla, 4500 ft., Schweinfurth ^ liiva, 2002! 

Bogos, Hildebrandt, 6iJ7 ! and Keren, Steudner, 1519 ! Abyssinia : Valley of the 
Tacazze, Schimper, 903 ! and without precise locality, Schimper, 184 ! British East 
Africa : Taita, Hildebrandt, 2533 ! 

Mozaxnb. I>lst. Ziu)zi>wr, Mildebrandt, 1135 ! German East Africa : Kili- 
manjaro, 2000-4000 ft., Volkens, 1797 ! 2187 ! TJsambara ; Masheua, Moist, 
8797! Portuguese East Africa: Lower Zambesi; below Shigogo, Kirk! British 
Central Africa : Nyasaland ; between Kondowe and Karonga, 2000-6000 ft., 
Wkute I between Mpatn and the Tanganyika Plateau, IVh^te ! Upper Shire Valley, 
Kirk ! and without precise locality, Buchanan, *iQi*I ! 

70. J. auselliana, T. Anders, in Journ, Linn, Soc. vii. 44. Stems 
12-20 in. long, wejik, nearly glabrous. Leaves Ij by J-| in., linear 
to lanceolate (in Ansell's type example, on which are also ovate leaves § 
in. long)j glabrous, or very nearly so ; petiole 0-^ in. long. Peduncles 
solitary, axillary, distant, slender, nearly glabrous, J— IJ in. long, each 
terminating in a slender scorpioid 2-8-flowered cyme, J-lJ in. long; 
bracts or bracteoles shorter than the calyx. Sepals J in. long, linear, 
glabrous or very nearly so. Corolla J in. long. One anther-cell below 
the other, definitely tailed ; pollen very small, ellipsoid, with 2 stopples 
and 2 rows of tubercles on each side of each stopple. Capsule \ in. 
long, glabrous, very thin- walled ; seeds deeply wrinkled, with a scarious 
wing on the margin in the West African type plant, becoming 
gradually obsolete in the Eastern specimens. — Oliv. in Trans. Linn. 
Soc. xxix, 130 (including var. angustifolia) ; S. Moore in Journ. 



Jusiicia.] xcviii. acantuace.*; (clakke). 

Bot, 1880, 841 ; and in Trans. Linn. Soc, ser. 2, Bot. iv. 32 ; Lindau 
in Engl, ^ Prantl, Pilanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349, and in Engl Pfl. Ost-Afr. 
C. 373, partly. Justicia^ sp. n, 8, T. Thorns, in Speke, Nile Append. 
G43, Adhatoda anselliana^ Nees in DC, Prod, xi, 403 ; Bentli, in 
Hook, Niger PI 484, Dianthera^ sp-, Benth, in Benth. et Hook. f. 
Gen. PL ii. 1114. 

tfpper Guinea* Liberia j Cape Palmas, A^isell! Lower Niger, Ibu (Abo), 
Vogel, 14! 

Wile ^and. British East Africa: Bongo; Sabbi River^ Schweinfurth^ 26461 
Madi, Speke ^j- Gj^ant, Kavjrondo^ ScoU-Elliot^ 7123 ! KarianJusi River, tR»;*r L;jUe 
Elmeteita, 6000 ft., Scott-Elliot, 6633 ! Lake Nukurn, 6000 ft, Scott-Elliot, 681 U \ 
Kaiiiasia, west of Lake Bariiigo, Qregory ! 

Xower Guinea. Angola: Pungo Andongo, Welwitsch, ^0%% \ 5172! 51731 

Moxamb. Slst- British Central Africa : Nyasaland ; Tanganyika Plateau at 

Fort Hill, 3500 ft,, Whyte ! Shire Highland^ Buchanan^ 483 I Mount M lunge, 
Whyte ! and without precise loealityj Buchanan, 876 I 1385 ! 

71. J. matammeiisis^ Oliv. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix,.130. More 
pubescent in all parts than J, anselliana^ and leaves not linear. Leases 
(in Schweinfiirth's type plant) up to 2 J by 1 in., in many Zambesi 
examples 1 by J-| in. ; petioles of upper leaves with prominent long lax 
hair. Peduncles more or less pubescent. Capsule often hispid in the 
upper part; otherwise as J, anselliana, — Oliv. he, ser, 2, Bot* ii. 345 ; 
Lindau in Engl, & Prautl, Pflanzenfam, iv. 3 B. 349, and in EngL Pfl. 
Ost-Afr. C. 373, J. anaelUanaj Lindau in EngL Pfl, Ost-Afr. C, 
373 mainly, and in Engh <k Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv, 3B. fig. 112, 
D, E, Jtisticia^ spp. n. 2-4, T. Thorns, in Speke, Nile Append. 643. 
Adhatoda matarrmiensis^ Schweinf. in Verb, ZooL-Bot. Gesell. Wein, 
xviii, (1868) 674. 

TTlle Xiand. Upper Senaar ; Fazokl, Fig art ! Gallabat : Matamma^ Sehwein* 

furth, 13UC ! British East Africa : Niamniam, Sehweinfurtkj 3883 ! Upper Nile» 

Freeman Sf Lucas! Buddu ; Buganga^ Scoii-Elliot, 7454! Kikuyu, Scoft-Elhot^ 

6543! Ukaoiba, Scott- E lliot f 6343! Taita, Hildehrandt, 2840! 2854! Gregory! 

Durum a, Gregory ! 

Iiower Guinea. German South-west Africa: Ainboland^ Schinz^ 13 ! 35! 

Soutti Centrals Monbuttu : Munza, Sckweinfurfk, 3459! Lunda: Lulua 
River, I^ogge^ 305, 307, 308 ! and Loraani River, Pogge, 1013! 

nCozamtiB Dlst* Zanzibar^ Mildebrandt, 980 ! German East Africa : Kili* 
manjaro, Volkens, 512! 532! 916! Johnston! Karagwe ; Bukoba, Stuhlmann^ 
3296 ! Usukuma : Sake country, Siuhlmann, 4195 ! Unyatnwezi, Speke ^ Qrant ! 
Usanibara : Lutindi, Moist, 3432 ! Ainboni, Moist, 2809 ! Nyika, Moist, 5794 1 
Kisokwe^ Manningion ! Portuguese East Africa : Lower Zambesi ; Shupanga, Kirk ! 
Lower Shire Valley , Kirk, British Central Africa : Nyasaland, Zoroba and vicinitv, 
2500-3500 ft., Whyte! Matabeleland, Elliot! Rhodesia; Tamasanka, iTc/Zt^A, 1208! 
1209! 1210! 

Moist, 3432, 8865, named by Lindanes hand J. anselliana, I think nearly typicfll 
J, mafarnmensis. Though the two species are closely allied ^ I have no difficulty in 
separating them ; but I doubt whether some of the small (and small-leaved) phmU 
referred here should not rather be sorted with JT, uncinulata. 



210 xcviii. ACANTHACE.E (clarke). [Jiisiicia. 

72. J. uncinulata^ Oliv. in Trans, Linn. Soc, xxix* 130, t. 129, 
Jig. A, Kootstock woody ; branches 4-U in, long. Leaves J-§ by Jin., 

elliptic or ovate ; upper petioles thinly hispid. Capsule barely J in- 
long^ hispid near the top, shorter and broader than that of ./. 
matamniensis. — Lindau in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373. Jiisticia^ sp. n. 5, 
T, Thorns, in Speke^ Nile Append. 543- 

1f He band. Somaliland, Mrs. Lort-Phillips ! Uganda^ Sinhlmann^ 1334 1 

Mozamb. Dlst. Oerman East Africa : Kilimanjaro, Smith ! Usfimbara^ Hoht^ 
8950 ! Usagara ; on the Robeho Mountains, 4700 ft., Speke S^ Grant ! 

Var, tenuicapsa, C. B. Clarke. Capsule slender, glabrous. 

Iffile Ziaml. Britiah East Africa : Upper Nile, Freerfutn ^ Luea^y 79 ! Karian- 
dusi River, near the south end of Lake Elmeteita, 6000-7000 ft,, Scott- Elliot^ 
6628 ! Mftu, 7000 ft,, Scott- Mliot^ 6852 ! and on dry pin ins near Lake Naivasha, 
Scott -Mliot, 6521 ! 

Biogft m lT. Sist. German East Africa: Kilimanjaro; Marangu, 5000 ft,, 
Volkens, 916 ! Kara'gwe, 5200 ft-, Stuhlmann^ 1864 ! Mwansa, on Lake Victoriai 
at Smith Sound, Stuhlmann^ 4520 ! and without precise locality, Fischer, 32 ! 305 ! 

These small plants, as to leaves, hairs and flowers, agree with J. uncinulata^ but 
the capsules are thos^e of </, anselliana^ The example of Freeman & Lucas is annual, 
11 in. long, and has small (many abhormal) flowers- 

73. J. crassiradix, C. B. Clarke. Nearly glabrous. Rhizome 
creeping in swamps, scaly ; proper roots many, long, cylindrie, thick. 
Stems erect, 6-10 in. long. Leaves distant, 2 by ^ in., obtuse, sessile, 
erect. Sepals up to J in, long, nearly glabrous* Corolla J in, long. 
Pollen with 3 stopples, no tubercles. 

BSozamb. 01»t. British Central Africa : Urnngu ; F warn bo, Carson^ 62* 68, 
and 107 of 1893 collection ! 

Var. ? hispida, C. B, Clarke. Whole plant (leaves on both surfaces) hispid. 
Capsule 3 in, long, hispid at the top. Rhizome not seen in this variety. 

If lie Kandt 40-60 miles from the coast (Mombasa), Johnston ! 
Mozainti« Hist. British Central Africa ; Nyasaland^ Shire Highlands, 
Buchanan, 461 ! 

The habit, leaves, and flowers resemble those of J. crassiradix, 

74. J. BTuttiiy C- B. Clarke. Stems 15 in. long, straight, un- 
divided, sparingly hispid ; internodes 3 times as long as the leaves. 
Leaves up to 1 by f in., ovate, thinly hispid, base truncate or rounded, 
tip triangular; petiole hardly any or in lowest leaves up to y\y in. long. 
Peduncles few, penultimate, 1-3 in. long, 2-fiowered ; bracts J in. long, 
linear. Sepals nearly J in. long, linear, minutely and very sparsely 
scabrous. Corolla nearly J in. long. Pollen ellipsoid ; stopples 2, with 
one row of tubercles beside each. 

Koxanib* Slsit- German East Africa: between Lake Tanganyika and Lake 
Rukwa, 60O0 ft., Nutt ! 

This is a distinct, strongly marked species. 

Var. ^. hlaniyrensis^ C. B. Clarke. Stem and leaves very hispid. Leaves up to 
2 by 1 in. 

Moxamb. Ill&t» British Central Africa ■ Nyasaland ; Blantyre, Buchanan, 
20 ! 165 I 



Justicia.] xcviii. acanthace.^ (clabke). 211 

Buchanan, 20, was ftii erect plant, 1| ft. hi^h, with pennUimate petlunclea • 
Buchanan^ 165, appears pmstrate or against; a rock, witli remote axillary divaric-iled 
peduncles. 

Imperfectly known sj^ecies. 

75. J. Hoepfheri, Lindau in Engl. Jahrh. xx. 66. Under- 
shrub. Leaves J in. long, linear-lanceolate or linear, glabrous. Flowers 
solitary, axillary ; bracteoles J in. long, lanceolate, finely hairy. Calyx 
\ in. long. Corolla nearly J in, long. Capsule } in. long, sparsely hairy. 
Seeds 4, almost smooth. -^Lindau in Engl, k Prantl, Pilanzenfam, iv. 
349. _ 

Ko'ver Guinea* Angola : ^lossiimedes, Hoepfner, 10. 

This wonld appear to be Monechma Salsola, or ne^r it, but Lindau especially says 
the seeds are 4, The one example cited whs not found by me in the Jierlin 
Herbarium. 

76. J, Romanise, Schweinf. <h Volkens^ Liste PL Sonialis^ 17. Shrub ; 
branchlets glabrous. Leaves f by ^ in,, oblanceolate, glabrous, sub- 
sessile. Flowers axillary, solitary; bracts minute, ciliate. Sepals i in. 
long. Corolla J in, long, yellow. Lower anther-cell spurred. — Ghika, 
Pays des Somalis, 217. 

3f lie An-iidi Somaliland : Salul Torrent, Gkika, 
No specimen at Kew. 
Perhaps near J. odora, Vahl. 

77. J» Manniiy T. ATiders. in. Joum. Linn. Soc. vii. 44. Shrub. 
Leaves 3-6 by 1-3 in., ovate, glabrous; petiole 1 in. long. Spikes 
axillary 2, 1 in. long, loose, glabrous, few-flowered ; bracts i in. long, 
linear, acute. Sepals shorter than the bracts, ovate-lanceolate. Corolla 
1^ in. long, purple. Anther-cells muticous. Ovary glabrate, 4-ovuled. 

Upper Guinea. Fernando Po, Mann. 

Justicia Mamtii, T. Anders. MS. in Herb. Kew, is Adkatoda orbicularis (Lindau 
sub Duvernoid). It is evident that T. Anderson applied tlie name Justicia Mannii 
to two widely different plants, and probably cancelled one of them himself, 

78. J. Poggeiy Lindau in Engl. Jahrh. xx. 61. Leaves up to 3^ by 

1-| in., naiTowed at either end, slightly hairy; petiole short. Spikes 
terminal and axillary, dense; bracts J by J in., ovate, cuspidate, 
thinly hispid, margin scarious; bracteoles nearly J in. long, oblong. 
Sepals \-\ in. long, hairy. Corolla J in. long, glabrous. One anther- 
cell lower than the other, with a very small spur. — Lindau in Engl, k 
Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 350. 

South Centrals Lunda : Mussumba, PoggCt 304. 
Fruit not seen, but I suspect the genus to be Mungia. 

79. J. guerkeana, Sckinz in Verh. Hot. Ver. Bi-andenh. xxxi. (1Sh:j) 
201. Nearly glabrous. Branchlets woody ; internodes h in. long. Leaves 
1 J by J in., linear-oblong, tapering at the base, subsessile. Spike ter- 
minal, 2-3 by J in. ; upper bracts strobilate, lower separate, 1 -flowered 



212 XCVIII. ACANTHACE.^ (CLARKE), [Justicia. 

(1-3-flowered ex S€hmz)y nearly J by J in., roundish, short-acuminate, 
with a prominent scarious margin ; biacteoles ^ in, long^ lanceolate. 
Sepals 5, ^ in, long, linear-lanceolate, nearly glabrous. Corolla ^ in. 
long. One anther-cell below the other, strongly tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, 
with 2 stopples ; a single row of minute (but pointed) tubercles on each 
side of each stopple. — Lindau in Engl, <fe Prantl, Pflanzenfam, iv. 3 B, 
349. 

^ower Guineat German South-west Africa: Great Namaqualand ; betweeu 
Tiras aiul Rehoboth, Schinz ! 

There is no fruit ; possibly a Mungia, 

80. J* somalensis (Franch, JSerL SomaL^ 53), Small shrub ; 
branches slender^ crispedly pubescent. Leaves obovate - oblong 
or obovate, obtuse, spaiingly adpressedly puberulous ; petiole short. 
Racemes lax ; flowers solitary, between 2 ovate or orbicular almost 
membranous subsessile ciliate bracts ; bracteoles subulate. Calyx 
5-partite nearly to the base ; segments linear. Corolla J- J in. long, 
concealed by the 2 flatly adpressed bracts as in Dicliptera^ purple, 
pubescent without ; tube not longer than the calyx ; limb distinctly 
2-lipped ; upper lip narrow, 2-toothed, lower spreading. Stamens 2 ; 
lower anther-cell long-tailed. Capsule clavate, pubescent ; cells 2-ovuled j 
seeds orbicular, flat. 

Wile Iiand. Somaliland : Alana, RevoiL 



44. MONECHMA, Hochst. in Flora, 1841, 374. 

Sepals 5, small, narrow, post icons one sometimes much smaller. 
Corolla small, 2-lipped ; posticous lip subentire. Stamens 2 ; one anther- 
cell below the other, long-tailed, tail often clavate, 2-fid at tip ; pollen 
ellipsoid, longitudinally banded, with or without rows of tubercles. 
Ovary slightly hairy near the top ; ovules 1-2 in each cell ; style hairy 
at the base, subequally and shortly 2-lobed at the top. Capsule small, 
ellipsoid, 2-seeded, compressed, hairy (except in M. lolioides), on a short 
solid stalk or subsessile ; placentae not rising elastically from the base of 
the valves; seeds discoid, quite smooth without tubercles or corruga- 
tions, usually glabrous, rarely with minute hairs. — Leaves entire* 
Spikes strobilate or lax, or flowers axillary and solitary; bracts ovate 
to linear-oblong ; bracteoles minute or 0. 

Species 21^ African ; one extending through Arabia to Bombsiy. 

The present genus is not equivalent to Jusficia, Sect, iv. MonecAma^ Lindau (in 
EngL & Prantl, Pflan^enfam, iv. 3 B, 349), which includes several species which do 
not satisfy Hochstetter's characters for Jlonechina. The genus, as here understood, 
differs from Jitsiicia by the capsule having two smooth seeds ; it is Sehwahea of Nees 
and Bentham, not of Endlicher (which had 4 stamens and did not belong to the tribe 
Ea'JusticietJB), 

^SCHWABEA,— Seeds with a tuft of rigid many-celled thick 
hairs at the hilum^ and a similar tuft at the opposite 
margin* 
Inflorescence hispid with long white hairs ♦ • • !• M. hispidum. 



Monechfna.] xcviii* acanthace^ (clarke). 213 

**Eu-MONECH>f A, — Seeds (without tufta of ha ire) glabrous, 
or with very minute scattered hairs, — Justicia, Benth, 
in Benth. et Hook, f. Gen, PI. ii. 1109, pjirtly. 
Spikes strobilate, terminal and also on short pseudo- 
axillary peduncles ; bracts ovate, enclosing theenlyx. 
Bracts not viscous glandular. 

Bracts round, ciliate on the margins , . • 2, M, hracteatum. 

Bracts elliptic acute, scabrous on the nerves . . 3, M. scabrinerre. 

Bracts viscous glandular. 

Tip of bracts triangular, hardly acute . • ,4* M, WHwifsckii. 

Tip of bracts acuminate . , • , , 5, Jf. /ettense. 

Spikes terminal ; bracts from narrow-elliptic to linear- 
oblong. 
Leaves ovate* elliptic^ or broadly oblong. 
Leaves nearly sessile* 

Leaves ovate, rounded at the base • . •6. M. subsesnle. 
Leaves oblong-elliptic, narrowed to the base . 7- M. varian'^. 
Leaves with petioles rarely exceeding ^^ in. iu 
length. 
Bracts not marginate . . . . ,8. Jf. depauperatum. 

Bracts with pale margins , . • • 9. M, scabridvm. 

Leaves with petioles -|— |^ in, long ; bracts mar- 
ginate ,*..,.. 10, M, marginatum. 
Leaves linear to linearnDblong . » . . , 11, JIf- lolioides. 
Flowers solitary, axillary^ running almost or quite into 
sDikes at the ends of the branches ; leaves and bracts 
(or floral leaves) lanceolate, mucronate or apiculate- 
Leaves and bracts glabrate • * . • . 12. M. genisiifoliuni. 
Leaves and bracts long- white-hairy on the margins. 

Leaves 1 in, long ; sepals ^ in* long . , . 13. Jf* arenicola. 

Leaves \ in. long; sepals ^ in. long * , , 14, 3f, De^^ertomm, 

Flowers scattered, all (or nearly all) solitary ; leaves 
hairy. 
Flowers sessile. 

Leaves scarcely acute. 

Leaves 2 in, long . * , • . . , 15. M. Nepeta, 
Leaves \ in, long. 

Branches 12-15 in, long; many internodes 

exceeding 1 in, in length , . , 16, M.Jlondum, 

Branches short ; internodes o'jj— | in* in length 17. Jf, spissum. 
Leaves rigid, acute or mucronate* 

Leaves ultimately glabrate • . . • 18, M^ Sahola. 

Leaves thinly hairy , * . . . lU. Jf, hereroetise. 

Flowers on axillary pedicels o\j— | in. long* • . 20, M. cleomoiden. 

1, m. hispidmuy Hochst in Mora, 1841, 375, 1843, 76- Ancual 
1-2 ft, high J hispid-scabrous or glabrate. Leaves up to 3 by ^-J in,, 
entirsj harsh, base narrowed ; petiole yV-J i^- long. Spikes (in fruit) 
up to 3-4 by f in. (exclusive of the bracts) ; bracts ^1 in. long, oblong, 
the lower leat'4ike^ petioled, up to lJ-2 in, long; bracteoles J-^f in. 
long, with conspicuous long white stiff hairs. Sepals 5, subequal, nearly 
distinct, J in. long, linear, hispid. Corolla hardly exceeding h in. in 
length, white slightly purple -spotted, 2-hpped, as of the smaller Ji^s/icm.v. 
Stamens 2 ; one anther-cell below the other, white-tailed ; pollen 

VOL. V. H 



214 xcviii. ACANTHACE.E (clarke). [JIo7iech77ia. 

ellipsoid, banded, stopples 2, no tubercles. Capsule J in. long, woody; 
seeds ^ by ~jj in. — Justicia ciliaris, Linn. f. Suppl. 84 ; Jacq. Hort. 
Vind. ii. 47, t. 104 (ciliaia). J. Bilttneri^ Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 
tJ8, and in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349. Poyonospemium. 
ciliare and P. hiapidumy Hochst. in Flora, 1844, Beil. C. Schwahea 
dliarisy Nees in DC. Prod, xi. 384, excluding syn. End!. ; A. Bich. Tent. 
Fl. Abyss, ii. 154; Benth. in Hook. Kiger Fl, 482; Solms-Laub. in 
Schweinf. Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. 113 ; T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 
45; Oliv. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix. 130; Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. 
xviii. 04, t. 2, fig. 98, and in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 346, 
and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C 372. *S'. spicigercty Nees in DC. Piod. xi. 
384; T, Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 45. 

Upper Guinea. Senegambia, Heudeloi^ 167 ! 505 partly ! Gambia, Brovm- 
Lester, 51 ! Sierra Leone : near Bayabaya on the Scarcies lliver, Scott-Slliot, 4588 ! 
Togoiand, Biittner, 148 ! Batimann, 326 ! 

Srile Ziaiid. Kordofan, Kotschy, 2391 Ffund^ 83 ! Gallabat, Schioeinfurth, 14 ! 
81 I 84 ! British Eiist Africa : .Jur : Jur Ghattas, Schweinftirth, 2463 ! Madi, Spe^e 
^ Grant ! 

Mozaznb. Sist. British Central Africa: Nyasaland : between Kondowe and 
Karouga, 4000-6000 ft., Whyte, 381 ! 

Nees says the flowers are axillary and solitary in Foyonospermum ciliare ^ but spiked 
in his Schtiahea sjnciyera : he has written on one example of Heudelot's ciliaris, on 
another spicigera, and they look to me one collection. The spikes when young in Pogo- 
nospermum are dense, but they open out much in fruit ; the bracts show a passage 
from leaf to bract, and are throughout the spike so very long and leaf-like in this 
genuis that tbey might be described as floral leaves. Lindau says the pollen is 
tubercled ; I find it unusually devoid of rows of tubercles, or even of spots. 

2. M. bracteatum, Hochst. in Floret^ 1841, 370, 1843, 75. Stems 
1-3 ft. high, pubescent. Leaves up to 4J by 1-lJ in. (usually much 
smaller), when mature glabrate oi' puberulous, tip obtuse ; petiole J-1 
in. long. Spikes subsessile (sometimes more than 2 at one node), 2 by 
^ in., strobilate ; bracts \-\ in. in diam., circular or slightly elliptic, 
obtuse (sometimes with a minute point), pubescent, ciliate with long 
white several-celled hairs round the margin nearly or quite to its 
summit (but see var. enumerated below). Calyx \ in. long, hairy. 
Corolla \-^ in. long. Lower anther-cell with a long tail, obtuse sub- 
clavate at the tip. Capsule J in. long, densely clothed with short white 
(mostly deflexed) hairs ; seeds yellow-brown often with black blotches. — 
Nees in DC, Prod. xi. 411 ; Solms-Laub. in Schweinf. Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. 
112, 244 ; Zarb, Cat. Spec. Bot. Pfund. 32. if. affine, Hochst, in Flora, 
1843, 70; Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 411; A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii. 
158. M. debile, Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 411 ; Solms-Laub. in Schweinf. 
Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. 112, 224. Dianihera dehilis^ Forsk. Fl.^gypt.-Arab. 9. 
Justicia debilis, Yah\, Symb. ii. 15, and Enum. i. 135; T. Anders, in 
Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 43 J Engl. Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr. 3'.J3 ; Oliv. 
in Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix. 129; Lindau in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzen- 
fam. iv. 3B. 349, fig. 139, q, in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373, and in 
Ann. Istit. Bot. E,oma vi. (1890) 83. J. hracteaia, Zarb, Cat. Spec. Bot. 
Pfund. 32. J. blepharostegia, T. Thorns, in Speke, Nile Append. 043. 



MoTiechina.] xcviii. acanthace^ (clarke), 215 

J. Gregorii^ S, Moore in Joiirn, Bot. 1804, 138; Lindau in En^'l Pfi, 
Ost-Afr, C. 373, */, albijlora^ Ehrenberg MS., not of Blume. Gendanissa 
debilis, Nees in Linn^a xvi. 302. 

wile Land, Kordofan, Koischy, 261 ! 759 ! Pfnnd, 167 ! Darfur, PJtinil 424 ! 
^t\\\o^'vA, Kotsehy^ 49! Galabat : Mixl^mm^k, SchwHnfurth^ 124! Eritrea : Keren ! 
Stetidner.VolOl Bogos, 5000 IL, Jiadebrandt, 4il ! Abyssinia: Eilet, Ekrenberjj } 
Wadi Tof^^odele, Ehrenberg ! Gap^eros, 3500 ft., Schimper, 179 ! Gapdiu, Schimper, 
759 ! a!id witjjout precise locality, Schimper, 419 ! 749 ! 756 ! Somaliland : Adda Galla, 
James Sf Thmpp ! Ogaden, Riva, 339 ! Herbera, Robecchi^ 243, and without precise 
locality. Miss Edith Cole! Mm. Lort- Phillips I British East Africa: near Lake 
Buringo, Oregory ! 

Af ozamb. 2>iat. German East Africa : Karagwe, Speke ^ G-rant, 433 ! 

KiliinanjarOj Volkens, 2175 ! Usambaraj Hoist, 10 ! Ukami ; Mrogoro, IfiOO 
ft. J Stuhlmann, 8200! Unyannvezi ; Irainba District, Stuhlmann, 4217! British 
Central Africa : Nyasaland ; fanganyika Plateau at Fort Hill, 3000-^4000 ft,, Whyte ! 
between Kojidowe and Karonga, 2000-6000 ft.^ Whgte, 94 ! 

Var. /3 hir-futior^ C, B. Clarke. Stem very hairy. Mature leaves hairy beneutli; 
bracts densely white, ciliate on the margin, — Justieia debilisjOWv. in Trans, Linn, Soc. 
ser, 2, Bat. ii. 345* 

Wile Iiand* British East Africa: Taita ; Maungu Mountain, Johnston! and 
Ndara Jlountain, Mildebrandt, 2397- Ukamba, 5000-6000 ft., ScotUElliot, 6749 ! 

Mozamb. Dlst. German East Africa: Usambara, Kwa Mshuza, Moht^ 8991 ! 

All the specimens of this have dried a very dark green instead of the grey yelluw- 
green of typical M. hracteatum* 

Var, 7 angustifolia^ C. B. Clarke. Leaves narrower, in an extreme form 5 by 
\ m. — M, angusiifolium^ Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 412, Justieia hlepharostegia^ Drege, 
Zwei Pfl. Docum. 160, 195 ; T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii, 43. 

Mozazab- Dlst< Portuguese East Africa: Lower Zamhesij near Sena, Kirk! 
British Central Africa: Nyasaland; Shirc River, Kirk ! 

Var. 5 non'strohilifera^ C. B. Clarke. Flow^ers 3-1 clustered in distant leaf- 
axils ; upper clusters approximate* 

Wile liand. Eritrea: Habab, 6000 ft, Hildebrandt, 442 ! 

Kozamb. Dlst, British Central Africa: Nyasaland; Kondowe to Karongii, 
2000-6000 tt„ Whgie! 

Var, e striata^ C: B. Clarke. Bracts elliptic-oblong j spikes narrower, 

Nile lUand. Eritrea: Keren, Steiidner, 1499! Abyssinia, Schimper, 207! 
511 ! 876 ! Steudner, 1521 ! 

Var, f ^dliata, C. B. Clarke. Bracts without -cilia; otherwise as typical 
31. bracteattim^ Hochst, 

TTlle Iiand. Eritrea : near Ginda, 3300 ft,, Sckweinfurth ^ Miva, 2195 ! 

IWCozamb. X»lst. British Central Africa: Nyasahmd; Nyika Plateau, 6000- 
7000 fc„ Wkyte ! 135 ! 118b ! 

Also in Arabia, 

3. M* (?) scabrinerve^ 6*, B. Clarke. Leaves 2 by f in,, reticu- 
latB beneath by prominent nerves (both priujary and secondaiy), 
minutely scabrous. Bracts J by J in,, elliptic, acute, scabrous-nerved 
and with a few long white simple hairs; otherwise as tyiural JL bi*uc- 
teatiini. 



21C xcviii. ACANTHACE^ (clarke). [MoTieckma. 

irile Xaod. Uritisb East Africa : near Lake Elnieteita, 6000 ft., Scott-Ellioi, 
6676! 

Flowers not seen ; hence, if anthers prove without tails, this may b« an Ecbolium 
near -E. anisacanthus . 

4. M. "Welwitschii, €. B. Clarke, Bracts ovate, triangular acute 
at the tip, viscous-hairy ; sepals with some gland-tipped hairs ; other- 
wise as J/. hrax^Uatum.—Jtisticiamonechmoides, B. Moore in Joiirn. Bot. 
1880, 311. 

:&ower Guinea. Angola: Loanda> Welwitsch,hQQz>\ 5123,5140! 5184! 

S. Moore says thsvt MonecJima is characterised by having the spikes in opposite 
axils, a character not often seen^in the present plant. In Monechna the spikes are 
not always in opposite axils, wliile in the present plant they are so sometimes. 

5. M. tettense, C, B. Clarke. Leaves elongate. Bracts 
(especially the lower ones) ovate, acuminate ; otherwise as M. Wel- 
witsckii. 

IVEozamb. Dlst. Portuguese East Africa: Lower Zambesi; Kalinba Island, 
opposite Tete, Kirk ! Shupanga, Kirk ! British Central Africa : Nyasaland, Buchanan ^ 
438 ! Lake Nyasa, Simons ! 

One anther much below the other, with a long tail, obtuse emarginate at 
the tip. 

6. M. subsessile, C. B. Clarke, Kootstock woody; blanches 10 
in. long, simple, hairy. Leaves 1\ by f in., ovate, scabrid on the nei-^^es 
beneath, base obtuse or subcordate ; petiole 0-y^ in. long. Spike 
terminal, 2 by | in., dense; bracts |-J by \ in., elliptic-lanceolate, 
subacute, minutely hairy, not marginate; bracteoles 2^ § in. long, 
broadly oblong. Sepals 5, J in. long, linear, posticous one a little (or 
considerably) shorter. Corolla f in. long, yellow with 2 pink streaks 
down the throat. Filaments glabrous ; one anther-cell below the other, 
with a long clavate tail, 2-3-toothed at the tip ; pollen ellipsoid, banded 
longitudinally, with 2 stopples, and no tubercles. Ovarj' shaggy. 
*' Capsule containing only 2 flat seeds " {Oliver). — Jiisticia subsessilis^ 
Oliv. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix. 129, t. 129, fig. B ; Lindau in Engl. 
Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 37 B. Jtcsticiaj sp. n. 3, T. Thoms. in Speke, Nile 
Append. 643. 

mozaiii1>> Dlstt German East Africa : Karagwe, Speke Sf Grant ^ 213 ! 

Prof. Oliver says this was his t. 129, fig. A, whereas it was t. 129, fig. B. Inside 
the two large "bracteoles" there is sometimes (as correctly drawn by Prof. Oliver) 
an extra small bracteole, indicative of an undeveloped cyme. 

7. M. varians, C. B. Clarke. Eootstock woody; stems up to 18 
in. long, with erect branches, more or less hairy. Leaves up to 2 by 
1 in., acute at either end, subsessile. Spikes terminal, IJ by f in. 
dense ; bracts up to h by ^ in., oblong-elliptic, obtuse, hairy or nearly 
glabrous, not marginate; bracteoles up to J in. long, linear, somewhat 
obovate- oblong (or one of these bracteoles may be the true flower bract). 
Sepals 5, whereof 4 are J in. long, linear, minutely hairy (many hairs 
glaud-tipped), the posticous sepal hardly -^j^ in. long. Corolla scarcely 



Monechma.] xcviii. acanthace^ (clarke). 217 

J in. long. Filaments glabrous; anther-cells round, one obliquely 
above the other, short-tailed, tail of the lower cell of medium length, 
terete, obtuse; pollen ellipsoid, without distinct tubercles. Ovary 
glabrous when young ; style very thinly hairy. 

nXoxamb. I>lst. British Central Africa : Nyasalnnd, 2000-7000 ft, W/ti/te ! 

Twice collected ; examples at 6000-7000 ft,, hairy all over ; those at 2000-6<X)0 tt. 
nearly glabrate. 

8. M. depauperatum, C. B. Clarke. Stem 3-5 ft. high ; branches 
more or less angular and hairy. Leaves up to 3 by 1 in., elliptic- 
lanceolate, subacute at either end, sparsely hairy or glabra te above, 
hairy on the nerves beneath; petioles 0-J in. long. Spikes H-- i in. 
long, elongated in fruit, terminal ; bracts | by J- J in., elliptic or oblong, 
obtuse or subacute, minutely pubescent, not margined ; bracteoles 0. 
Sepals 5, subequal, J- J in. long, linear-lanceolate, minutely pubescent. 
Corolla J in. long, pale yellow (Barter). Filaments glabrous; anther- 
cells ellipsoid, one much below the otlier, long-tailed, tail clavate sub- 
bifid at the tip ; pollen ellipsoid, banded, with 2 stopples, one row of 
depressed tubercles (scarcely more than patches) on each side of each 
stopple. Capsule nearly J in. long, 2-seeded, minutely pubescent to 
the base; placentae not rising elastically; seeds smooth, shining, with 
scattered small simple white hairs. — Jiibsticia depauperata, T. Anders. 
in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 40. J. Barteri, T. Anders, in Journ, Linn. 
Soc. vii. 39. J. sexsuleataj Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 07, and in 
Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 34 U. 

Upper Guinea. St€rra Leone : Lomabnm, Scott-^Uiot, 5035 1 interior of 
AVest Lrtgos, Roioland ! Togoland, Biittner, 2021 Lower Ki^er: Onitsa, Barfer, 
592! 1380! 

9. M. scabridunij C. B. Clarke. Leaves often obtuse at the base, 
minutely hairy on ths lower face. Bracts margined, sometimes green 
on the back, with scarious green-yellow prominent margins. Seeds with 
more numerous hairs, sometimes densely hairy near the margins ; other- 
wise as M. depauj^eratuni. — Justicia scahrida, S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 
1880, 310. J. ftiarginatay Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 73, and in Engl. 
k Prantl, Pilanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349. 

Ziower Guinea. Angola: Pungo Andongo, TTV^ttuV^c^, 6085 ! 5092 I Malaiige, 
Butfner, 33 I 

Experienced botanists liavp united this in the herbariuni with M. depauperatum. 
I doubt much if it should be spccitically separated. 

10. M. marginatuza, C B. Chrhe. Leaves up to o by li in., 
narrowed at both ends ; petioles up to J-^ in. long. Bracts J in. long, 
or rather more, very acute, with broad scarious-}'p!low margins ; other- 
wise as J/, depaiiperatum. — Nicoteba marginata^ Lindau in Engl. Jaiirb. 
xxii. 119. 

Upper Guinea. Cameroons : Yaunde, Zenker Sf Standi, 5.56 ! 
This is put in a different genus from the 3 preceding species by Lindou on the 
ground that there are no tubercles on the pollen. I tliink it is hardly speclHcall^' 



218 xcviii. ACANTHACE.*: (clarke). [Mo7iechma. 

separable ; but this is no argument ftgaint the value of pollen hs a generic character, 
for the pollen in the 4 species is the same. 

11. M. lolioides, C. B. Clarke, Nearly glabrous, except the 
corolla; branches 1:^-20 in. long. Leaves from oblong (IJ by J in.) to 
linear (2 J by J in.), subobtuse, sessile. Spikes terminal, up to o by J in., 
loose, especially at the base, main rhachis glabrous ; bracts J by ^\ in., 
green with white margins, glabrous. Sepals 5, similar to the bracts 
but rather shorter. CoioUa % in. long. Lower anther-cell long-tailed, 
tail clavate 2-lobed at tip ; pollen ellipsoid, with 2 stopples. Style-base 
hairy; ovary glabrous. Capsule J in. long, 2-seeded, glabrous; the 
solid thick stalk scarcely y^ in. long ; seeds yellow-brown, smooth, as 
of the genus, but with minute white hairs round the margins. — 
Justicia lolioides, S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1880, 310, t. 214, fig. 1. 

Iiower Guinea. Angola : Pungo Andongo and Huilhi, Welwitsch, 5090 ! 
517S: 5099! 

12. M, genistifolium, (7. B. Clarke. Branches round, densely 
and minutely tomentose. Leaves up to 2 by J in,, lanceolate, acute, 
mucronate, sessile, glabrous, yellow-green. Spikes up to IJ by J in,, 
approximate towards the end of the branches; bracts | by \ in., broad- 
lanceolate, acute, mucronate, glabrous. Sepals 5, J in. long, linear, 
puberulous. Corolla | in. long, blue and white (Lindner). One anther- 
cell much below the other, with a long clavate tail Pub-2-lobed at the 
tip ; pollen ellipsoid, banded, with 2 stopples. Ovary minutely pubescent 
in the upper half. Capsule nearly h in. long, pubescent, 2-seeded ; the 
solid broad stalk J in. long; seeds smooth, with acute margin. — Justicia 
genistifolia, Engl, in Engl. Jahrb. x. 264; Lindau in Engl, k Prantl, 
Pilanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 840. 

ZiO-wer Guinea« German Soutli-west Africa : Hereroland, Luderitz, 96 1 
Otyitamhi, Belck, 9 ! Damaraland ; Karibib, 3000 ft., Marloth, 1424! Lindner \ 

The bracts are simplv shortened leaves, and should perhaps be described as floral 
leaves. 

13. M. arenicola, C. B. Clarke. Small shrub; viscous glandular- 
hairy; blanches very thick, much ramified. Leaves 1 hy J-J in., 
broad-lanceolate, acute, mucronate, subsessile, yellow-green, long- white- 
hairy, approximate. Flowers axillary, sessile. Sepals \ in. long, linear, 
green. Corolla exceeding J in. in length. Style hairy at the base ; ovary 
minutely hairy in upper half. Capsule ^ in. long, 2-seeded, minutely 
hairy; the solid thick stalk J in. long. — Justicia arenicola, Engl, in 
End. Jahrb, x. 2G4 ; Lindau in Engl. Jahi'b. xix. 151, and in Engl. & 
Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349. J. Steingi'overii, Schinz ex Lindau 
in Engl, tk Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349. 

IfOwer Guinea. German South-west Africa ; Hereroland ; Usakos and Ubib, 
Marloihy 1247, 1445 1 Port Mine at Swakop Kiver, Ouerich, 105, and without pre- 
cise locality, Luderitz, 97 ! 

14. M. Desertorum, C, B. Clarke. Annual, 5 in. high, white- 
hairy. Leaves 2- by \ in., lanceolate, acute, mucronate, sessile, long- 



Monechma.'\ xcviii. acanthacevE (clarke). 219 

white-hairy on the margins, yellow-green. Spikes J-| in. long, dense, 
forming a close panicle; bracts J by ^ in., lanceolate, acute, mucronate, 
long- white-hairy on the margins. Sepals 5, ^ in. long, linear, puberu- 
lous. Corolla J-J in. long. Lower anther-cell with a long acute tail; 
pollen ellipsoid, banded, with 2 stopples and single rows of tubercles. 
Ovary minutely pubescent in the upper half. Capsule scarcely J in. 
long, 2-seeded, sparsely hairy in the upper part; the solid thick stalk 
scarcely ^^ in. long ; seeds smooth with acute margins. — Justicia 
Deserionomj Engl, in Engl. Jahrb. x. 2G3 ; Lindau in Engl, k Prantl, 
Pllanzenfam. iv, 3 B. 349. 

Iiower Guinea. Hereroland : Husab, 1000 ft., Marlotk, 1462 ! 

15. M. Pfepeta, C. B. Clarke. Stem G-24 in. long, much branched, 
with many long soft white spreading hairs; internodes up to 1-2 in. 
long. Leaves up to 2 by J— J in., with long hairs, some gland-tipped ; 
petiole 0—^ in. long. Flowers solitary, axillary, remote. Sepals 5, 
i in. long, linear^oblong, green, glandular-hairy. Corolla J- J in. long, 
violet-purple. Lower anther-cell with a long oblique simple tail ; 
pollen ellipsoid, with 2 stopples and one row of tubercles on each side 
of each stopple. Ovary thinly hairy in the upper part. Capsule 4 in. 
long, 2'Seeded, thinly hairy in the upper part ; the solid stalk less than 
■^■^ in. long ; seeds smooth. — Justicia Nepeia, S. Moore in Jonrn. Bot. 
Ib80, 312. J. mossamedea, S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1880, ol2. 

Xiower Guinea. Angola: JFelwitsch, 5003! 5004! 5136! 5137 ! 5185 ! 
Lorenzo Marques, Quintas, 123 ! 

ntozamb* ]>lst< British Central Africa : Ngamiland ; Kwebe, Lu^ardj 172 ! 

10. M. floridum, C. B, Clarke. Branches 12-15 in. long, with 
spreading long soft white hairs and some viscid glandular hairs ; inter- 
nodes up to 1-1 2^ in. long, those of branchlets scarcely ^ in. in length. 
Leaves ^ by ^ in., with long white hair and gland-tipped hairs. Flowers 
solitary, in nearly all the axils. Capsule \ in. long, 2-seeded, somewhat 
hairy in the upper part ; the solid thick stalk —^ in. long ; seeds smooth. — 
Justicia, sp. nova aliinis J. Nepeice^ S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 18^0, 342. 

Xiower Guinea^ Angola : Welwitsc/t, 5120 1 IJenguela ; Humbo, Wehcifsch, 

5032 ! 

This is very near M. Nejpeta^ differing mainly in the wcH-iiiat keel stalk lo 
the souiewhat larger capsule. Tlie small leaves and very nuuieruus Hov\ers nii^ht be 
accidental. 

17. M. spissmn, C /?. C^nr^'e. Branches viscous hairy ; internodes 
Tir~i ^^- long. Leaves J by J in., oblong-elliptic, subacute, nearly 
sessile, viscous hairy. Flower in the axils of nearly all the leaves. 
Sepals 5, i in. long, subulate, scarious, viscous hairy. Capsule /; in, 
long, 2-seeded, hairy; placentae not rising elasticiilly ; stalk soli<l, very 
short ; seeds discoid, shining, smooth, brown with black blotches. 

Xiower Guinea, Angola : Loaniln, IFehvitsch, 5066 ! 

No specimen in the Kcw Herbarium. 



220 xcviii. ACANTHACE.E (clarke). [Jloiieckma. 

18. M. Salsola, 0. B. Clarke. A viscid-hairy rugged shrub, 
divaricately much -branched, 1-2 ft. in diam. ; branches angular, 
ultimately glabrate. Leaves J by J in-j linear-lanceolate, acute, hairy, 
subsessile. Flowers axillary, subsessile. Sepals V in. long, linear, green, 
hairy and glandular. Corolla J in. long. Lower anther-cell with a 
long simple acute tail ; pollen ellipsoid, with 2 stopples, and 2 rows of 
spots (hardly elevated) on each side of each stopple. Capsule \ in. 
long, 2-seeded. — Jusiida Scdsola, S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1880, 340. 

lower Guinea. Angola : Praia dn Amelin, Welwitscky 5023 ! 
Allied perbapfi to M. nrenicola^ but has much more scattert'd flowers. 

1 IK M. hereroense^ C. B. Clarke, TJndershrub ; branches round, 
densely grey woolly-tomentose ; internodes i in. long. Leaves J by 
jV in., lanceolate, mucronate, thinly hairy. Flowers axillaiy ; bracts 
nearly J in. long, lanceolate. Sepals J in. long, lanceolate-subulate. 
Corolla nearly J in. long, blue. Lower anther-cell long-tailed. 
Capsule -g— ^ in. long, ellipsoid, subacute, sessile, 2-seeded, hairj'^ ; seeds 
discoid, not tubercled. — Justicia hereroensiSy Engl, in Engl. Jahrb, x. 
264 ; Lindau in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349. 

lower Guinea. Hereroland : Usnkos, 2700 ft., Marhth, 12461 Great 
Namaqualand ; Rehobotb, Pfeil, 130, 173 ! 

No specimen at Kew. 

20. M. cleomoides, C, B. Clarke, Woody, viscous glandular 
hairy. Leaves J by J in., spathulate- elliptic, obtuse; petiole O-5 in. 
long. Flowers solitary ; pedicels axillary, -^-^^ in. long. Sepals 5, 
J in. long, and upwards, linear. Corolla exceeding -J in. long. Lower 
anther-cell (rather strongly) tailed; pollen ellipsoid, with 2 stopples, 
and one row of small tubercles on either side of each stopple. Ovary 
pubescent at the top ; style-base hairy. Capsule J in. long, 2-seeded, 
hairy, stalked. — Jitsticia cleomoideSy S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1880, 313, 
t. 214, fig. 2. 

Ko^wer Culnea* Angoln : MossaiTietie?, Soepfner ! Weliritsch^ 50061 

Imperfecthj knoivu species. 

21. M. (?) nkambense, C. B. Clarke, Branches stout, hairy. 
Leaves 2 by | in., ovate, pubescent; petiole J-J in. long. Flowers in 
the axils, and running into a terminal spike (1 in, long) ; bracts (floral 
leaves) with petioles J in. long (or rather more), erect, obovate; bracts 
of terminal spike imbricate, f in. long, elliptic ; bracteoles very small. 
Calyx ^ in. long. Corolla ^ in, long. One anther-cell tailed, — Justicia 
ukmnhensis^ Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx, G9, and in EngL k Prantl, 
Pflanzenfam, iv. 3 B. 349, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr, C. 373. 

irile Xiand. British East Africa : Ukamba, HikUhraiidt, 2725 ! 

Tbe example is young, I suspect a plant collected by Wakefield in a journey from 
Ribe to tbe Galla country to be tbis species j but in tbe absence of fruit it is 
doubtful. 



Adhictoda.] xcviii. acanthace^ (clarke). 221 

45. ADHATODA, Nees; Bentb. et Hook. f. Gen. PL ii. 1112. 

Calyx subequally 5-tid to the base; lobes clearly imbricate, Corolla 
large, 2-lipped ; tube nearly as long as the lips, inflated in the upper 
half ; auticous lip ovate, 3-lobed ; posticous nearly entire. Stamens 2 
glabrous; anther-cells oblongs parallel, at nearly equal height, rounded 
acute or shortly tailed at the base; pollen ellipsoid, the longitudinal 
smooth depressions with rows of patches, hardly of tubercles. Ovary 
shaggy; ovules 2 in each cell; style very shortly and equally bilobed. 
Capsule obloDg-clavate, on a short solid stalk, 4-2-seeded ; seeds ruc/ose 

sometimes obscurely so, not shining; placentae not rising elastic^^Hy. 

Shrubs. Leaves large, elliptic, entire, much attenuate at either end* 
Spikes terminal, peduncled, forming a thyrsus or solitary ; bracts 
ovate or linear-oblong ; bracteoles 2, about as long as the calyx. 

Species 8, iu the tropical parts of Asia^ Africa and Aojerica. 

Adhatoda was described as a genua by Nees iu Wall. PL As. liar* ill. (1832) 102 ; 
and the name tlius has priority over Duvernoia, Drhge, first described by Nees in DC, 
Prod, xi, (1847) 322. But, if the bare printing of the n?uae Duvernoia by Drege in 
1837 be maintained to constitute priority of publication, it is not advisable to adopt 
the generic name Duvernoia for the subjoined species of Adhatoda^ because Duvernoia^ 
by reason of its eampanulate calyx with subvalvate triangular lobes, would be by some 
(who sink Adhatoda in Justicia) kept up as a raonotypic g^nus, 

Adhatoda^ though not well separable from Justicia by any one character, is here 
understood (as by Bentham) to comprise certain shrubs 4-12 ft. high, with large 
leases and shaggy ovaries, iu which the lower of the 2 anther-cells is not remote nor 
very long- tailed (as it is in Justicia). 

Bracts ovate or orbicular, |-f in* broad ; spikes deose, 
strobilate* 
Bracts with scftrious edges , * . , .1,-4, schimperiana^ 

Bracts acute, with green edges . , , ,2,-4. enjlenana. 

Bracts round, with green edges • . . ,3,-4, orbicularis. 

Bracts oblong-linear ; spikes interrupted, not strobilate. 
One anther-cell lower than the other, base shortly 

tailed . , , • . . . , 4. ^« irislis^ 

Anther* cells at nearly equal height, base rounded. 

Mature leaves pubescent on the nerves beneath • 5, ^. robust a. 
Mature leaves nearly glabrous ♦ , . . G, A^ macula fa ^ 

1. A, schimperiana, Hochst. ex Nees in DC. Prod, xi. 388. 
Shrub. Leaves G by 2 J in., narrowed at eitlier end, obtuse, glabrous ; 
petiole ^-| in. long. Spikes 3-7 by 1 in., several peduncled, often 
forming a terminal thyrsus, strobilate ; bract § by J in., minutely 
pubescent, with a prominent scarious margin ; bracteoles \~}f in. long, 
ovate. Sepals 5, nearly separate, subsimilar, ^ in. long, oblong-lanceolate, 
pubescent. Corolla 1 in. in total length, yellowish, purple-spotted, lips 
% in. long. One anther -cell slightly below the other, mucronate at the 
base ; pollen ellipsoid, with two stopples, and rows of spots on the 
longitudinal smooth bands. Ovary and style-base shaggy. Capsule 3-1 
in. long, pubescent, usually 4-seeded, lower \ part a cylindric stalk ; 
placentse not rising elastically: seeds glabrous, rugase. — A. Rich. Tent. 



222 xcviii. ACANTHACE.*: (CLARKE). [Ad/mtocla. 

F], xlbyss. ii. 155; Solms-Laub. in Schweinf. Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. 2-1:2. 
Justicia schimpericma, T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii, 38 ; Engl. 
Hochgebirgsti. Trop. Afr. 392 ; Oliv. in Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Bot. 
ii. 345 ; Lindau in Engl. &: Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 348, fig. 131), 
E-J, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373. Gendarussa schiviperiana, 
Hochst. in Flora, 1841, i. Intell. 24, name only. 

Nile Iiand. Eritrea : near Acrur, 6000 ft. Schweinfurth ^' Eiva 741 ! 1067 ! 
Habab, 6000 tt., Hildehrandt, 457! Abyssinia: Tigre, 50uO ft., Schimper, 702! 
inountmns near Axum, Schiviper, 1549! near Adowa, Schimper, 27! Dembert ; 
Goiidar, Stexidner, 1502 ! ami ivitboiit precise locality, Salt ! Schimper^ 888 ! 930 I 
Quariin Dillon Sf Petit, 293 ! British East Africa : Duruma, Ilildehrandt, 2341 ! 
Taita; Maungu Mountain, 2000 ft., Johnston t 

BXozamb. Slst. German East Africa : Fischer^ 164 ! 

From Lindau's figure it miglit be supposed that the ovary is glabrous ; it is very 
hiiiry. 

2. A. engleriauay C. B. Clarke. Shrub. Leaves up to 14 by hh 
in., tapering at both ends, with 12-lG pair of nerves, glabrate or 
pubescent on the midrib beneath ■ petiole up to J in. long, or (even in 
the middle stem leaves) petiole winged to the base, auriculate. Spikes 
up to 7 by 2 in., dense, strobilate ; bracts somewhat 4-rauked, up to 1 
by § in., ovate, triangular-tipped, thinly hairy, green, with 5-9 dark 
veins. Sepals 5, \ in. long, or rather more, oblong, acute, pubescent. 
Corolla f-1 in. long; lips § in. long. Filaments glabrous ; anther-cells 

2 at nearly equal height, the lower very shortly tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, 
banded with 2 stopples, a row of spots (or almost depressed tubercles) 
on each side of each stopple. Ovary shaggy, hairs many, gland-tipped ; 
style sparsely hairy at the base. Capsule 1 in. long, hairy, 4-seeded ; 
base for \ in. solid, hardly narrowed ; seeds \ in. in diam., circular, 
thin, brown, shallowly rugose -foveolate, opaque. — Jusiicia engleriana, 
Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx, 62, and in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 

3 B. 349, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 374. 

Mozamb. Slst. German East Africa : Usambara • Masbeua, Hoist, 3491 ! 
Magila, Kirk ! Kilimanjaro, VolJcens, 506 ! 

3. A, orbictdaris, C. B. Clarke. Shrub, 12 ft. high ; innovations, 
densely tawny-hairy. Leaves up to 11 by 4 J in., elliptic, acute, when 
mature pubescent on the nerves, base triangular; petiole J-lJ in. long. 
Spikes up to 10 by | in., strobilate ; bracts h in. broad, ^-^ in. long, 
round, green, plicate, pubescent ; bracteoles J in. long, oblong-linear. 
Sepals 5, subequal, J in. long, oblong-linear. Corolla J in, long. 
Filaments hairy ; one anther-cell slightly below the other, mucronate, 
hardly tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, longitudinally banded, with single rows 
of spots on each side of each stopple. Ovary very hairy; style-base 
hairy ; branches 2, equal, narrow-oblong. — Duvernoia orbicularis^ Lindau 
in Engl. Jahrb. xxii. 123, and in Engl, i; Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B, 
339. 

Upper Guinea. Cameroons ; Yaunde, Zenker Sf Staudt, 41! Fernando Po, 
3fa«n,1435 ! 



Adhaioda,] xcviii. acanthace.e (clarke). 223 

4. A. tristis, Xees in DC, p7'od. xi. 404. Hei'baceous up to 4 ft. 
high ; innovations densely fulvous-hairy. Leaves 1) by 4i in., shortly 
acuminate, when mature pubeiscent on tiie nerves beneath, base tri- 
angular ; petiole 1-2^ in. long. Spikes in the u])per axils by h in., 
interrupted at the base, not strobilate ; bracts scarcely J in. lon<?, 
lanceolate ; bracteoles similar, smaller. Sepals 5, ^ in. long or more, 
linear. Corolla f in. long, purple. Filaments very hairy ; one anther- 
cell much lower than the other; base acute, hardly mucronate; pollen 
ellipsoid, longitudinally banded, with single rows of spots on each side 
of each stopple. Ovary shaggy; style hairy. Capsule more than 1 in. 
long, stalk ^ in. long; seeds 4. — Benth. in Hook. Niger F\. 4^4. 
Jifsticia tristiSj T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 38. 

Upper Guinea. Cameroons : Bipiniie, Zenker, 1013 ! Ferntindo Po, Vo(/el, ICl ! 
Mann, 165 ! 

5. A. robusta, C. B. Clarke. Shrub 10-15 ft. high, you tig parts 
densely rusty-tomentose. Leaves 10 by 4 J in.; nerves 17 pairs; petiole 
li in. long. Thyrsus 9 by 4 in., nearly without floral leaves; flower- 
spikes 3 by I in. ; bracts in the lower part of a spike distant, J-J in. 
long, obovate, shortly acuminate ; bracteoles nearly as the sepals. 
Sepals \-\ by ^^^ in., oblong, acute, pubescent. Corolla |-j in. long, 
white. Filaments glabrous ; anther-cells at nearly equal height rounded 
at the base ; pollen ellipsoid, with 2 longitudinal smooth bands witli- 
out tubercles. Ovary very hairy. Capsule not seen. — Jiisticia robitstUf 
T. Anders. MS, 

Tipper Guinea. Fernando Po, 3000 ft., Mann, 634- ! 

This fine plant is closely allied in habit and characters to A. Vasica, Noes, but 
differs in the loose, not strobilate, spikes and the smaller bracts and flowers. 

6. A. nxaculata, C. B. Clarhe. Climber^ 10-15 ft. high, innova- 
tions densely and minutely fulvous-hairy. Leaves up to 7 by ;ij in., 
acute, when mature glabrate, base rounded or triangular ; petiole 
1-2 in. long. Spikes terminnl, 3-4 by f in., interrupted, not strobilate ; 
bracts \ in. long, lanceolate, puberulous. Sepals 5, subequal, \ in. 
long, and upwards, linear-lanceolate. Corolla 1 in. long, white, purple- 
spotted. Filaments glabrous ; 2 anther-cells at nearly equal height, 
rounded at the base ; pollen ellipsoid, with 2 stopples^ the longitudinal 
smooth bands having a granular (scarcely spotted) band on each side 
the stopple. Ovary shaggy. — Justicia maculata^ T. Anders, in Journ. 
Linn. Soc. vii. 38. Duvernoia Bvxhholzii^ Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. .\x. 
43, and in Engl, k Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. o B, 339. 

Vpper Guinea. Fernando Po, Mann, 202! Cameroons: Qnaqua River. 
Suchholz ! 



Imperfectly Icnown species. 

7. Duvernoia haplostachya, Lvidau in Engl. Jahrb. xxiv. V^t\. 
Branches hairy. Leaves 4 by 2 in., ovate, narrowed at eitlar eutl. 
hairy on the nerves beneath ; petiole \ in, long. Spike terminal, 
simple, shorter than the leaves; rhachis pubescent; flowers opposite. 



224: XCVIII. ACANTHACEiE (CLARKE). [Adhatodci. 

bracts and bracteoles small. Calyx ^V in. long. Corolla-tube -^^ in, 
long; lobes J in. long. Anther-cells at unequal height; lower long- 
spurred. Ovary and style hairy. Capsule unknown. 

Soutb Central* Congo Free State ; Towa Mountains, Descamps. 
This description reads like that of a Monechma ; but without any knowledge of 
the pistil it is vain to guess. 

-It). BHINACANTHUS, Nees ; Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PI ii. 

1112. 

Sepals 5, nearly distinct, subequal, small, linear, hairy. Corolla 2- 
lipped ; tube linear, longer than the lips ; anticous lip of 3 elliptic 
lobes ; posticous linear-oblong or ovate-oblong, subentire. Stamens 2, 
shortly exserted ; anthers 2, one somewhat below the other, at the base 
acute, not tailed, or in 7?. subcaudatus shortly tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, 
stopples d on the three gmooth bands which do not quite reach the poles. 
Ovary hairy ; ovules 2 in each cell ; stigma of 2 small lanceolate sub- 
equal lobes. Capsule stalked, oblong, 4-seeded; placentae not rising 
elastically from the base of the valves ; seeds covered with tubercles. — 
Rambling. Leaves entire, margins often obscurely undulate-crenate. 
Flowers in sessile distant clusters on the branches of the panicle ; bracts 
and bracteoles very small, linear. 

Species 3 or 4, in Africa and India. 

Leaves in the opposite pairs equal in length. 

Lower leaves narrowed at tiie base, ovate-lanceolate, 1. It. communis. 

Lower leaves rounded or subcordate at the base . 2. R, rotutidif alius. 

Leaves in the opposite pairs unequal in length . . 3. 5. subcaudatus. 

1. R. communisy Nees in Wall. PL As. Ear. iii. 109. Sparingly 
pubescent. Leaves 2-5 in. long, ovate to lanceolate, scarcely acute, 
nearly glabrous, base narrowed except in the upper floral leaves (which 
are sometimes sessile and sub -cordate) ; petiole 0-J in. long. Panicle 
(in most of the East African examples as in India) 6-12 in. long, with 
few floral leaves, much-branched and with very many clusters of flowers ; 
in most West African examples the panicle has many floral leaves, 
1-3 in. long, and the flower-clusters are few. Bracts J-J in. long, 
linear. Calyx ^-J in. long. Corolla-tube J in. long, linear to the top ; 
lips J in. long, posticous linear-oblong. Capsule | in. long, thinly hairy ; 
seeds finally black.— Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 442 ; Wight, Ic. t. 4G4 ; T. 
Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 51 ; C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit, 
Ind. iv. 541 ; S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1880, 342 ; Oliv. in Trans. Linn. 
Soc. ser. 2, Bot. ii. 346 ; Lindau in Engl. Juhrb. xviii. 63, t. 2 fig. G8. 
Ji. gracilis^ Klotzsch in Peters, Reise Mossamb. Bot. 218 ; Lindau in 
Engl, ik Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 33it, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 
371. Ji. nasutus, Lindau in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam, iv. 3 B. 330, 
and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr C. 371. Justicianasutay Linn. Sp. Plant. 16 ; 
Bot. Mag. t. 325. J. scanderhs, Vahl, Syrab, ii. 7. Leptostach/a 
virensy Nees in BC, Prod. xi. 378 ; Benth. in Hook, Niger Fl. 482. 
P sender ayithemum dichotomum, Lindau in EngL Jahrb. xx. 40, and in 



'2'2b 



llhinacanthusJ] xcviu. acanthace.e (clarke). 

Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 330, and in Ensfl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. 
C. 371. 

Upper Guinea. Sierra Leone : Scarcies River, ScoU-Elliot, 4428 ) and with- 
out precise locHlity, Jl/rp^zHj / Canieroons : Batangn, Bates, 1891 Bipiude, ICOO ft,, 
Zenker, 1260 ! Victoria, Frettss, 1219 ! 1384 ! 

WUe Land. British East Africa: 40-60 mile? from thu Mombasa coast, 
Johnston! Nyika country near Mombasa, Wakejield! Wan(?a, Smith! Ukamba, 
Hildebrandt, 2628! Diiruma, Hildehrandt, 2346! 

Xower Guinea. G:tboon': on tlie coast, Middleton ! Gaboon River, Mantty 
1015 ! Como River, Bates, 458 ! Munda ; Sibange Farm, Biiitner^ 358 ! Soyaux, 
198b ! Angola, Welwitsch, 5010 ! 5191 ! 5204 ! 

AKozamb. Dlst. German East Africa : Usagara ; Mpwapvva, Stuhlmann^ 219 I 
Usambara ; Duga, JEToht, 32S9 ! Mnsheua, Hoist, 8782 ! and Nyika Steppe, Hoist, 
3902a ! Portuguese East Africa : base of Morambala Mountain, Kirk ! Sena, 
Carvalho ! British Central Africa : Nyasaland, Buchanan, 863 ! Shire Highlands, 
Buchanan, 72! by the River Ruo, south of Blantyre, Scott-Elliot, 8598! Mount 
Mlanje, Scott- Elliot, 8655! near Blantyre, Last! Zomba, 3000 ft,, W/it/te ! and 
without precise locality, Buchanan, 863 ! Matabeleland ; banks of the River 
Matengwe, Holub, 1285 I 1286 ! 

I am unable to divide this widespread species into two. The leafy -panicled 
form has rather smaller flowers, and T. Anderson at first tried to make it a separate 
species. The form with a large panicle destitute of floral leaves {Pseuderanihemum 
dichofomum, \Ji\\^zxx = Rhinacanthus gracilis, Klotzscb) is the common form in India, 
the original Justicia Nasuta of Linnseus. 

2. R. subcaudatuSy C. B. Clarke. Leaves of each pair unequal ; 
one often only -|-J the length of the other, round- ovate. Corolla- tube 
about J in. long, slender ; posticous lip ovate-oblong. Lower anther- 
cell with a short white tail. Capsule | in. long, and seeds as of R, com- 
munis but smaller. 

Vpper Guinea. Sierra Leone : near the Scarcies River, at Wallia, Scoff- 
Elliot, 4276 ! and near Sasseni, Scott-Elliot, 4428 ! and without precise locality, 
Afzeliiis ! 

'* Kondoi (native name), a medicine for indigestion " {Scoit'EIliof), 

3. R. rotundifoliuS) C. B, Clarke. Branches 6 -angular, pubescent. 
Lower leaves 2 by li in., glabrate, base rounded or subcordate, nerves 
prominent, finely reticulated on the under surface ; cystoliths many on 
both surfaces ; petiole J in. long. Panicle compound, with many floral 
leaves (i.e., cymes mainly axillary) ; flower clusters loose, or cymes 
^-J in. long, dense. Corolla yellowish-w^hite (T/ioj)ias); tube 1^ in. 
long. Capsule §-J in. long, pubescent, -l-seeded ; seeds tuberculate, 
black. 

irile JfSLnd, British East Africa : Tana River, Thomas, 7 ! 89 ! 

Closely allied to R. communis^ Nees, but differs from all forms of that species by 
the very broad rounded base to the leaves. 

Iniperfectltj known species. 

4. R. ndorensis, Schwehif. in Hohnel^ Z\im Rudolph-See u. 
Stephanie-See, Sonderahdr. 7. Small shrub, with the general aspeci of 



22G 



XCVIII. ACAXTHACE^ (cLARKE). 




US. 



Justicia uncinulata^ Oliv, Leaves obovate. Corolla tube twice as 
long as the calyx, pubescent ; lobes ciliate. Style with scattered hairs.— 
Engl. Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr, 394; Lindau in Engl, k Prantl, Pflan- 
zenfam. iv- 3 B. BSO, and in Engh Pil, Ost-Afr, C. 371. 

M"lle Xiand. British East Africa : Ndoro, at tbc foot of Mount Kenia, 6500 ft,, 
HohneL 

The above diagnosis is the whole given by Schweinfurth^ nor does Engler or 
Lindau add aught. 



47. ANISOTES, Nees; Benth, et Hook, f. Gen, PI. ii. 1111. 

Bepals 5, nearly free, subequal, linear-triangular^ 3-nerved. Corolla 
2-lippedj red; tube short; lips very long, entire or minutely lobed, 
narrow-oblong. Stamens 2 ; filaments long, glabrous ; anther-cells 2, 
linear-oblong, minutely white-tipped (not tailed) at the base, one a 
little below the other ; pollen ellipsoid, 2-banded, with one or two rows 
of marks or tubercles on each side of the stopples. Pistil glabrous ; 
ovules 2 in each cell; stigma subentire. Capsule (only known in ^4, 
diversifolius) oblong, 4-seeded, stalk cylindric, placenta} not rising 
elastically from the base of valves ; seeds scabrous, almost tubercular on 
the margins. — Shrubs. Leaves entire. Flowers sessile, axillary clustered , 
or in dense spikes ; bracts very small, shorter than the calyx. 

Species 5, in Africa and Arabia, 

The corolla is exceedingly like that of Macrornnf/ia, as are the stamens, pollen and 
pistih Further, the capsule being unknown in 4 out of 5 species, the placing these 
species in Anisotes would appear provisional merely. But the peculiar, 3-nerved, 
elongate- triangular sepals, ranch longer than the bracts, leave little doubt that the 
5 species are congeneric. 

Flowers 1-3 together iu axillary clusters. 

Leaves up to 7 in, long ..*... 

Leaves |^-1 in. long ,,*.*. 

Flowers in short shortly-peduncled axillary spikes. 

Flowers very many. Leaves large, up to 14 in, long 



1, A, sessilijforus, 

2. A* parvifolkis. 



Flowers few. Leaves f in, long 



3. A. Zenkeri. 
4t. A. veliiiinus. 



1, A, sessiliflorus^ C. B. Clcirke. Glabrate; innovations densely 
grey-tomentose with minute simple hairs. Leaves up to 7 by 2J in,, 
closely and minutely dotted on both surfaces, minutely scabrous-hispid 
on the nerves, finally glabrous; , sessile. Flowers solitary or 2-3 together, 
axillary, sessile. Calyx \-\ in, long, minutely and densely grey-tomen- 
tose. Corolla- tube \ in. long ; anticous lip 1;|-1| in, long, — [limaniochilus 
sessiUJloruSj Benth, in Benth. et Hook, f. Gen. PI. ii, 1117; Lindau in 
Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam, iv, 3 B, 346, fig. 110, P, and in Ann. 
Istit. Bot. Roma, vi. (1896) 82. //, sessilifoHus^ Lindau in EngL Pfl. 
Ost-Afr. C. 372, 

Nile Ziandt Sonialiland, -HoieecrH, 546, 652, 653 ! British East Africa: Ribe 
to Galla country, Wakefield ! Taita, Bildehrandf^ 2375! 

Mozainh. Sist. British Central Africa : Xyasaland ; Slnbisa (Cbikwawa), on 
the River Shire, Meller ! 



Anisotes.] xcviii. acanthace^e (clakke). 227 

2. A. parvifolius, Oliv. in Rook Ic. PI t. 1027. Leaves J- 1 
by J-J in., obovate ; otherwise as A. sessilijlortcs.— Oliv. in Trans. 
Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Bot. ii. 34G ; Lindau in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 
iv. 3 B. 351, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 374. 

"Kile £and> British East Africa : Kilimanjaro expedition, 40-60 miles from 
the Momhasa coast, Johnston ! 

In A. sessilijlorus there occur small leaves 1-1 1 in. long on some shoots and in 
some axils. The material for A. parvdfolius is scanty, and I suspect that with more 
it and A.sessiliflorus may hereafter be judged to be one. A. trisulcus^ Nees, the type 
of the genus, differs little but by the persistent grey pubescence. 

3. A. Zenkeri, C. B. Clarhe. Glabrate ; innovations minutely 
hairy. Leaves up to 14 by 5 J in., narrowed at both ends; petiole IJ 
in. long. Spikes axillary, 2 in. long, dense with very numerous flowers; 
bracts small. Calyx ^-\ in. long, glabrous or sparsely bristly. Corolla 
Ij in. long. Stamens, pollen and pistil of the genus, — Himantochiliis 
Zenkeri, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 60, and in Engl. & Prantl, Pflan- 
zenfam. iv. 3 B. 346, fig. 141, B. 

IFpper Crulnea. Cameroons : Yaunde, Zenker , 119 ! 194, 647 ! 675 ! 

4. A, velutiuuSy Lindau in Engl, Jahrb, xx. 76. Shrub, 2 ft. 
high, grey with dense minute white hairs; branches very woody. 
Leaves § by nearly ^ in., round- obovate, very obtuse ; petiole | in. long. 
Axillary peduncles \-\ in. long, carrying 3-1 flowers close together at 
the top; bracts (or bracteoles) J in. long, linear. Sepals 5, J in. long, 
linear-lanceolate, 3-nerved. Corolla § in. long; lips long; anticous 
narrow, hairy without. One anther-cell below the other, mucronate at 
the base or very short- tailed. Ovary hairy towards the top. — Lindau 
in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 351. 

STile Iiand. Somaliland: Ahl Mountains, 6500 ft., Sildehrandi, 855b ! 
Corolla hardly half the length of that of A. parvifolius. 



48. ISOGLOSSA, Oerst.; Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PI. ii. 1111. 

Calyx small, subequally 5-partite nearly to the base; segments 
lanceolate or linear. Corolla small or medium-sized (or 1-1 J in. long 
in sect. Pseud- Adhatoda)^ 2-lipped ; tube thick-cyliDdric or inflated in 
the upper half (not linear) ; anticous lip ovate, deeply 3-lobed or sub- 
entire, white, red or yellow with the palate often spotted ; posticous lip 
ovate to oblong, 2-lobed or nearly entire. Stamens 2 (without rudiments 
of the other two) ; filaments glabrous ; one anther-cell completely over 
the other, elliptic, or (in sect. Pseud-Adhatoda) anther-cells oblong 
parallel, one very slightly below the other; base of anther-cells rounded 
or minutely mucronate, not tailed ; pollen globose compressed, the 2 
flattened faces circular, nearly smooth, with a stopple in the centre. 
Pistil glabrous ; style very shortly and equally 2-lobed ; disc a thickened 
ring (not a cup) ; ovary wnth 2 ovules in each cell. Capsule rather 



22 S 



XCVIII, ACANTHACRfi (cLAEKE). 



[Isoglossa. 



small, ellipsoid, compressed, 4-seeded ; stalk short (or not longer than 
the ellipsoid part), cylindric, solid ; placentae not rising elastically from 
the base of the valves ; seeds small, tubercular-scabrous, tubercles often 
elongate. — Herbs, with slender branches, sometimes G ft, high. Leaves 
ovate or elliptic, acuminate at either end, entire, petioled ; upper leaves 
often sessile, cordate. Infloi^escence panicled, terminal and with axillary 
branches, pubescent, often glandular ; floral leaves and bracts usually 
narrow or small (but larger and enclosing the calyx in /. suhsirohilina 
and /. Gregorii). 

Species 25, in Africa and the Mascarene Islands, besides a few in India. 

By some inadvertence^ Lindau, in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam, iv* 3 B. 342, 
separates Isoglossa from all other Ju^ticiem by the character of 4 stamens; it never 
has more than 2. 



*Eu4eoGL0ssA, — Anther-cells elliptic, one above the other* 
jvlofit of the flowers' pedicelled. 
Species of West Africa. 

Leaves very thin, nearly glabrate . • , 
Nerves of leaves strong, beneath scabrous 
Species of East Africa. 

Mature leaves glabrous or very nearly so. 
Corolla 1"^ in. long. 
Panicle hairy. 

Leaves up to 3 in. long 
Leaves up to 7 in, long 
Panicle glabrate • . . , . 
Corolla nearly 1 in. long ... * 

Mature leaves pubescent, at least on the nerves. 
Bracts narrow. 
Panicle terminal. 

Leaves f in. long ; corolla ^ in. long 
Leaves 4 in. long ; corolla § in. long 
Panicles numerous, terminal and axillary 
Bracts ovate (small) . . . • 

Flowers in small heads on the branches of a panicle. 
Leaves to the flo\ver*clusters (or bracts) narrow, not 
enclosing the calyx. 
Sepals ^2"^ ^^" long, subpetaloid^ hairy , 
Sepals i in, long^ linear, green 
Sepals ^ in. long, subulate in the upper half . 
Leaves to flower-clusters (or bracts) enclosing the 
calyx. 
Floral leaves distant, ovate, subacute 
Floral leaves imbricate, suborbicular 

**PeEUD-Ai)HATODA. — Anther-cells oblong, parallel, at 
nearly equal height. 

Corolla-lips as long as the tube. 

Panicle-branches few ; corolla 1 in. long 
Panicle-branches very many; corolla ^ in, long 

Corolla-lips much shorter than the tube. 

Hairs on panielei and sepal tipped with red glands 
Hairs on sepals long, white, without red glands 



1. J. glandulifera^ 

2. J. nervosa. 



3. 1, laxa, 

4. /. memhranacea. 

5. Z. laciea. 

6. /. Volkensii, 



7. /. parvifoUa, 

8. /. somalensis 

9. J. strigosnla, 

10. Z mossambicensh. 



11. /. runssarica. 

12. Z oer&tediana, 

13. /. milanjien-ns. 



14, /, ChtegoriL 

15, /. suhstrohiUna 



16. J. gnandiflora, 
17* I.Jlorihunda, 

18. r. rubescens, 
IS. J. ixoddi. 



Isoglossa.] xcviii. acanthace^ (clarke). 229 

1. I. glandulifera, Lindait in Engl. Jahrb, xx. 54. Herb, 
4-10 ft. high. Leaves ij by IJ in. (or sometimes up to 8 by 3 in.); 
elliptic, acuminate, very sparsely liairy, base very narrowly truncjite, 
subauricled ; petiole up to 1-2 in. long ; upper leaves smaller, often 
sessile, subcordate. Panicle often G by 3 in., terminal, very loose, 
sparsely glandular hairy ; bracts ^ in. long, linear. Calyx yV iu. long, 
subequally 5-fid nearly to the base ; segments linear- lanceolate, with 
few scattered glandular many-celled white hairs, otherwise glabrous. 
Corolla J-1 in. long, light red, nearly glabrous ; tube cylindric-f unnel- 
shaped, much longer than the lips. Anther-cells muticous, widely 
separated one over the other; pollen globose, compressed, smooth. 
Capsule J in. long (whereof J in. is a cylindric stalk), narrow, 4-seeded; 
seeds small, scabrous with long tubercles. — Lindau in Engl. k> Prantl, 
Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 344. 

Upper Guinea- Cameroous: Buea, 5000 ft., I'reuss, 7461 near MiinbiH, 
3900 ft., :Preus$, 1062 ! Cameroon Mountuin, 7000 ft., Mann, 1972 I Johnston, 62 ! 
Kaibretfer, 134 I Fernando Po, 4000 ft., Mann, 579 I 

%. I. nenrosa^ G, B, Clarke, Herb, 5 ft. high. Leaves up to 
3 J by 2 in,, rhomboid-ovate ; nerves beneath' prominent, scabrous 
hairy; base acuminate; petiole 1^ in. long; uppermost leaves smaller, 
nearly sessile, subcordate. Panicle up to 12 by 8 in., glandular hairy. 
Corolla I in. long, white ; tube longer than the lips ; otherwise nearly 
as /. glandulifera. 

Upper Guinea. Cameroon jMountain, 7000-8000 ft., Mann^ 2009 I Johnston, 
63! 

"Nearly allied to, if not identical with, I. laxa^'* Oliv. in Trpns. Linn. Soo. 
ser. 2, Bot. ii. 346. 

3, I. laxa^ Oliv. in Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Bot. U. 345. 
Branches glabrate, with many longitudinal cystoliths. Leaves 3 by 
IJ in., narrowed at both ends, glabrate; petiole J in. long. Panicle 
7 by 3 in., terminal, lax, haiiy ; floral leaves up to J by yV in., mostly 
small, linear ; pedicels 2 Vt:V ^^' ^^^S f bracteoles U or most minute. 
Calyx J in. long, divided subequally nearly to the base; segment.•^ 
linear, obtuse, pubescent, and with long several-celled scarious hairs. 
Corolla J-f In. long ; tube about as long as the lips, sparingly hairy 
w^ithout, pink. Filaments glabrous; anther-cells oblong, tail-less, one 
entirely below the other; pollen lenticular, with one stopple in the 
centre of each face. Capsule J in. long, stalked, perfecting 4 seeds 
(not seen ripe). — Engl. Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr. 394 ; Lindau in Engl. 
& Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 344, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 372. 

niozamb* Dlst. German East Africa: Kilimanjaro, 7000ft., Johnston, 11 ! 

On the lower portion of the sterna it is probable, from the analog v of allied epecies. 
that long petioles occur ; but Oliver's statement, « petioles ^2 in. long," was Uken 
from a fragment. 

YsLT. pilosa, Schweinf. in Hohnel, Zum RuJolph-Sce u. Stephanie-S<»e, Sondei- 
abdr, 7; Engl. Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr. 394; Lindau in Engl. Pfl. Oat-Atr. C. 372. 



230 xcviii. ACANTHACE^ (clabke). [Isoglossa. 

MTlIe Kand. British East Africa : Leikipla, 6500 ft., Hohnel, 

There 13 not one word of description given to this variety by Schweinfurth. 

4. I, membranacea, C. B. Clarke, Leaves 7 by 2 J in., much 
tapering at either end, membranous ; petiole 1-2 J in. long. Calyx 
i in. long ; otherwise as 7. Itixa. 

SEozamba Slsti British Central Africa : ^N'yasalaiid ; Masuka Flateauj 6500- 
7000 ft., Wkyte ! 

The cal^^z 13 about half the length of I. laxa^ the corolla is somewhat smaller. 
The large very thin leaves may be due principally to a shady moist habitat. 

5. I« lactea, Lindau in Engl. Jahrh. xx. 55. Leaves up to 4 by 
1| in., ovate, narrowed at either end, nearly glabrous; petiole up to 
l| in. long. Peduncles axillary and subterminal, slender, bearing a 
lax nearly glabrous panicle 1-3 in. long; bracts ~ in. long, linear. 
Calyx ^— J in. long, divided nearly to the base ; segments linear, sub- 
equal, minutely scabrous-hairy. Corolla exceeding ^ in. long, cream- 
white (or violet in the form /. violacea)^ nearly glabrous ; tube shorter than 
the lips. Filaments glabrous, or in Lindau's figure ciliate on one side ; 
anther-cells muticous, one below the other ; pollen lenticular, with one 
stopple on each face. Pistil glabrous. Capsule J in. long, stalked, 4- 
seeded ; seeds tubercular-scabrous. — Lindau in Engl. & Prantl, Pflan- 
zenfam. iv. 3 B. 344, fig. 107, B, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 372. 
/. Jiava, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xxii. 125. /. violacea, Lindau in 
Engl. Jahrb. xxii. 125. 

TTlle Kandi British East Africa: Toru; Kivata, 8000 ft., Scott-IElliot^ 

IVEozambi Dist. German East Africa: Usambara: Ngnelo, Solsf, 2279! 
Lutindi, Boht, 3252 ! Uluguru, 3300-5 500 ft., StuUmann, 9032 1 8S22 ! 

Lindau says the corolla-tube in I. violacea is only ^^ in. long ; it appears to me 
scarcely shorter than in I. lactea. Scott-MllioVs 7664 has a few scattered hairs on 
the upper surface of the leaves. 

6. I. Volkensiiy Lindau in Engl. Jahrh. xx. 55. Leaves 4 by 1 J in., 
elliptic, acuminate at either end, glabrous. Flowers laxly panicled, 
clear rose colour ; bracts very small. Calyx \ in. long, finely hairy. 
Corolla-tube more than J in. long ; lips | in. long, rather broad. Capsule 
^ in. long, 4-seeded ; otherwise as /. lactea. — Lindau in Engl, tt Prantl, 
Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 344, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 372. 

nxozamb. Dist. German East Africa: Kilimanjaro, 8000ft., VolJcens^ 990 ! 

7. I. parvifolia^ Rendle in Journ. Bot. 1896. 411. Branches 
18 in. long, slender. Leaves f by J in., ovate, pubescent on the nerves 
beneath ; petiole \ in. long. Panicle small, few-flowered, very lax. 
Sepals J in. long, linear, scabrous. Corolla J in, long. One anther- 
cell below the other, distant from the other, both muticous. Capsule 
J by y^ in., narrowly oblong, 4 -seeded; seeds rough, glabrous. 



Isofjiossa.] xcviii. ACANTHACE^ (clarkk). 231 

wile I.and. Somaliland : Sheik Huseln, Donaldson Smith ! 

8. I. somalensis, Lindau in Ann, Istit. Hot. Rmia^ vi. (18UC) H2. 
Leaves up to 4 J by If in., ovate, pubescent ; petiole 1 in. long. 
Panicle terminal, 3 by \h in., very minutely hairy; bracts scarcely 
jV in. long. Sepals nearly J in. long, linear, puberulous. Corolla 
puberulous; tube ^ in. long ; lips J in. long. One anther-cell far below 
the other. 

wile Xand. Somaliland: between Alghe and Oi, JZtr«, 1293! 

'' Allied to I. Jactea " (Lindau)'; and does not diflFer much, except that the leaves 
are minutely hairy on the upper surface. 

9. I. strigosula, C, B. Clarke. Branches terete, with one Or two 
hairy lines or glabescent ; cystoliths many, small, longitudinal. Leaves 
up to 1 J by J in., acuminate at either end, strigose-hairy on the nerves 
beneath ; petiole J in. long ; many upper leaves smaller, subse.ssile. 
Panicles terminal and many axillary, loose, slender ; pedicels 0-J in. 
long. Calyx J-J in. long, subequally 5-partite nearly to the ba.se ; 
segments linear, minutely scabrous-hairy. Corolla J in. long ; veiy 
hairy without ; tube about as long as the lips. Filaments glabrous ; 
anther-cells muticous, one completely below the other ; pollen lenticular, 
a stopple on each face. 

Mozamb. I>lst. liritish Central Africa : Nvasaland ; Masuka Plateau, 6500- 
7000 ft., ir/i^fe, 288 ! 

Allied to I. lacten, hub more pubescent. 

10. I. xnossaxnbicensis, Lindau in Engl. Ffi. Ost~Afr. (7. 372. 
Branches glandular-pubescent. Leaves up to 4 by 1 in., elliptic-lanceo- 
late, with glandular uiany-celled hairs near the basal margin and con- 
tinued down the petiole. Spikes axillary and terminal, 1 in. long, about 
10-fl.owered; floral leaves ^—4 in. long, ovate or obovate, acuminate. 
Sepals -^i in. long, glandular-hairy. Corolla § in. long, glabrous ; tube 
hardly ^ in. long. Anther-cells m^uticous, divaricate, one somewhat 
above the other. — Lindau in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 344, 
and in Engl. Jahrb. xxiv, 324. 

Mozaml). Dlst. Portuguese East Africa: Gorongoza, Carviatho: 

This differs from its neighbours principally in the broad (thougl small) floral 
leaves. 

11. I. runssorica, Lindau in E7igl. Jahrh. xx. 56. Stem Avith 
many longitudinal cystoliths, hairy along two lines or glabrate. Leaves 
6 by 2 J in., acuminate at either end, nearly glabrous ; petioV^ 0-1 J in. 
long. Panicle branches 6 by J in., pubescent; flowers in distant 
clusters j bracts less than J in. long, linear, glabrous. Calyx ^ --\ in. 
long, divided nearly to the base, scarious, subpetaloid ; segments linear- 
lanceolate, with minute hairs but no cystolith.s. Corolln J in. long. 
Anther-cells one above the other ; pollen lenticular, with one s^tupple on 



232 XCYIII. ACANTHACE^ (CLARKE). [Isogl 



ossa. 



each face and no distinct girdle. Pistil glabrous. — Lindau in Engl, tfe 
Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 344, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 372. 

Wile Ziand. IJritish East Africa : Ruwenzori ; Toru district, id Wimi Valley, 
7000-8000 ft., ScoitSIHoi, 7836! and in Butagu Valley, 6000-8000 ft., ScotU 
Elliot, 7915 ! Sltihlmann, 2474 ! 

12. I. oerstediana^ Lindau in Engl. Jahrh. xx. 5G, Calyx- 
segments |- in. long, nearly free, linear, green, subulate and curved in 
the upper half, with cystoliths. Capsule J in. long, 4-seeded ; seeda with 
rough oblong tubercles ; otherwise as /. runssorica. — Lindau in Engl. 
& Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 344, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. 
C. 372. 

Iflle Kand* Abyssinia, Schimjper ! British East Africa: Raonu Kiver, 7000 ft., 
Scott-Elliot^ 6767 ! 

Mozaiub. Dlst.' German East Africa : Kilimanjaro, 4500-9000 ft., X'olkens^ 
1121! 1123 1382! 1387! 1852! 19361 Johnston, 1\^\ Usambara, iToZs^, 523 ! 

The difference of this plant from I. runssorica is small. Lindau lays stress on the 
pubescent panicle branches of /, runssorica^ but the panicle branches of the present 
species are similarly pubescent. 

13. I. xailanjiensis, S. Moore iji Ti'ans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Bat. iv. 
33. Calyx-segments J in. long, in fruit nearly J in. long, nearly free, 
linear, green, minutely hairy, subulate and curved in the upper half. 
Corolla ^ in. in total length ; otherwise nearly as /. oerstediana and 
/. runssorica. — Lindau in Engl. *k Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. i;^44, and 
in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 372. 

Moasamb* 3>lst. British Central Africa : Nyasaland ; Mount Mlanje, 6C0O ft., 

14. I« Gregoriiy Lindau in Engl. PJf. Ost-Afr. C 372. Leaves 
1 j by 1 in., ovate, nearly glabrous. Inflorescence terminal up to 4 by 

in. ; flowers in small sessile clusters ; outer bract (of *S', Moore) 
-J in. long, ovate, enclosing 3-1 flowers; bract J in. long, linear. 
Calyx J in. long, and upwards, pubescent. Corolla-tube J in. long; 
lips ^ in. long. Anther-cells one much lower than the other. Pistil, 
capsule, and seeds of the genus. — Lindau in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzen- 
fam. iv. 3 B. 344. JIoniilacanthi(,s Gregorii, S, Moore in Journ. Bot. 
1894, 129, t. 343. 

Kile Stand. British East Africa : Mount Kenia, 7000 ft., Gregory I 

S. Moore regarded the floral-leaves {traffblatter] which enclose the flower-clusters 
lis bracts (deck-blotter); and therefore supposed this species must fall among Bentham's 
subtribe DiclipteretE. 

15. I. SubstrobiUnay C B. Clarke Branches quadrangular, with 
a strong line of deflexed white hairs. Leaves up to 3 J by li in., 
acuminate at either end, when mature nearly glabrous except on the 
nerves ; cystoliths many on both faces ; petiole \ to | in. long. Spikes 



Isoglossa.] xvciii. acanthace^e (clauke). --^'^ 

terminal (and also on short lateral branches), i-1^ by ^— ^ in., dense, 
almost strobilate, softly white hairy ; bracts J in. long and broad, nearly 
orbicular. Sepals -I in.* long, linear. Corolla-tube ^^y— ^ in. long ; 
anticous lip J in. long, broad-elliptic, subentire ; posticous Hp J in. 
long, oblong, subentire. Anther-cells muticous, one completely over 
the other ; pollen globose compressed, with one stopple on each smooth 
face. Pistil of the genus. 

Kile Iiand. British East Africa : Man, 7000-8000 ft., ScoH-ElUot, 6769 ! 

16. I. grandiflora, C. 11. Clarke. Stem pubescent, glandular 
upwards. Leaves up to 5 by 2| in., acuminate at either end, when 
mature minutely pubescent on the nerves beneath ; cystoliths numerous, 
small J petiole U-J in. long. Panicle terminal (leafy below), viscid with 
many-celled gland-tipped hairs ; branches 2^ by J in. ; flowers in clusters 
on the branches ; lower clusters distinct, upper running into a dense 
spike; bracts \ in. long, oblong. Calyx J-J in. long, divided nearly to 
the biise ; segments 5, subequal, linear, glandular-hairy. Corolla-tube 
-J in. long ; lips J in. long, subentire, rather broad, curved. Stamens 2 ; 
filaments glabrous; anther-cells lineai -oblong, muticous, parallel, one a 
very little below the other ; pollen lenticular, with one stopple on each 
smooth face. Pistil glabrous ; style very shortly 2-fid. Capsuk 
\ in. long, flattened ; stalk short, thick ; seeds 4, with rough oblong 
tubercles. — Ectehianthtis grandijimms, T. Anders. IMS. 

IVEozamb. Dlst. British Central Africa : Xyasaland; Shibisa (Cliickwawa) to 
TsUinmuze, 2000-4000 ft., Kirk ! Mount Sochi, Meller ! 

The corolla and the anthers of this plant are nearly those of Adhnfodat Beutb. 
{Duvernoia, Lindau). The habit, leaves, bracts, pollen, and seeds are those of 
Isoglossa, 

17. I. floribunda, C. B. Clarke, Upper leaves subsessile, minutely 
pubescent. Panicle 17 by 5 in., terminal, nearly leafless, viscid-hairy, 
repeatedly divided ; ultimate branches 5-4 in. long, on which the few- 
flowered distinct clusters form long one-sided spikes; bracts ^V in. long, 
linear. Calyx iV~i ^^' ^^ng; segments 5, linear, neardy free, \'iscous 
hairy. Corolla-tube A in. long, much inflated in the upper half ; lips 
^ in. long, subentire,^ rather broad. Stamens 2 ; filaments glabrous ; 
anther-cells oblong, parallel, scarcely mucronate at the base, one slightly 
below the other; pollen globose compressed, with a stopple in the ceutie 
of either face. Pistil glabrous. Capsule J in. long, ellipsoid, com* 
pressed, 4-seeded; stalk cylindric, solid, short; placentae not rising 
elastically from the ba.se of valves ; seeds rugose- tubercular 

Mozamb. DIst. Portuguese East Africa : Lower Zambesi ; SUnpanga, 
Kirk ! 

The very compound large leafless many-flowered piuiieles has caused this phnt t« 
be referred doubtfully in the Herbarium to Mhinacanthtis, from which genua the 
shape of the corolla removes it. 

18. I. rubescens, U7idau in EngL Jahrh. xx, 57. Stem quad- 
rangular, clothed npw\ards, as is the whole panicle, with hairs tipped by 



234 xcviii. ACANTHACE.E (clarke) [Isoglossa. 

red glands. Leaves 4 by 1 1 in., ovate, hairy on both surfaces ; nerves 
reticulated beneath ; petioles short. Panicle terminal, branched ; 
flowers clustered, running into continuous spikes towards the tips of 
the branches; floral lenves lanceolate, larger in the lower part of the 
panicle. Calyx | in. long. Corolla rose ; tube J in. long ; lips J in. 
long, both deeply lobed. Anther-cells at nearly equal height ; pollen of 
the genus. — Lindau in Engl. &■ Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B, 844, and 
in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 372. 

Wile Xiand. British East Africa : Ruwenzori, 9300-10,000 ft., StuUmann^ 
2397 ! 2124a ! 

ly. I. Ixodes, Lindccu in Enyl. Jalwb. sxii, 124. Branches 
pubescent upwards. Leaves 2 by -J in., ovate, margins near the base 
hairy ; petiole ^-h in. long. Panicle terminal, of closely contracted 
cymes; flowers sessile; floral leaves J-f in. long, ovate, acuminate, 
sessile ; bracts \ in. long, linear. Sepals J in. long, with long white 
multicellular hairs at the tip. Corolla glabrous, cannine ; tube J in. 
long, cylindric ; lips nearly -J in. long. Anther-cells muticous, some- 
what divaricate, one slightly below the other ; pollen of the genus. 
Pistil glabrous, of the genus. 

Mozamb. I>lst. German East Africa: Ukarai; Uluguru Mountains, near 
Lukwaugnlu, Sittklmann, 9174 ! 

49. CHLAMYDOCARDIA, Lindau in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. xx. 39. 

Sepals 5, small, linear. Corolla slender, 2-lipped ; tube narrow- 
cylindric ; anticous lip o-lobed, posticous eraarginate. Stamens 2 ; 
anther-cells 2, elliptic, placed obliquely, nearly at equal height, not tailed 
at the base ; pollen spherical, with 6 equatorial pores and meridional 
lines of raised points. Stigma subcapitate. Capsule small, stalked, 4- 
seeded ; placentae not rising elastically from the base of valves. — Herbs. 
Panicles terminal, linear-cylindric (or nearly reduced to racemes) ; 
floral leaves (in the two well-ascertained species) spathulate or obovate, 
prominent. 

Species 2 or 3, endemic. 

Tbis differs from Isoglossa in the pollen and in the inflorescence, to which the 
pccnliar floral leaves give a marked character. 

Leaves pubescent ; petiole 0—| in. long . . .1. C. Bucitneri. 

Leaves glabrous ; petiole ^-1 in. long . . , 2. C. subrhomboidea. 

1. C. Buettneri, TAndatt in Emjl. Jahrh. xx. ;>0. Stems 12-16 in. 
long, weak, creeping, rooting at the base, with 2 lines of minute 
crisped hair. Leaves up to 3 J by \\ in., ovate-acute, much tapering at 
the base, minutely pubescent on the nerves ; cystoliths on upper 
surface many, small ; petiole 0-J in. long. Panicles term.inal, up to 4 
by 2 in., nearly glabrate ; flowers in 1-4 clusters on the branches, 
sessile ; floral leaf (or bract), \-\ in. long, obcordate, sub-3-lobed, 
apiculate, on a linear petiolule, mostly 1-flowered, minutely gland-hairy 
on the margin ; fruiting panicle-branches loose, but lower bracts imbri- 



Chlamydooardia.'l xcviii. acanthacEvE (claiike). 235 

cated, almost substrobilate. Sepals 5, 4 in. long, linear, minutely 
pubescent. Corolla-tube ~ in. long, linear ; lips j^^ in. long. Stamens 
2 J anther-cells 2, one slightly higher than the other, muticous ; pollen 
globose, minutely tubercled on all sides, the tubercles in meridional 
lines ; stopples 6, equatorial. Style nearly glabrous ; stigma sub- 
capitate. Capsule \ in. long, 4-seeded, glabrous; stalk y^j- in. long, 
solid ; placentae not rising elastically ; seeds tubercular-scabrous. — 
Xiindau in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv, 3 B. 320, 

Upper Guinea. Cameroons: Bipiiule, 300 ft., Zenker, 1228 ! Victoria, Preww, 
1383 ! 

^ower Quinea* Gaboon: Mnnda; Sibange Farm, S/iffner, 4G9 ! 

2. C. subrhomboidea, Lindau in Engl. Jahrh. xxii. 110, Herb, 
16 in. high. Leaves 4 J by Ij in., ovate, acuminate at either end, 
glabrous ; petiole J-1 in. long. Panicle terminal ; floral leaves laxly 
imbricate, ^ by i in., rhomboid-ovate, subacute ; bmcts \ in. long, 
subulate. Sepals 5, i in. long, subulate. Corolla J in. long ; tube very 
slender ; lips short. Anther-cells muticous, nearly at equal height ; 
pollen globose, obscurely subhexagonal, with many meridional lines of 
tubercles and 6 equatorial pores. 

"Upper Guinea. Cameroons : between Victoria and Dlinbia, Preuss, 1309 ! 

Doitbtfid species^ 

3. C. (?) nuda, C. B. Clarke. Bush, G ft. high. Stem minutely 
and sparsely pubescent ; internodes long. Leaves 5 J by 2 J in,, elliptic, 
acuminate, nearly glabrate, margin entire undulate, base slightly 
unequal, nearly cordate ; cystoliths small on both faces; petiole J-2A in. 
long. Panicle linear, terminal, G by J in., closely and minutely pube- 
scent ; floral leaves J by -^ in. ; cymes 1- i- flowered, hardly 4 in. long ; 
bract and bracteoles J in. long, linear. Sepals 5, subequal, nearly \ in. 
long, linear, acute. Corolla J in. long, narrow, pubescent. Stamens 2 
filaments glabrous; anthers 2, oblong, subequal, parallel, one some- 
what above the other, ciliate at the top ; pollen globose, with 1 2 
longitudinal equidistant ribs not reaching the pores. Style shghtly 
hairy towards the base. 

Iiower Guinea. Gaboon : Como River, Bates^ 494 ! 

It is wortli remark that Bates, 495, where the stamens are 4 and the genus 
Filetia, is superficially extremely like this plant. 

The present plant does for Chlamydocardia, but wants the characteristic bracts. I 
think there are 6 equatorial pores to the pollen, which, further, will not do for Isotflossa, 
whether there are 6 pores or 3. 

50. ECBOLIUM, Kurz ; Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PI. ii. 1118. 

Sepals 5, nearly free, linear or narrow-lanceolate, small. Corolla 
distinctly 2-lipped ; tube long and linear in Eii-Ecbolium, shorter and 
funnel-shaped or sub-cylindric in the section Choana7ithm ; anticoub Up 



il 



236 xcviii. ACANTHACE^ (clarke). [EcboHum, 

deeply 3-lobed ; posticous lip subentire. Stamens 2, without rudiments 
of others ; anther-cells 2, linear, muticous, nearly at equal height ; pollen 
globose, with 3 meridional lines or bands and stopples. Ovary glabrous 
or hairy ; ovules 2 in each cell ; style branches 2, subequal, very small. 
Capsule ovoid, much flattened, 2-seeded, on a solid stalk ; placentae not 
rising elastically from the base of the valves j seeds in Eu-Echolium 
rather large, much flattened, tubercular scabrous, without hairs, but in 
Choananthits often without tubercles, smooth or papillose or with 
minute hairs. — Shrubs, glabrous or hairy, JLeaves entire, rather thick. 
Spikes terminal, many- flowered ; bracts large, ovate or obovate, imbri- 
cate, enclosing the small calyx (in the Tropical African species) ; 
bracteoles linear, a little longer than the calyx. 

Species 12 ; in Africa, Madagascar, Arabia'and India. 

Kurz grounded his genus EchoHum mainly on the shape of the corolla, which 
approaches that of Rhinacanthus. The subgenus Choananthits here added might, 
almost equally well, be attached to Megalochlamys. 

*Eir-EcBOLitJM. — Corolla- tube long, linear ; posticous lip 
narrowed from an ovate base to a linear tip. 
Bracts longer than the calyx. 

Petiole short ; leaves tapering into the petiole . . 1. ^. linneanum. 
Petiole 0, 

Leaves glabrous, hastate, amplexlcaul . . . 2. ^. amplexicaule. 
Leaves hairy. 

Leaves narrow at the bqse, auricled . . , 3. JJ. auriculatum. 
Leaves broad at the base, subcordate . . 4. ^. gubcordaium. 

Bracts rather shorter than the calyx . * , . 6. £. pa^vihracieaium. 

**Choananthus. — Corolla-tube narrowly funneUshaped or 
cylindric ; posticous lip oblong. 
Bracts not 3-nerved. 

Petiole \-\ in. long 6. -E. striatum. 

Petiole rarely attaining \ in., usually very short. 

Seeds tubercular-scabrous, without hairs . , 7. ^. harlerioides. 
Seeds smooth, without tubercles. 

Seeds shining, without hairs . . . , 8. ^. Anisacanthw. 

Seeds with scattered glochidiate hairs . . 9. ^. revolutum. 

Seeds shining, with very minute hairs . . 10. E. hamatum. 
Bracts distinctly 3-nervcd . . . . . . 11. ^. trinervium. 

1. £• linneaniuny Kurz in Joum, As. Soc. Beng. xK part 2 (1871), 
75. Leaves often 3 by J in., tip triangular, obtuse, base narrowed, 
glabrous or obscurely puberulous ; petiole 0— J in. long ; leaves varying 
from narrowly oblong to broadly ovate, also much in size. Spikes 
often 4 by 1 in., strobilate; bract J by J in., ovate, apiculate, often 
pubescent, entire or nearly so in the African examples, often strongly 
toothed in the Indian ; bracteoles \ in. long, linear, hairy. Calyx 
4 in. long. Corolla-tube j-1 in. long, linear to the top ; lobes of anti- 
cous lip 3, J- J in. long, elliptic ; posticous lip J- J by ^rj' in. upwards, 
notched at the tip. Pollen globose ; meridional smooth depressions very 
narrow, not reaching the poles. Ovary glabrous ; style-base hairy. Capsule 
whole length | in. ; stalk linear-cylindric ; head compressed, J in. in 



Ecbolivm^ xcviii. acanthace-s (clarke). 287 

diam., containing 2 thin discoid margined slightly rough seeds, — Boiss. 
Fl. Or. iv. 526 ; C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iv. 644 ; 
Schweinf. & Volkens, Liste PI. Somalis, 17 ; Lindau in Engl. <k Prantl, 
Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 338, Fig. 135, G, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr, C. 
371. JusHda Echolium, Linn. Sp. Plant, 15; Bot. Mag. 1. 1847; Wight, 
let. 463 ; Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 426 ; Solms-Laub. in Schweinf. Beitr, 
Fl. Aethiop. 111. E^'antheniurri Ecbolium, T. Anders, in Thwaites, Enum. 
PI, Zeyl 235, 

Zf ile lands Nubia : coast region, 3000—4000 ft., Bent ! between Suakln and 
Berber ; Singat, Schweinfurth, 277 ! and near Suakin, Schweinfurth^ 127 ! Eritrea : 
Massowa, Mildebrandt, 724! Schweinfurth ^ Rim, 110! 210! Habab» 6000 ft.. 
Mildehrandt, 465 ! Abyssinia t Wadi Togodele, Ehrenherg ! and without precise 
locality, Salt ! Somaliland ; Ahl Mountains, 5000 ft., Mildebrandt^ 860 ! Dauadid 
Torrent, Qhika ! British East Africa : Ukamba, Machakoa, Scott'Elliot, 6737 ! 
Taita ; Maungii Monntain, Scott-Elliot^ 6163 1 Larau Island, Kirk ! 

Also in Arabia and India. 

This plant, from the linear corolla-tube, stamens, and leaves, has been often sorted 
into Eranthemum, from which its large bracts should readily distinguish it. 

2. E. amplexicaule^ S, Moore in Journ. Bot. 1894, 136. Leaves 
5 in. long, sessile, amplexicaul, panduriform-oblanceolate, obtuse, 
glabrous. Anthers very shortly mucronate at the base. Capsule 
pubescent ; otherwise as E, linneanum. — Lindau in Engl. Pfl. Ost- 
Afr. C. 371. 

irile Ziand. British East Africa : Sabaki River, 1300 ft,, Gregory ! Teita- 
M'^anga, Fischer ^ 489 ! 

Ibower Guinea* Angola ■. Loanda, Welwit^ch, 5203 ! 5124 ! Ambriz, Mon- 
teiro ! 

3. E. auricttlatuxn, C B. Clarke. Leaves up to 4J by 1 in., 

lanceolate, acuminate at both ends, hairy on both surfaces, subsessile, 
auriculate, \-\ in. wide at the base. Corolla- tube IJ in. long, linear to 
the top ; lobes J in. long ; otherwise as E. linneamtm, 

Mozamb- Dlst* German East Africa ; Maramo, Stuklmann, 6987 ! Usambara, 
Holsty 608a ! and without precise locality,, Hanningion I 

4. £• subcordatiutty C. B. Clarke. Leaves up to 3 by IJ in,, 
subsessile, hairy on both surfaces, base broad, truncate or subcordate. 
Spike and bracts as of E. linneanurriy but more hairy. 

irile Xiand. British East Africa : Ukamba (?) Gregory ! Duruma, Hildehrandt, 
2318! 

5. E. parvibracteatum, Rendlein Journ. Bot. 1897, 379. Leaves 
up to 5 by 2 J in., ovate, hairy on both faces, tip shortly acute, base 
obtuse. Petiole Jin. long, closely white-pubescent. Spike H--^ in. 
long, rather dense; bracts |-J in. long, elliptic or oblong; shorter thftn 
the calyx. Corolla and capsule as of E. linneanum. 

Wile Xiand. Somaliland: Waggar Mountains, Jfr*. Xort-PA»7^ip*/ 



238 xcviii. ACANTHACE^ (clarke). [EcboHum, 

C. E. striatum^ Balf.f. in Proc. Bar/. Soc. Edhxh. xii. 89. Leaves 
11 by § in. (up to 4 J by 2 in. in Thomas^ 11), ovate-elliptic or oblong, 
obtuse at either end, glabrous; petiole J-J in. long. Spikes up to o by 
4 in. ; bracts § by J in., more or less pubescent. Sepals -- in. long. 
Corolla white (lliomas) ; tube J in. long, narrowly funnel-shaped nearly 
from the base ; lips J in. long, posticous broadly oblong and scarcely 
emarginate. Anther-cells at equal height, linear-oblong, muticous, 
div^aricate at the base ; pollen globose, meridional smooth depressions 
very narrow, not reaching the poles. Capsule hardly exceeding J in. in 
length, hairy; stalk I in. long; seeds 2, ovoid, discoid, J in. in diam., 
papillose-scabrous, without hairs. — Balf. f. in Trans. Roy. Soc. 
Edin. xxxi. 226, t. 77 (excluding var. /3 minora and left-hand plant on 
t. 77) ; Lindau in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam, iv. 3 B. 338 ; S. Moore 
in Journ. Bot. 1894, 137. 

Nile Iiand. British East Africa : Sabaki Eiver, 1300 ft., Gretjory I Tana 
River, Thomas, 11 ! 
Also in Socotra. 

7. £• barlerioides, Lindau in Engl. JaJirh. xx. 42, Younger 
Dranchlets and leaves closely covered with minute hairs. Leaves up to 
1| by § in., yellowish -green, narrowed at either end, obtuse, when 
mature glabrate ; petiole } in. long. Spikes terminal, strobilate, up to 
2 by J in. ; bracts | by nearly J in., obovate, acuminate, base narrow 
cuneate. Calyx scarcely:^ in. long. Corolla-tube J-| in. long, sub- 
cylindric or somewhat funnel-shaped at the top ; anticous lip 3-lobed ; 
posticous oblong, scarcely emarginate. Pollen globose, with 3 broad 
meridional bands continuous to the poles, and 3 large stopples. Capsule 
2 ^y J i"- ; 2-seeded, much flattened, minutely hairy to the base ; stalk 
solid; placentae not rising elastically ; seeds large, much flattened, 
tubercular-scabrous, not hairy, ^Lindau in Engl, ife Prantl, Pflanzen- 
fam, iv, 3 B. 338, and in Ann. Istit. Bot. Roma, vi.(1890) 81. Isoylossa 
harlerioideSj S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1877, 70. 

Ifflle Iiand. Eritrea : Keren, Steudner, 1503 ! Somaliland : Serrut Mountains, 
midebrandt, 1401 ! Ahl Mountains, 1250 ft., Sildehrandt, 860a ! Gannne River, 
iJi'ia, 1110! Scliebele River, Donaldson Smith ! 

8. E. AuisacanthxLSy C. B. Clarke. Small woody shrub ; 
branchlets terete, minutely and densely white-hairy. Leaves 1 J by J in., 
narrowed at either end, densely and minutely hairy ; petiole 0-| in. 
long. Spikes terminal, If by \ in., 8-l2-flowered, hardly strobilate; 




long, linear-cylindric ; limb 2-lipped, nearly as long ; anticous Hp 3- 
lobed ; posticous lip sliortly 2-fid. Stamens 2, rudiments <) ; filaments 
minutely scabrous-hairy; anthers linear-oblong, muticous, parallel at 
equal height ; pollen subglobose, smooth, with 3 very narrow bands (on 
which are stopples) not reaching the poles. Ovary glabrous ; ovules 



Ecbolium.] xcviii. acanthace^ (clabke). 239 

2 in each cell, lower smaller and soon shrivelling up ; style slightly 
hairy towards the base; stigma shortly 2-lobed. Capsule J in. long, 
obovoid, compressed, 2-seeded, hairy; stalk solid; jilacentae not rising 
elastically from the base ; seeds yellow, shining, very hard, smooth, 
without hairs or tufts. — Justicia AnisacanthioSy Sehweinf. in Verb, 
Zool.'Bot. Geseil. Wien, xviii. G78. Schwabea AnisacanihiiSy Lindau in 
Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 340, and in Ann. Lstit. Bot. 
Roma, vi. (1800) 82. Monechma ciliaium, Hochst. ex Nees in IjC. 
Prod. xi. 411. M. Holacewnij Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 411 partly. 

irile £and. Nubia : between Suakln and Berber, Sehweinf tirlh^ 130, 287 ! 
425 ! Somnliland, Fiva, 129, EoheocM, 305 ! Donaldson Smith! Keller, 206 ! 213 ! 
215 ! 216 \ Abyssinia, 3000 ft., Schimper, 62 ! 1005! 1298a ! 

Schweinfurtb observes tbat this plant is an Ectoliitm, but be rticludes Ecbolium 
as a section in Justicia. It is not clear why Litidau has put it in Schwabea, as the 
seeds entirely want tbe two tufts of hairs on which tbat genus is poised, «nd the 
anther-cells are witliout tails. 

9. £•• revolutum, C B. Clarke, Bracts broadly lanceolate, acute, 
imbricate, puberulous. Capsule sparsely hairy ; seeds covered all over 
by very distant glochidiate hairs ; otherwise as E, A nimcanthus, — 
Schivahea revoluta^ Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 59, in Engl. & Prantl, 
Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 346, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 372. Barlerice 
sp.j Sehweinf. in Hohnel, Zum Budolph-See u. Stephanie-See, Sonder- 
abdr. 6. 

Mozamb. I>lst> German East Africa : Usambara ; to tbe West of Pare 
Mountains, 600-2200 ft., ROhnel, 8 ! 

10. E. hamatum, C. B. Clarke. Shrub; branches minutely tomen- 
tose-pvibescent. Leaves up to 1 J by J in., oblong, pubescent; petiole 
0-J in. long. Spikes terminal, short; bracts imbricate, up to J by 
^ in., ovate, much acuminate, hairy; bracteoles \ in. long, linear. 
Sepals J in. long, gland-hairy. Corolla-tube ^ in. long, subcylindric ; 
lips J in. long, anticous 3-lobed, posticous oblong and subentire. Antlier- 
cells muticous ; pollen ellipsoid, pores 3. Capsule \ in. long, 2-seeded ; 
seeds hsLiry .-^Blechmn hamatum, Klotzsch in Peters, Keise Moss.imb. 
220. Petalidium (?) haniatUTn^ Lindau in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 
iv. 3 B. 299, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 367. /Schwabea ecbolioides, 
Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 58, and in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 

3 B. 346, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 372. 

UTile £and. British East Africa : Talta; Ndnra Mountain, JZiVrfeirnnffC, 2i36 I 

Mozamb. I>ist> German East Africa : Pangaiii Steppe, 2700 ft.. Volkena^ 

552 ! and without precise locality, Fischer, 296 ! Portupuese Ka?t Africa : Lower 

Zambesi ; Sena, Peters t British Central Africa : North Kalahari Desert, ntar 

Chukutusa Salt Pan, Liigard, 223 ! 

11. E. trinervmm, C, B. Clarke. Leaves 1^ by J in., rhom- 
boid-ovate, obtuse. Bracts J by. \ in., broad-elliptic, narrowed at 
the base, distinctly 3-nerved, tip acuminate ; otherwise a.*^ E. hmnaUan. — 
Schwabea echolioides, var. tomentosa, Lindau in En^l. Jahrb. xx. 59. 

Kozamba Dlst. German East Africa, Fischer, 2841 



240 xcviii. ACANTHACE-E (clarke). [Megalochlami/8 . 

51. MEGALOCHLAMYS, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xxvi. 345. 

Sepals 5, nearly distinct, small, subequal, linear or linear-lanceo- 
late. Corolla 2-Iipped; tube linear-cylindric, rather shorter than 
the lobes; anticous lip 3-fid; posticous lip ovate-oblong, subentire. 
Stamens 2 ; antliers long-exserted, 2-celled, muticous ; cells linear- 
oblong nearly at equal height ; pollen ellipsoid, smooth, with 
two stopples. Pistil glabi'ous ; ovules 2 in each cell ; style very 
shortly and equally 2-lobed at the tip. Capsule stalked, ovoid, 
much flattened, usually 2-seeded; placentae not rising elastically 
from the base of the capsule-valves; seeds rather large, much com- 
pressed, glabrous, somewhat tubercular-scabrous. — Shrubs. Leaves 
entire. Inflorescences terminal and axillary ; floral leaves imbricated, 
with (commonly) 3 flowers in the axil of 1 or 2 of the upper ; bracts 
and bracteoles 'or only represented by bristles hardly yV in. long. 

Species S, endemic. 

Engler & Schinz referred these plants to Dicliptera^ which is untenable, as the 
placentae do not rise elastically from the capsule valves ; the inflorescence, moreover, 
is totally diflerent, being that of PkaylopsU. The genus differs from Scholium, sect. 
ChoananthuSj mainly in the inflorescence. 

Glabrous, or nearly so. 

Leaves ovate, ^ in. wiJe . • , . . 1. P. Marlothii. 

Leaves oblong, \ in, witle . , . . . 3. P. linifoUa. 

Plnnt hairy all over . . . , , . 2. P. strobilifera. 

1. M, MarlotMi, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xxvi. 345. Glabrous, 
except the calyx. Leaves IJ by J in., tip triangular, base obtuse; 
petiole 0—^ in. long. Inflorescences f-1 in. in diam., nearly enclosed 
by the two lowest floral leaves, which are f by ^ in., ovate, acute, 
with reflexed margins ; upper floral leaves ^ by J— J in. ; flowers 3-1 
in the axil of the penultimate floral leaf (and sometimes of 1 or 2 
adjacent). Calyx ^— i in. long, minutely pubescent. Corolla |-1 in. 
in total length. Filaments glabrous. Capsule J in, long, upper 
flattened part ^ in. broad; seeds discoid, tubercular- scabrous, not 
hairy. — Dicliptera Marlothii^ Engl, in Engl. Jahrb. x. 266. D, schu- 
mannianUf Schinz in Verhandl. Bot. Ver. Brandenb, xxxi. 20 i. 

Iiower Guinea. Angola : Monhlnos, Newion ! German South-west Africa : 
Amboland ; Okasimii-Ka-Namutenya, Schinz, 60 ! Oshando, Schinz, 100 ! Herero- 
land, 3300 ft., Marloth, 1313 ! 

2. M. strobilifera, C. B. Clarke. Hairy all over. Leaves 2\ by 
f in,, tip subacute, base obtuse; petiole 0— J in. long. Inflorescences 
ll by f in. ; outermost floral leaves f by J in., obovate-elliptic, acumi- 
nate ; upper gradually smaller, several containing 3-1 flowers in each 
axil ; bracts and bracteoles 0. Corolla blue, with purple veins. Fila- 
ments granular-scabrous ; pollen exactly as of P. Marlothii, 

BCozamb. Dlst. Portuguese East Africa : Lower Zambesi ; near Tete^ Kirk ! 
There is no fruit of this species, but it is closely allied to the foregoing. The 



Megahchlamys,'] xcviii. acanthace.e (clarke). 241 

anther-cells are linear-oblong, exactly purallL'l, and nt equal height, whk-h does not 
satisfy Anderson's diagnosis of his genus Eetsinanfkus (^R/it/fif/ioisa) ; the infloresrenio 
is really remote from that of Ecieinanthus. 

3. M, linifoliay Linckcu in Engl, Jakrh. xxvi. 34 G. Shrub, 
woody, much branched, glabrescent. Leaves J by J in., oblong, obtuse, 
subsessile, smooth, margins recurved, midrib glandular at thu base. 
Axillary floral leaves | by J in., cofrdate, yellow-green, glabrous ; inner 
floral leaves naiTOwer with 2—3 flowers in the axil of each ; flower 
bract and braeteoles or minute. Sepals ^^ in. long, linear, scabrous. 
Corolla not seen. Capsule \ in. long, 2-seeded, glabrous ; stalk fshort ; 
placentae not rising elastically ; seeds tubercular, scabrous, hispid. — 
Didiptera (?) linifolia^ Lindau in Ann. Istit. Bot. Roma, vi. (IHDO) Hn, 

KUe liana. Sonialiland; Ahl Mountains, 1800-3300 ft., UililebrumU , m^\ \ 
Merehan, RobeccM, 249 ! 250 ; Bela, Itha, 1462 ! 



52. GRAPTOPHYIiLUM, Nees ; Benth. at Hook. f. Gen. 

PI. ii. 1118. 

Calyx small, divided nearly to the base into 5 subequal linear seg- 
ments. Corolla definitely 2-lipped, modei-atcly large, red ; tube funnel- 
shaped, curved ; anticous lip of 3 ovate reflexed lobes (central lobe out- 
side in the bud) ; posticous lip ovate-oblong, very shortly 2-fid. 
Stamens 2(2 rudiments added) ; antlier-cells 2, linear-oblong, muticoua, 
placed at equal height ; pollen very short-ellipsoid, with 3 broad band.^; 
reaching the poles. Ovules 2 in each cell ; style clavate, hardly 2-fid at 
the tip. Capsule (in Australian species) ellipsoid, 4-seeded, on a >hurt 
solid cylindric stalk ; placentae not rising elastically from the base of 
the valves ; seeds glabrous, nearly smooth, obscurely rugose-tubercular. 
— Glabrous shrubs. Panicles (almost racemes) many-flowered, terminal, 
sessile, rather dense ; flowers pedicelled and subsessile, in elustei's : 
biacts and braeteoles very small. 

Species 2, in Malaya, Australia, and Polynesia, besides the subjoined. 

1. G. hortense, Xees in Wall. PI. As. Rm\ iii. 102. Leiives up to 
(I by 2J in., shortly narrowed at either end, entire ; petiole J in. long. 
Panicles 1-2 in. long, 1 0-4-0-flowered ; pedicels 0-^ in. long. Calyx 
1 in. long. Corolla-tube f in. long \ lips \ in. long. — DC. Prod. xi. 328 ; 
T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 51 ; C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. FI. 
Brit. Ind. iv. 545 ; Lindau in Bolet. Soc, Brot. x. 147. (t. pi «», 
Griff. Notul. iv. 130; Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfara. iv. 3 B. 
327, fig. 132, A-D. Justicia picta, Linn. Sp. PI. ed. ii. 21 ; Hot. 
Mag. t. 1 K70 (var. luridosanguinea). 

Upper Guinea. Sierra Leone: in gardens, Barter! near Kitchom, i^cott- 
Elliot, 4326 ! Cameroons, Preus.<(, 376 ! 401 ! maitdf, 4551 ! 

This plant, often cultivated with blotched leaves, is doubtless only intrwluced at 
Sierra Leone; its native habitat is uncertain. Bentham give??, for the genui 
Grapiopkt/llumt capsule usunlly 2-seecleJ. The capsules in the Australian speciet arc 
4<8eeded. 



242 xcviii. ACANTHACE.K (cLARKE). [Sckciueria. 



a. SCHAUERIA, Nees; Beiith. et Hook. f. Gen. PI. ii. 11 IC. 



Calyx divided nearly to the base into 5 suberiual linear segments. 
Corolla distinctly 2-lipped ; tube slender ; anticous lip divided deeply 
into o oblong lobes ; posticous lip subentire. Stamens :i, without rudi- 
ments ; anther-cells 2, oblong, at equal height, rounded at the base ; 
pollen ellipsoid, >vith ^3 very narrow smooth bands that do not reach the 
poles. Ovules 2 in each cell ; style minutely 2-lobed. Capsiile (in tlie 
American species) stalked; seeds 4, rugose. — Leaves entire. Panicle 
terminal, dense, with many flowers ; bracts linear. 

Species 8, l^razllliu) ; besides the one suVjjoined. 

1. S. populifolia, C H. Clarke. Herb, 4-5 ft. high, nearly 
glabrous. Leaves 4| by 2J in., elliptic, somewhat parallel-sided, acumi- 
nate, when mature glabrate, base rounded coi'dato ; cystoliths numerous, 
small J petiole l-\ in. long. Panicle 2 by i in., minutely puberulous; 
bracts J in, long, linear, nearly glabrous, with a very few long-stalked 
glands. Calyx J in. long ; lobes subulate, dilated and connate at the 
base. Corolla reddish (^r/iier) ; tube J in. long, very slender ; lobes 
i in. long. Filaments glabrous; anther-cells slightly hairy at the top. 
Pistil glabrous. Capsule not seen. 

Upper Guinea. Cameroons: Bipiude, Zenker, 1205! FeriKindo Po, Mann^ 
1426! Vogel! 

54. PERISTBOPHE, Kees; Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PI. ii. 1121. 

Calyx small ; segments 5, subequal, nearly separate, linear-lanceolate. 
Corolla lips 2, long, posticous entire or emarginate. Stamens 2 ; anthers 
2 -celled ; cells one more or less above the other, muticous ; pollen 
ellipsoid, with 3 smooth bands and stopples, not tubercled. Ovules 2 in 
each cell ; style filiform, with 2 very short oblong branches. Capsule 
4-seeded, with a cylindric stalk ; placentae not rising elastically ; seeds 
discoid, smooth or minutely papillose. — H erbs. Leaves entire. Spikelets 
2-1- (rarely ^d-\ flowered, in heads or scattered; bracts to the 2 lower 
flowers subopposite, enclosing the calyx, from linear to ovate ; bracteoles 
2 to each flower, linear-lanceolate, longer than the calyx. 

Species 20, in the warmer regions of tlie Old World extending from Cape Verd 
Islands and the Cape to Malaya. This genus in habit and in every point is Dicbptei'a, 
except that the placentae do not rise elastically from the base of the capsule- valves in 
the ripe fruit. 

Spikelets in more or less lax panicles. 

Panicles 12-18 in. long , . . . . . 1. P. hicalyculata. 

Panicles denser with more numerous spikelets . . 2. P. Hensii. 
Spikelets in spikes. 

Stout ; spikes 3 by 1 in. ; corolla |-1 in. long . . 3. P. luteoviridis. 

Small ; spikes 1 by \ in. ; corolla ^ in. long . . 4. P. usta. 

1. p. bicalyculata^ Ifees in Wall. PL As. liar. iii. 113. Glabrous 
or very thinly hispid. Branches up to 2-4 ft. long, 4-7 -angular. 



Peristrojyhe,] xcviit. acanthace.*: (clarke). 2i:i 

Leaves up to 4 by 1| in., elliptic-lanceolate ; petiole J in. long ; Iwives 
usually smaller and very few in the inflorescence. Panicles of ten 12-IH 
in. long, very lax, much divided, spikelets with but one perfect flower; 
bracts J in. long. Calyx scarcely } in. long, minutely puberulous. 
Corolla ^ in. long, pale purple. Capsule }^ in. long, hairy at t)ip top ; 
seeds minutely papillose. — DC. Prod. xi. 41)6; Benth. in Hook. Niger 
Fl. 484 ; A. Kich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii. 1(10; T. Anders, in Journ. Liun 
Soc. vii. 47 ; Solms-Laub. in Schweinf. Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. ll-'t, 244; 
C. B, Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iv. 554 ; Lindau in Engl, ^t 
Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. ?> B. :^>81, in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. ^J71, and in 
Ann, Istit. Bot. Roma, vi. (lS9(j) 80. P. kotschijana^ Nees in DC. Prod. 
xi. 497 ; A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii. 160 ; Zarb, Cat. Spec. Bot. Pfund, 
32. Diantlie^'a hicalyculata^ Retz. in Acta Holm. 1775, iiy7,t. 9. D. mala- 
harica, Linn. f. Suppl. 85. Justicia hicalyculataj Vahl, Symb. ii. LJ. 
J. ligidata, Lam. III. t. 12, fig. 2 ; Cav. Ic. i. 52, t. 71. 

Upper Guinea. Cape Verd Islands: St. bigo, Welwihch, 51761 Stnegal, 
Lelicvre ! Perrofief ! Uoger I Gatnbin, Boteler ! Cape Verd, Smith! Niger 
Territory : Borgu, Barter, 767 ! Bornu ; Kuka, Vogel, 34 ! 

Wile Iiand. Nubia : coast region, Bent ! Schweinfurtky 348 I Kiiartoum, Schwein- 
furth, 772 ! 795 ! Kordofan, Pfund, 405 ! 406 ! 438 ! Kotschy, 50 ! 161 ! Eritrea : 
Acrur. 6000 ft., Schiveinfurtk ^ Mira^ 726! Bogos; Tsad Amba, Steudner, 1517! 
Sarat, Sieudner, 1516 ! Keren, Sieudfier, 1514 ! Abyssinia : Jelajeranne, Sc^imper, 
694 ! Haramat district near Geraz, Schimper^ 1095 ! Jaja, Schimper, 289 ! Togodele, 
^hrenberff ! anii witliout precise locality, Salt J Schimper, 666! 1511! Somaliland, 
Rohecchi 242 ! 251 ! 

^ower Guinea. German South-west Africa : Hereroland, 3300 ft., Marlofh, 
1312 ! Amboland ; Osbando, Sckinz ! 

ACozamt). Hist. German East Africa: Kilimanjaro, Volkens^ 452! British 
Central Africa: Stevenson Road, 4000^5000 ft., Scott-Elliot, 8247! Eastern 
Bechnanaland : Tati, Hohih ! 

2. P. Hensiiy C. B. Clarke. Panicle large with strongly hexagonal 
branches, much denser, with larger spikelets ; otherwise as P. hicaly- 
Gulata. — Dldipiera Ilensiiy Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xxii. 120. 

Soutb Central. Lower Congo : Stanley Poo), 1000 ft., Hens, 53 ! 

This is a PerUtrophe (closely allied to P. hicah/mlato, which liag invariably 
a more straggling panicle) identical with one from Natnl and KaiFraria. 

?i. P. luteoviridis, C. B. Clarke. Stout herb, glabrous except 
the inflorescence, yellow-green. Leaves up to ;^J by 1 in., narrowed at 
both ends; petiole \ in. long. Clusters of flowers approximated in 
rather dense spikes ^ by 1 in. ; floral leaves up to ^ by ^J in., intermixed. 
Spikelets 1 -flowered; bract J-i in. long, lanceolate; bracteuks I in. 
long, linear. Calyx \~\ in. long. Corolla |-1 in. long, ro.se, purple- 
spotted {Schvehiftu-th).' Anther-cells at nearly equal height, rounded 
at the base ; pollen ellipsoid with ?> stopples, on the longitudinal smootli 
bands are single rows of minute spots, one row on each side of each 
stopple. Capsule J in. long, stout, soHd-st;dkcJ ; seeds 4, disculd, 
smooth. — Nicoteha lanceolaia, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 88, and in 
Engl, k Prantl, Ptlanzenfam. iv. o B. 320. 



244 xcviii. ACANTHACE.E (clarke). [Petnstrophe. 

irile ]band. Dar Fertit : at Dem Bekir, SehtceiiiJ'urlh^ ser. 3, 23 ! Niamniam, 
Sckweinfurthf 2885 ! 

4. P. usta, C. B. Clarke. Dusky, pubescent. Branches d-b in. 
long, very numerous, arising after a gniss- fire from the woody rootstock. 
Leaves up to 1 by J in., tip hardly acute, base narrowed ; petiole up to 
-l- in. long. Spikelets 1 -flowered, in mainly terminal spikes up to 1 by 
I in., lax; fioral leaves \ in, long, linear-oblong. Calyx scarcely J in. 
iong. Corolla J in. long, slender. Stamens 2; anther-cells 2, one 
clearly above the other; pollen as of P. luteoviridis. Capsule J in. 
long, slender, 4-seeded, the linear stalk exceeding J in. in length. — 
Duvernoia pumila, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 44, and in Engl. & 
Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 381), and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 372. 

Mosambt Dlst. British Central Africa : Nyasaland ; Mount Zomba., 4000- 
6000 ft., Whyte ! Buchanan^ 127 ! Tanganyika Plateau, Carson ! 



55. HYPOESTES, R. Br.; Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PI. ii. 1122. 

Sepals 5, equal, small, scarious, minutely puberulous, free or united 
J-| their length, lanceolate. Corolla small (in Tropical African species), 
2-lipped half its length, rose-purple to white (often spotted) ; tube 
slender, dilated near the top ; anticous lip 3-fid ; posticous lip 2- fid, 
emarginate or entire, within in the bud. Stamens 2 ; anthers 1 -celled, 
muticous; pollen ellipsoid, longitudinally banded, bands and stopples 
usually 3. Style filiform, shortly and equally 2 -fid at the tip ; ovary 
glabrous or somewhat hairy upwards, with 2-1 ovules in each cell. 
Capsule small, stalked, 4- or 2-seeded ; seeds smooth or pustular- 
tubercled. — Herbs or shrubs. Leaves entire, wavy, or (in H. mia'o- 
phylla) obscurely toothed. Inflorescences axillary and terminal, or 
running into terminal spikes or panicles. Spikelets in chines, elongate 
or subcapitate ; floral leaves resembling reduced vegetative leaves often 
present ; spikelets with two bracts, lower containing a flower, upper 
empty or with a rudimentary flower; the 2 bracts free or connate 
4-| their length ; bracteoles to the lower bract 2, shorter than it, 
oblong ; bracteoles to the upper bract usually 0. 

Species 60. extending from Africa to Australia. 

*Apoltton. — Two opposite bracts to the spikelet free, 
equal, or somewhat unequal. 
Two bracts of the spikelet with long linear green points 
(sometimes not very long in M, eancellata) , 
Seeds smooth. 

Heads subglobose, chiefly axillary. 

Leaves 1^ in. long . . . . . .1. B, aristata. 

Leaves 2-4 in. long . . . . , 2. J?, antennifera. 

Leaves 6 in, long, glabrate . . . , Z. S. insularis. 
Heads subglobose, many subterminal approximate 4. H. Stmidiii. 
Inflorescences elongate, lax . . . . .5. H. Barteri. 

Seeds tubercled ; heads dense, oblong, compouiul . 6. H, cancellafa. 
Two opposite bracts of spikelet obtuse or acute, scarcely 
mucronate. 



Hl/poestes.] xcviii. acanthace.e (clarke), 245 

Spikelets 1-5 together, laxly capitate. 

Leaves usually much exceeding }, in. in lengtlh 

Two outer bracts narrowly obovate, subeqiial • * 7. If, triflora. 

Two outer bracts obovate, hirger, uuequnl . , 8* IL pha^lopmides. 

Two outer bracts narrowly elliptic-oblong , . 9* if. rohia. 

Leaves h in. long, obscurely toothed , . . . 10, if- microphytta^ 

Inflorescences densely strobilatcj compound . . . 11. if, sfrobilifera, 

^HEMiCYUSDUvh. — Two opposite bracts to spikelet con- 
nate ^—^ their length into a tube (*' involucre*' of 
LindHu)^ 
Spikelets in sliort unilateral cymes, rather densely 
approximate. 
Bracts without long white hairsj glabrate or minutely 

scabrous hairy , . , ♦ , . 12. if, Forskalei. 

Stem and leaves minutely caneseent . * . 13. if. Ilildehrandtii. 

Puljescent. (Calyx larger, ^ in. long) . , , 14, H, mlanjenvx, 

Jiiacts with (moru or less numerous) spreading long 
white hairs. 
Leaves ovate or elliptic, narrowed on the petiole 15, H. lerticillaris. 
Leaves elliptic, long acuminate . . • - 16. if Freussiu 

Spikelets in lax cymes; cymes in compound panicles, 

Spikelets rather small . < * . . 17- M, violaceolinctn^ 

Spikelets \ in. long, mostly solitary and distant , 18. H. tam/an^ikensi.\\ 

1. H« aristata^ It, Br. Prod. 474. Small pubescent shrub, H-oO in. 
high. Leaves 1-2 by ^-1 in., ovate, narrowed at both ends; petiole 
0-|^ in, long. Heads globose, axillary^ distant, of numerous one- 
flowered spikelets, frequently with reduced petioled leaves J in. long ; 
ui^per heads not running into linear or oblong inflorescences. Spike- 
lets with 4 free bracts ; 2 outer opposite, 4 in. long, oblonfr, with a 
subulate scabrous tail i in. long; inner bracts (bracteole.^) lateral, 
J- 1- in, long, oblong. Sepals nearly free. Corolla f in. in total length. 
Filaments and style nearly glabrous. Capsule 1^ in. long, glubrouis ; 
seeds 4, smooth. — Nees in DC. Prod, xi, TjOO ; T. Anders, in Journ 
Linn. Soc. vii. 48 ; Lindau in Engl, it Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 
SS3, and in Engh Pfl, Ost-Afr. C. 371, Justicia aristata^ Vahl, Symh. 
11. 'Z. 

IkXozamb. 3>ist. German East Africa : Kilimanjaro, ex Lindau ; Uliiiruru, 
Stuhlmann, 91281 l^ntish Central Africa: Nyasaland ; Nyika Mouurains, 4000- 
6000 ft., Whyte I 

Also in South Africa. 

2. H. antennifera^ S. Mom^e in Journ, Hot, 18bU, 41. Leaves u]> 

to 4 by 2 in. Outer bractii l-\ in. long. Corolla 1 in. long or rather 
more; otheiwise as //. arisiata. — Oliv, in Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, 
iSot. ii. o40; Lindau in Engl, it- Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. .1:i:l, 
jind in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 371. //. arisiuta, var. maerophylhy, 
Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 510. //. plwnosa, Dr^ge, Zwei. Pfl. Docum. 
153, 159, name only, 

Wile Iiand. British East Africa : Taita ; Ndi Mountain, liiUehrandt, 2563 ! 
and Maungn Mountain. 2000 ft., Jo/msfon .' Lykipia, 604Kt-8uuO ft., Thomson I 



VOL V 



I 



246 xcviii. acanthacsEjE (clarke). [Ifypoestes. 

Ukainba, 5000-6000 ft., ScoU'Elliot, 6485! West of Lake Albert, Sfuhlmann, 
3009! 

BXozazxib. Slftt* German East Africa : Kilimanjaro, 6000 ft,, Johnsfon, 1G5 ! 
Usambara ; Kwa Mshuza, Hohf, 8918 ! British East Africa : Nyasaland ; between 
Jfpata and Tanganyika Plateau, 2000-3000 ft., Wh^ie ! Kondowe to Karonga, 
2000-6000 ft., Whtffe ! Masukii Plateau, 6500-7000 ft., Whi^te, 307 ! Nyika Moun- 
tains, 4000-6000 ft., Whyte! Nyika Plateau, 6000-7000 ft., Whyfe ! 

Also in South Africa. 

S. Moore says that in HUdehravdty 2563, the seeds are tuberculnte ; I find tbem 
smooth. 

3. H, insulariSy T. AncUrs. in Journ. Linn, Soc. vii. 49. Very 
sparsely hairy. Branches 15 in. long. Leaves 6 hy 2| in., thinly 
hairy on the nerves and margin ; petiole | in. long. Heads globose, 
axillary, distant, of numerous l-flowered spikelets; upper heads hardly 
running into oblong inflorescences. Spikelets with 4 bracts; 2 outer 
opposite, I in. lorig, with a subulate scabrous tail | in. long. Sepals 
nearly free. Corolla 1 in. in total length, purple. Filaments thick, 
nearly glabrous, minutely scabrous. 

Upper Guinea. Cameroons : Kio del Rey, Johnston ! Cameroon Mountain, 
2500 ft.. Mann, 1951 ! Fernando Po, Mann. 179 ! 

Xower Guinea. Gaboon ; Como River, Bate.'i^ 482 ! 
Closely allied to H. aristata^ K. Br. 

4. H. Staudtii, Lindait in Engl. Jahrh. xxii. 122. Leaves 5 by 
2 in,, nearly glabrous. Heads numerous, approximated in the upper 
part of the branches. Corolla about | in. long. Capsule nearly 
glabrous ; seeds 4, smooth ; otherwise as H. insularis. 

Upper Guinea. Cameroons : Yaunde, 2500 ft., Zenker ^ Staiulf, 36 ! 
Possibly a variety of H. insularis, T. Anders, 

5. H. Barteriy 7\ Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 49. Minutely 
pubescent. Leaves up to by 2|- in., glabrate or minutely hairy on the 
nerves ; petiole up to ^ in. long. Spikes simple or panicles linear, 
axillary and terminal, often 2^ by ^ in. and lax, sometimes 5 by ^ in. com- 
pound, denser and long-peduncled. Spikelets of 2 bracts, 2 bracteoles 
and 1 purple-red flower; 2 bracts opposite, free, \ in. long, oblong, with 
a subulate tail ^ in. long. Sepals free. Corolla | in. long. Filaments 
and pistil glabrous. — Lindau in Engl. & Prantl, Pflnnzenfam. iv, 3 B. 
333. H. triticea, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 51, and in Engl. & Prantl, 
Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 333, 

Upper Guinea. Lagos : Eppah, on the Kradu Lagoon, Barter, 3285 ' and 
without precise locality, Millen, 35 of 1896 collection ! Cameroons : Victoria, Buch- 
holz ! Preuss, 1164 ! 

6. H. cancellata, Xees in DC. Prod., xi. 505. More or less hairy. 
Stems up to 2 ft. long, geniculate. Leaves up to 2 by J' in., oblong, 
narrowed at either end ; cystoliths transverse, not conspicuous ; petiole 
0-g- in. long. Heads mainly terminal (a few axillary added) up to 1 J 
by \ in., very dense, in congested panicles, prominently yellow-hispid ; 



Hypoesies.\ xcviii. acanthace.-e (cxauke). 247 

outer ftoial leaves narrow, hardly imbricate. Spikelets 1 -flowereJ ; 
bracts free, 2 outer \~\ in. long, oblong, with a linear tail -i\j— i in. 
long. Corolla §-J in. long, red. Pollen oblong-ellipsoirl, morn elongate 
than in the preceding species. Capsule | in, long, very slender ; seeds 

4, small, tubercled. — Benth, in Hook. Niger Fi. 4JS4. II. calliconia^ 

5. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1880, 41 ; Lindau in Engl. <k Pmutl, 
PJlanzenfam. iv. ;J B. 3:>o. Jiisiicia canceWtta, Willd. ex Xees in DC. 
Prod. xi. 50 G. 

Upper Guinea* Sierra Leone : Wallia, Scoif -Elliot^ 42G5 ! Lester Peak, 

Scott'Slliof, 3843 ! and without precise locality, AfzeliuH ! 

Wile Xiand. Bongo: AOtlai, Scimeinfurtk, 2525! 

Iiower Guinea. Angola : Beinbe Mounttiin, Monfeiro ! Malange, Marques, 
312! 

Soutb Central. Lunda : Mukenge, Po<fge,ZQQ\ 1201; Monbuttu, Sckicein- 
Jurth, 3392 ! 

This plant supei'ficially resembles closely Jn^ticia prornmbenSf Linn, The 
length of the tail to the 2 outer bracts varies a gootl deal, and the distribution of 
the species is unusually scattered, 

7. H. triflora, Roem. et Schultes^ Syst. i. 141. Stems 1-4 ft. long, 
more or less hairy. Leaves up to 3 by \^ in., ovate, entire or crenulate, 
obscurely toothed, hispid with scattered white 1-4-celled hairs ; cysto- 
liths irregularly scattered, many transverse, conspicuous ; petiole ^-IJ 
in, long. Heads of 1-5 (often 3) l-Howered spikelets, often apparently 
terminal on lateral branches ^-2 in. long ; floral leaves much reduced, 
often shorter than the spikelets. Outer '1 bracts of spikelet free, \ in. 
long, narrowly obovate-oblong. Sepals free. Corolla J in. in total 
length, pink or white. Filaments glabrous. Style with a few long 
hairs. Capsule ^ in. long, with 4 tubeicled seeds. — Nees in DC 
Prod. xi. 51)0; A, Rich, Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii. 162; T. Anders, in Juui-n: 
Linn. Soc. vii. 50 ; C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iv, 557 ; 
Solms-Laub. in Schvveinf. Beitr. FL Aethiop. Til, 248; Engl. Ilothge- 
birgsfl. Trop. Afr, 894 ; Lindau in Engl, ct Prantl, PHanzenfam. iv. ;i B. 
3;jo. 11. adoensis, A, Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii. HJ-' ; Engl. Hochge- 
birgsfl. Trop. Afr. 31)4 and var. Andersoni^ Engl. Ic. 'VJo ; Lindau in 
Kiigl. ti: Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 383. II, simeiisisy llochst. ex 
Solms-Laub. in Scliweinf. Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. HI ; Engl. Hocligi'birgsti. 
Ti'op, Afr, 805. //. inceqiialis, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. oO. //, ciliata^ 
Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 51, and in Engl, tt Prantl, Pflanzenf.nn. iv. 
3 B. 888. II. acmninata^ Hochst. ex Nees in DC, Prod. xi. 5lK>. Jusiicin 
trijiora, For.sk. Fl. ^'Egypt.-Aral). 4; Vahl, S3Mnb. i. 8, 

Upper G-uinea. Cauieroons : Buea, 6500-8000 ft., P/'' , 732 ! 715 ! 
Cameroon Mountain, 7000 ft., Mann, 1979 \ Fernando Po, 5000 ft., Maun, ObO ! 

XTile liand. Eritrea: Saganeiti, iu Goua Gorge, 6t>00-7 100 Jt., ."Schiveiufurth 
^ Riva, 1290 J Abyssinia, Salf ! Pearcef Schimper, 108! 149! 3-iO ! 386! 3^91 
418! 600! 641! 926! 934! 939! 1104! 1111! 1491! 1985! 2818! i^tiartin- 
Daion^f I*eHt f Petit I i2o//i, 484! British Kast Africa : Uuwenzori, .'<">0-JKHX) ft,, 
ScoU'EUiot, 7856 ! 8000-9000 ft., Scoif'EUht, 7560 ! 

Kxtendiug eastward to India, 



248 xcviii. ACANTHACE.E (cLARKE), [Uypoestes. 

ILciliaia, Liiidau, is described as having the calyx divided only half-way down, 
but I find it divided to the base in the type speciinen. H. ffdoensis, Solms-Laub. in 
Schweinf. Beitr. FL Aetiiiop, 111, is said to be Dielipiera roxburghiana ^ Nees. This 
latter is a typical Dirlipfera, abuudiint in Indiii, and though not yet known from 
Tropical Africa, several of the* Tropical African Div! i pteru^* aie very near it. If, 
however, Htf poesies ftdoensls^ Stjlnis-Lauh., was really one of these^ it was not con- 
generic even with IF^/jmesfes adoensisj, A. Ulch, 

8. H. phaylopsoidesj S.Moore in Trans. Linii.Soc, ser. :i,lJot/iy\ 
84, Two outer bracts of the spikelet unequal, lower often f by | in,, 
elongate-obovate, upper I in* long, otherwise as JI. trifora.—Lmdaii in 
Eng. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. ;i71, JI. kilimaiidschaHca^ Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. 
xix. Jieibb No. 47, 47, and in EngL PH. Ost-Afr, C, •*>71. 

IHozaznb. Dlst. Uerman East Africa: Kilimanjaro, 3300 ft., Volkens^ \^Q^ \ 
Britisli Central Africa : Kyasaland, Masuka Plateau, 6500-7000 ft., Wl^yte ] Mount 
Mlanje, Whyte,\m\ 

This species is very near the large-leaved states of JL iriflora^ but tlie lower 
bract to spikelet is broader ami leaflike. 

9. H. rosea, JJeaiw. FL Oivar. ii, (17, t. Wi\fiy. 1* Sparsely hairy 
01* glabi'ate. Upper leaves 1^ by § in., ovate, acuminate, short- 
petioled ; lower leaves up to ii-^ by 2| in, with a petiole 1 J in, long. 
Heads of 1-5 1 -flowered spikelets, terminal or axillary, sessile or 
peduncled ; floral leaves narrow oblong, usually much shorter than the 
spikelet, sometimes J by ^jy in. Outer 2 bracts of spikelet free, |— A in. 
long, oblong, naiTOwed in the upper half. Corolla |^ in, in total length, 
rose; otherwise nearly as //. triflora, — -Nees in DC- Prod, xi, 5(K>; 
Benth, in Hook, Niger PL 484. II. consanguinea^ Lindau in Engb 
Jahrb. :v:x, 50, and in EngL k Prantl, Pflanzenfam, iv, f) B. 1^88, 

Upper Guinea, Togoland^ BMln€i\ 315! KUntj^ 139! Benin, Bearrois, 
Caineroons: Buea, Preuss^ 599 ! 

Iiower Guinea- Island of St. Thomas, Don ! 

Bcntham says that G- Don^s example has no tlowcrSj and refers it here witli 
11 query. But it has good buds and inflorescences. It sliows some linear-oblong 
floral leaves outside the head of spikelets ; throughout Ilifpoestes the absence or 
prominence of tliesc reduced leaves varies much on one plant, 

10. H. microphylla, A^ees in BO. ProtL xi. 5lt4, not of Baker. 
Small, woody, much-branched, viscous hairy. Leaves ^ by ^ in., sub- 
sessile, toothed. Spikelets 1 -flowered , 1-*J together, scattered, sub- 
.sessile ; bracts fiee, 2 outer -J in. long, oblong, obtuse. Sepals J in. 
long, nearly free. Corolla \ in. in total length. Capsule scarcely iin. 
long, viscous hairy; seeds 4, tubercled, — A. Rich. Tent. FL Abyss, ii, 
1(14, //. uniflm^a^ T, Anders, in Journ, Linn, Soc. vii. 48 ; Hochst- in 
Flora, 1841, i. Intell 24, name only. 

XTile £and. Abyssinia : Amba Sea, Schimper^ 573 ! Mount Sboloda^ near 
Adowa, Schimpe}\ 400 ! and without precise locality, Schimpei\ 1623 ! 

11. H. strobilifera, S. Moore in Joimu Bot. 1880, 40. Closely 
pubescent. Sterns 1-:^ ft. long. Leaves 5^ by t^ in. linear-oblong, base 
often roiindetl ; cystolitlis on both surfaces many, prominent ; petiole 



J///poestes.] xcviii. acantjiace-K (clakke). 240 

i)-^ in. long. Heads 1-1 j in. long, ovoid, terminal, densely strobilate ; 
outer floral leav^es spathulate-obovate, suddenly acuminate, ri<j^id, clobcly 
imbricate, with 1-8 spikelets under eaclu Bracts free, "^ outer \ in. 
long, oblong. Sepals J in, long, free. Corolla § in. long. Pistil 
glabrous except for a few hairs near the top of the ovary. Capsule 
J- J in. long ; seeds 4, tubercled. — Lin dun in Kngl. tt Prantl, PHaii- 
zenfam. iv. o B. ;)33. 

Xlle I.and. Bongo: Addai, SchivehfuHh, ser. 3, 301 2553 ! 

12. H. Forskalei, R. Br, Prod. 474, in ubs. Small shrub, l~-J ft. 
high, nearly glabrous exc6pt the inflorescence. Leaves 2 by s in., elliptic- 
lanceolate, acuminate to an obtuse point, midrib glabrous beneath in 
the type form (Steudner, 1.^24), or minutely scabrous hairy in the forms 
called //. ftnnua and H. Rothii : petiole 0-J in. long. Inflorescences 
axillary, and running into a narrow terminal panicle ; spikelets mostly 
in unilateral cymes i-1^ in. long; floral leaf to spikelet mostly ^-^ in. 
long, ovate. Two outer bracts of spikelet united for half their length 
into a tube (involucre of Lindau), their free portions hmceolate, sub- 
obtuse, miiuitely pubescent, without glands or long white hairs. Calyx 
^ in. long, tubular for J its length, minutely pubescent, scaiious ; seg- 
ments 5, lanceolate, subacute. Corolla J— ^- in. long, hairy without. 
Filaments rather thick, glabrous above, hairy below ; pollen ellipsoid, 
with -> stopples. Pistil glabrous in the tj'pe form ; souietimes with a 
few hairs near the top of the ovary and on the base of the style. Cap- 
sule \ in. long, those seen 2-seeded ; seeds smooth. — A. Ptich. Tent. Fl. 
Abyss, ii, 163 ; T. Anders, in Jonrn. Linn. Soc. vii. 49 ; Solms-Laub. in 
Schweinf. Beitr. Fl, Aethiop. Ill, 24;> ; R. P>r. in K5alt, Abyss. Append. 
(;2 ; Xees in DC. Prod. xi. 507 ; Zarb, Cat. Spec. Bot. Pfund, 32 ; Engl. 
Hochgebirgsfi. Trop. Afr. 304 ; Lindau in Engl, tt Prantl, Pflanzen- 
fam. iv. o B. 333, and in Engl, Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 371, and in Ann. Istit. 
Bot. E,oma, vi. (1806) 81. //. annua, Steud. Nomencl. ed. 2. i. 791. 
JI. Rothii, T.Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 4!>. Jiistlciu patiicidata^ 
Forsk. Fl. ^^gypt.-Arab. 4, ./, Forskalei^ Yahl, Symb, i. 2. 

ITile Ztanda Kordofaii : Abou YlQ^e, Ffund. Kritrea: Keren, Sfcttdne}', 1524 1 
1529 : Kazen, 8000 ft., Hohlfs 4' Sfecker ! Habab, 7000 ft., Hitdehrandt, 456 ! 
Abyssinia, widely spread, 5000-9000 ft., ScHviper, 29! 35! 241 : 350 1 390! 405 1 
1S61 ! Rot/i, 485 ! Petit ! Salt ! Pearce ! Plowden ! Somalilund : Bt-rbera. Biva, 
111! between Laftiru and Herer, ^if«, 29 ! Danna Torrent, JR)*rff, 838 ! Ogaden, 
liohecchi, 241 : 246 ! 257 ! 

Iiovrer Guinea. Angola : Huilla, Neiv/on, 120 I Aitfinies, 84! 

Mozamb. ]>lst. Britisb Central Africa: Nvasaliiml, Kondowe to Knronga , 
2000-6000 11,, Whytd 

Also in Arabia. 

This plant is also said to grow on Kilimanjaro by Lindau ; but, as it has been con- 
sidered merely a glabrescent form of IT. vertirdfaris, K. I3r., it is not possible 
to separate out either the synonymy or the distribution comijletcly. The plant abtne 
referred here from Nyasaland may belong to H. rfrticillarh, K. Br., vnr, jdahnt, 
S. Moore. 

Vj. H. Hildebrandtii, Linduu in ICnyl Juhrh. xx. 4s. Stems, 
and nearly the whole plant, densely and minutely canesctiit. Leavts 



250 xcviii. ACAXTHACE-£ (clarke). [Hypoestes. 

oblong, or naiTOw-elliptic, obtuse ; otherwise as U, Fui'skalei, — Engl, ^t 
Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. ;333, and in Ann. Istit. Bot. Roma, vi. 
1890, 81. 

Wile I.and. Eritrea : Saganeiti, 7000 ft., SckweinfuHh ^ Riva, 1209 ! 1716 ! 
Mount Kube, 6000 ft., Schtoeuifurth ^ Eivot 1515 ! Somaliland : Golia Range, 
Mrs. Ziort- Fhillipg 1 Miss Edith Cole / Dononati, Biva, 415 ! Barasi Desert, Miva^ 
1435 ! Luferug, James Sf Thnipp ! Ahl Mountains, 6500 ft., SUdebrandtf 860d ! 
Serrut Mountains, near Maid, Mildebrandt, 1405 ! Milmil, Donaldson Smith ! Harar, 
Mohecchi, 4 ! Ogaden Steppe, Keller, 181 ! 

*' Sweet-scented : all over the hills," Mrs. Lort-FhilUps. 



14. H. mlanjensis, C. B, Clarke. Pubescent. Calyx \ in. long, 
minutely puberulous, white, rather firm ; sepals united | their length ; 
otherwise as H, Forskcdei. — II, verticillaris, S. Moore in Trans. Linn. 
Soc. ser. 2, Bot. iv. 34, partly. 

Wile Iiand. British East Africa : TJkamba, Gregory ! 

niozaxnb* Dlst. British Central Africa: Nyasalund; Mount Mlanje, 6000 ft.> 
Whyte, 151 \ 

15. H, verticillaris, R, Br. Frod, 474, in obs. Stem and leaves 
hairy or nearly glabrous. Two outer connate bracts with few or many 
long white spreading hairs. Seeds 4 or 2 to the capsule ; otherwise as 
JI. Fm'skaleiy K. Br. — Nees in Linnsea, xv. 370, and in DC. Prod. xi. 
507 ; T. Anders, in Journ. Linn, Soc. vii. 48 ; Balf, f . in Trans. Roy. 
Soc. Edin. xxxi, 220 ; S. Moore in Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Bot. iv. 34, 
partly ; Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xviii. (Jo, t. 2, fig. 73, and in Engl. tV- 
Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 333, fig. 134,. A-C, and in Engl. Pfl. Cst- 
Afr. C. 371 ; Rendle in Journ. Bot. 1806, 411. H. latifrjlia, Hochst. 
ex Kees in DC. Prod. xi. 500 ; Benth. in Hook. Niger Fl. 484 ; T. 
Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 50 ; Solms-Laub. in Schweinf . Beitr. 
Fl. Aethiop. Ill ; Lindau in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 333, 
and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 371. H. mollis, T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. 
Soc. vii. 49 ; S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1880, 3C3 ; Lindau in Engl, ik 
Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 333. H. echioides, Lindau in Engl. 
Jahrb. xx. 52, and in Engi. & Prtintl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 333, and 
in Engl. Pfl.. Ost-Afr. C 371, Justicia mrtidlkirlSj Linn. f. Suppl. 85. 
Bicliptera verticillarisy Juss. in Ann. Mus. Paris, ix. (1807) 208. 

Upper Cruinea- Senegal, Leprieur ! Perrottet^ 621 ! Senegambiaj Ifeiidelof, 
552! Sierr** Leoue^ Afzelius! Togolandj Alafanjo, Krause I Ashantij Cummins^ 66! 
Lagos^ Milleth 54 ! Cvom Eiver, Johnston ! Camerooiii^ : Rio del Rey, Johmton I 

ITlIe Xianil. Kordofan, Kotscktf, 296 ! 477 ! White Nile, Sckweinfurth, 1058 ! 
1066! Galabatj Matamma, Schiveinfartk, 128! Somaliland, Keller, 182! 184! 
British East Africa : Toru, East of Rowenzori, in Wimi Valley, 7000 ft,, Scoit^^llioty 
7880! 7899! Lykipia, Thomson! Gregori^ I Kapte Plateau, 5000-6000 ft., 
Thomson! Vk^amha^ Mildebrcoidt^ 2715 I Scoft'Mlioi,6i74l Tmm 'Rlvi^r.Ifonaldson 
Smith ! Nyika country near Mombasa^ Wakefield ! 

Xiover Criiiiieaa Congo, Smith/ Angola: Ambriz^ Motitevro ! Golungo Alto, 
Welwitsch, 5118 ! 5142 ! 5144 ! 

Soutb Central. Lunda : Lulua River, Fogge^ 309 ! 

lIKaxaiiib. Sl0t. German East Africa : Kilimanjaro, 3300 ft,, Volkens^ 1652^1664 ! 



Ilypoestes.'] xcviii. acanthace.e (clarke). 251 

Smith! Usambara; Umba Valley, Smith! ^\mm, ITolH, 2987! 3075 1 Masbeua, 
Solsi, 3492 ! 8858 1 Kwa Msbuza, Hohf, 9148 ! Usaramo ; Ukwcre district, 160 ft,, 
Stiihlmann^ 8386 ! Ugalla River, Boehm, 279 ! Lower Plateau, iiurtb of Lake Nvhs^, 
Thouh^on! Lake Tanganyika, Cameron! Kav^ala Island in Lake THnganyika, Carj^on ! 
Portuguese East Africa : Lower Zambesi : Lupata, Kirk ! Lower Valley of the River 
SLire, Meller ! British Central Africa: Urmigu; Fvvambo, Carwn, 50! 93 ! Xuft f 
^jasaland; between Mpata and Tangiinyika Plateau, Wht^fe ! Tanganyika Plateau at 
Fort Hill, nii^ie ! North Nyasa, Wh^te ! ^'yika Plateau, 6uOO^70(J0 ft., Whf^fe ! 
Kondowe to Karonga, 2000-6000 ft,, Wkyte ! Mount Chiradzulu, Helper, 4000 ft., 
Whyte ! Shire Highlands, Buchanan, 116 I 465 ! Mount Mlanje, WJnjfe ! Hhodesiia : 
Leshumo Valley, Jlolub^ 816 ! 

Also in Arabia, Soeotraand South Africa, 

I liave been unable to sort tins species into varieties. Tho plants named by 
Lindau M. latifolia, Hocbst. {ITohf, 8858 ; Volkens, 1652) lue identical v\ith th* 
named by him -ff, verticillaris, Sol and er {liohl, 3492, 9148), from the bauve 
locality : but they are not exactly M, lafifolia, Hochst,, which is founded on KvLscht/, 
296, and has ovate glabrous leaves 4 in, broad, ff, latifolia^ Neee, has leaves rather 
larger than usual (attaining 4 by 1§ in.), but not difteriog in form from thosi* of 
S, verticillaris. H, mollis^ T, Anders., from the Congo, is remarkably like the 
typical Cape H, nertieillaris. The most distinct form (included in the above li%t of 
numbers) is Schweinfurik^s 128, collected in Gallabat (there are several examples like 
it from the Mozambique region), named by Schweinfurth & Lindau JL lafifolia^ 
from which it appears to differ considerably ; tlie leaves are narrowly elliptic, much 
acuminate, the sepals are united scarcely -I their length , the 2 outer bracts are united 
scarcely ~ their length, and with many spreading long white hairs, Xees says (in 
Linusea^ xv, 376) that this species "varies by having 4 didynamous stamens/* 1 
have never met with 4 stamens in any plant of the Justicioid series, 

Var. ^ glabra, S. Moore in Journ, Bot, 1880* 363. Almost glabrous, except the 
inflorescence. Leaves attaining 1 by :|— | in. Bracts pubescent, and also with some 
scattered white longer hairs, 

Xiower Guinea* Angola, Welwiisch^ 5059 ! 

S, Moore is probably right in regarding this as a depauperated state of i/. re*ti' 
ciUaris i but it is perhaps as well entitled to be made a species as any of the species 
which follows 

16. H» Preussii^ Lindatt in Engl, Jahrb. xx, 4H. Leaves up to 5 
by 1| in., elliptic, long acuminate, pubescent on the nerves and witl* 
scattered hairs, very shortly narrowed into the petiole ; otller\vi^e iis 
//. verticillaris^ K. Br. 

Upper Guinea. Cameroons: Buea, 2500 ft,, Preumj 755 ! 

Tliis certainly does not match any of the numerous examples above relcrrcil lu 
H, verticiUariSf but it is difficult to say in what its specific difference exists. Liudau 
says the '^ bracteoles are adnate to the 2-toothed involucre " (which he states oi some 
other species of Mypoesies). There is no union between the bracteoles and hi acts; 
but, as in mzny AeaiithacecB^ the l>racteoles cling or stick somewhat to the bn*ct which 
is external to them, 

17. H# violaceotincta^ Lindau m Katji. Jaltrh, xxiv. ;Ji':!, In- 
florescences axillary and terminal, very compound panirled. Spikelets 
small; two outer bracts hardly exceeding ] in. in length ; otlu rwise aa 
M, verticiUctriSy K. Br, 

upper Guinea. SieiTa Leone: Bafodeya, Scof f- Elliot ! Togoland : Mi«*ahohe, 
Baumami^ 476 ! 



I 



252 xcviii, ACANTHACE^ (clarke). [Hi/poestes . 

Leaves ratlier large. Bracts with gome spreading white long hairs. The plant 
resembles much the large-leaved forms of the West African H. verticillaHs 
(i.e. M. lafifoUa^ § Nees). But Hoist, 2265, from Usambara (marked M. verticillaris 
by Lindau) appears the same as J£, violaaeotineta. 

18. H, tangansrikensis^ (', B. Clarice. Inflorescences axillary and 
terminal J very laxly panicled ; flowers mostly solitary (not clustered), 
\ \ in, apart, white {Whyte). Two outer bracts to the spikelet J by 
-Y2 i^*j subequal, connate about \ their length, linear-oblongj subspathu- 
late ; otherwise nearly as H, verticillaHs. 

nSozamb. Slst. British Central Africa : Nyasaland ; Tanganyika Plateau, 
2000-3000 ft., Whyfe ! Nyika Plateau, 6000-7000 ft., Whyte, 192 I 

hnperfectly known species. 

IIK H. grandifolia^ Lindau m EiigL Jahrh. xx. 49. Stent glabrous. 
Leaves up to 4;^ by 2^ in., pubescent on the nerves beneath. Two 
outer bracts of the spikelet united J their lengthj exceeding \ in. in 
leng"th, hairy J enclosing 2 fl^owers. 

irile Iiand. Bongo, Schiveinfnrth^ 2613. 

The detailed description by Lindau fits very well many of the larger examples re- 
ferred as forms to H. f>eriicillariSf R. Br,, as, for instance, to Schweinfurth, 1066, from 
the White Xile ; but though in this 1066 there is a rudiment of the second flower in 
the spikeletj I find no 2-Howered spikelets. 

The plant was not found at Berlin. 



56. RUNQIA, Kees ; Benth, et Hook, i\ Gen. PL ii. 1120. 

Corolla, stamens, pistil as of Justicia^ sect. Belonica. Placentae in 
ripe fruit rising elastically from the base of the capsule, throwing out 
the F?eeds. — Spikes strobilate ;- bracts in 4 ranks (whereof 2 alternate 
*are sterile), much larger than the calyx, broad with prominently 
scarious margins. 

Species 20, in the wanner parts of the Old World, 

Bentliani describes the inflorescence, " primarial bracts superposed in pairs, 
lower of each pair sterile, upper bearing a flower " ; which is correct but he places 
the genus in his sobtribe DicUpferecB^ to which he attributes ** bracts 2 (or 4) val- 
vately adpressed together, including one or several flowers/' This definition applies to 
Hiclipiera. Peristrophe and Hypoestes^ but cannot be made to apply to Mungia^ 
ill w^hich the infloresseence is as tliat of Justiciar sect, Betonica (or of Adhaioda)^ 
but with 2 ranks of bracts empty. 

Bracts |^ in. long , . . * . . . 1. JE. grandis. 
Bracts \ in. long. 

Leaves acuminate, minutely pubescent , . . 2, J2. paxiana. 

Leaves acuminate, glabrate . - - . . 3* J2. Muetiner i. 

Leaves obtusC; hispidulous , . • . . 4. JZ. congoensis^ 

1 . R, grandis^ T. Ande^^s. in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 4fi. Herbaceous 
up to 10 ft. high. Leaves G by 2i in., minutely pubescent on the 
midrib beneath, nearly glabrous ; petiole | in, long. Spikes terminal, 



Rungia,'] xcviii. acanthace.e (clarke). 253 

or terminating lateral branches, sometimes very short, up to 4 by 1 in. • 
bract up to | by J in., ovate, acute, green pubescent, with very broad 
shining white margins; or the bract sometimes orbicular, J in. in dlauj., 
emarginate, owing to the great development of the swirious mai<nri 
towards the top; bracteoles exceeding | in. in length, boat-shap*ed, 
obtuse. Sepals J in. long, nearly free, linear, pubescent. Corolla J in! 
long, white {Barter) ; anticous lip ovate. Filaments glabrate ; one 
anther-cell very slightly below the other, with a large clavate tail ; 
pollen eUipsoid, with 6 bands and pores, and one row of .smooth 
tubercles on each side of each stopple. Pistil and lower part of the style 
hairy; style-branches 2, subequal, very short. Capsule J in. long, 
ovoid, subsessile, compressed, 4-seeded ; placentae rising elastically from 
the capsule- base ; seeds cere brose- tubercular. — Justicia (jarckeaua, iJiittn. 
in Verhandl. Bot. Yer. Brandenb. xxxii. (1890), 38. 

Upper Crulnea. Sierra Leone, Kofiu Mountain, ScoU-MUot, ItilC ! Stigarloaf 
Mountain, 2000 ft., Scott-Elliot, 3964.! and witliout precise locality, Afzelius ) Win- 
wood Eeade ! Lagos ; Otta Ifo, Rowland 1 Ikirun, Millson ! Eppah on the Kradu 
Lagoon, Barter, 3274 ! and without precise locality, Moloney, IG ! Milieu, 59 ! 
Cameroons : Yaunde, Zenker ^ Standi^ 172 ! 

Iiower Guinea. Congo, Smith ! Angola : Quidando River, MarQtfes, 33f> I 
Kuango River, Biittner, 356! 

2. R. paxiana, C. B. Clarke, Herbaceous, up to 5 ft. hifh. 
Leaves, up to 5 by Ih in., broad4anceolate, acuminate at either end, 
somewhat hispidulous ; petiole -| in. long. Spikes terminal and quasi- 
axillary, 1\ by J in. ; bracts \ in. long, or rather more, orbicular, with 
a few long white hairs, and broad white margins _; bracteoles nearlv 
linear. Corolla hardly ^- in. long, pale purple {G, Mann). One anther- 
cell clearly lower than the other, not tailed : pollen as of R. yrandis. 
Capsule |- in. long, nearly glabrous, except the tip, sometimes 4-seeded ; 
placentie rising elastically from the base; seeds papillose, hardly 
tubercled. — R. pubescens^ T. Anders. MS. Justicia pa.rlana^ Lindau in 
Engl. Jahrb. xx. 03, and in Engl, k Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. o B, .15(>. 

Xiower Guinea. Cameroons; Buea, 3500 ft., Preww, 956 ! Cameroon Muun- 
tain, 3000-iOOO ft., Mann, 1968 ! Fernando Po, 3000 ft., Mann, 588 ! 

Lindau lias redistributed the species of Rungia, Justicia, JSimanfochilun, &c., by 
the pollen; the Diclipteroid group have "Spangen (bandedj pollen," the Justicioid 
have " Knotchen (tubercled) pollen." He attributes to Rungia "plucenta arising 
elastically from capsule-base," while nothing is said under the genus Jusficii re- 
garding this character. Under this system, Rungia pubescens, T. Anders., appears 
&s Justicia pax iana, UindAW, Rungia grandis,T. Audevs.,\s returned to Kew from 
Berlin marked Justicia grandis (T. Anders.), Lindau; Rungia [?) pubinervia, T. 
Anders,, is published as Himanfochiliis marginafus, Lindiiu. Per contm, Justicia 
tenella, T. Anders., is called Rwngia Bamnannii, Lindau. The "banded" pollen 
appears to me separable by no definite line from tlie tubercled pollen ; the smooth 
bands (in the centre of vvhic;h are the pores) have often " obsolete" rows of marks or 
dots which (in adjacent species) are slightly stronger and reckoned as tubercle«. If 
Rungia grandia and R. puhescens, T. Anders., are transferred to Juslicia, the genus 
Rtmgia must be abandoned altogether. 

3. R. Buettneri, Lindau in EmjL Jahrb. xx. 46. Leaves 4 by 1 ^ 

in., narrowed at both ends, upper surface puberulous, finally glabi*ate ; 



254 xcviii, ACANTHACB^ (clarke), [Huugia, 




1 in. long. Spikes terminal and quasi-axillary, unilateral ; 
bracts nearly J in. long, ovate, hyaline-edged^ apiculate or long-euspi- 
date* Calyx J in, long, unequally 5-fid, hairy. Corolla | in, long. 
One anther-cell lower than the other, tailed ; pollen ** banded *' and also 
minutely tubercled. Capsule small, puberulous ; dissepiments separ- 
ating ; seeds tubercled. — Lindau in EngL & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 






Upper Guinea. Camerooiis : Yaunde, Zenker ^^ Staudi^ 189! 

Soutb Central. Cong:o Free State : in thickets by the River Ganga, near the 
town of Muene Putii KasongOj Biiitner^ 436 ! 

Not in " Gaboon- Loan go/* as stated by Lindau ; see Proc. Royal Geograph. Soc, 
1886, p. 635. 

4. R# congoeiisis, C* /A Clarke. Branches 1 foot long, minutely 
pubescent. Leaves ^-^ by 1 in., obtuse, glabrate, base attenuate; petiole 
J in. long. Spikes terminal and many quasi-axillary, up to 1 J by 
nearly J in.; bract orbicular, J in. in diam.^ minutely pubescent, with a 
broad hyaline margin. Sepals 5, subequal^ j^^ in. long, linear • Corolla 
small, hardly exceeding \ in, in length (not seen well expanded). Capsule 
J-1 in. long ; placentae rising elastically from the base of the valves ; 
seeds minutely tuberculate* 

IiQwer Guinea- Lower Congo: Lukiingiij 700 ft,, Mens, 330 ! Smith, 64! 

This has been supposed possibly to be Muuffia repens^ Nees, a common weed in 
India ; but the seeds differ, and the numerous axillary spikes give it a different 
aspect- 



57. MACROKXTNGIA, C. B. Clarke. 

Sepals 5j united half-way up, or nearly free, coloured, searious, free 
portions broad -lanceolate. Corolla red ; tube scarcely \ in, long ; 
anticous lip 1 in, or more, without in the bud, sub-3-fid or subentire ; 
posticous lip broader, emarginate. Stamens 2 ; filaments long exserted, 
glabrous ; ant her- eel Is 2, oblong, mut icons, one placed a little below the 
other ; pollen ellipsoid, with 2 stopples and several rows of minute 
tubercles, obscurely banded. Capsule ovoid ; placentae rising elastically 
from the base of the valves ; seeds obscurely cerebrose-marked.^ — 
Shrubs, nearly glabrous. Leaves entire. Flowers in spikes ; bract 
ovate ^ narrowly hyaline-edged ; bract eoles 0, or narrow. 

Species, besides the subjoined, 1 in South Africa, 

From the fruit, Macrorungia must afcand next Rungla or be sunk in it. The 
corolla is very unlike that of Rungla^ as is the comparatively large tubular hyaline 
calyx. The spikes are looser than in Rungia^ less strobilate, the bracts not (or most 
obscurely) 4*ranked, some of them (not those in one definite rank) empty* 

The distinction between Anisoie?; and Macrorungia lies in the elastic rising of the 
placentse in the ripe capsule in Macrorungia, Lindau has placed his Sympleciochilns 



The following text is generated from uncorrected OCR. 
[Begin Page: Page 179] 

JBrachy Stephanies.] xcviii. acanthace'^ (clarke). 179 

Anthers J-J in. exserted ; poiien giobose, siightiy trigonous, obscureiy 
3-banded, minuteiy tubercied. — B. yaundensis, Lindau in Engi. & 
Pranti, Pfianzenfam. iv. 3 B. 344. 

Upper Guinea. Cameroons: Yaunde, Zenker Sf Staudt, 312 ! Loiodorf, Staudt, 
374 ! Efuien, Bates, 246. 

5. B. occidentaiis, Lindau in Engi. Jahrh. xx. 53. Stem ft. 

high, neariy giabrous. Leaves 5J by 2J in., narrowed at both ends, 
when mature giabrate above, minuteiy hairy beneath ; cystoiiths 
many, smaii; petioie '^-l in. iong. Panicies 3 J by W in. iong, iax, 
minuteiy pubescent ; iower branches e voiute into zigzag racemes ; fiowers 
soiitary ; bract scarceiy y'^ in. iong, iinear. Sepais \-\ in. iong, iinear, 
neariy giabrous. Coroiia-tube | in. iong ; iips \ in. iong, siightiy 
notched. Poiien giobose, strongiy echinate. Pistii of the genus. — 
Lindau in Engi. & Pranti, Pfianzenfam. iv. 3 B. 344. 

Lower Guinea. Isie of St. Thomas, 2000 ft., Mann, 1096! Quint as, 91 ! 
Weiwitsch, 5208 ! Moiier, 16 ! 

6. B. (?) Mannii, C. B. Ciarke. Stem 2-3 ft. high. Leaves 6J 

by 2.'^ in., obovate-ianceoiate, attenuate at both ends, neariy giabrous ; 
cystoiiths scattered on the under surface and aiong the nerves on the 



upper surface; petiole up to f in. long; main nerves subparallel, 1 on 
each side the midrib. Panicle terminal, 3 by § in., viscid-pubescent ; 
flowers solitary, the lower on short zigzag racemes ; bracts \ in. long, 
linear. Sepals \ in. long and upwards, linear, viscid-pubescent. 
Corolla purple ; tube J in. long, linear. Filaments 2, long exserted, 
glabrous ; pollen globose, most minutely tubercled. Pistil glabrous ; 
ovary oblong ; stigma subcapitate ; disc small. 

liower Guineat Gaboon : Sierra del Crystal, Mann, 1666 ! 
Anthers not seen ; hence the genus is not certain. 

43. JUSTICIA, Linn.; Benth. et Hook. f.Gen. PI. ii. 1 1 08. 

Calyx (small or medium) divided nearly to the base ; segments o 
(or very rarely 4), linear or linear-lanceolate. Corolla 2-lipped, 
nearly alw'^ays hairy without; tube not (or scarcely) longer than the 
limb ; anticous lip 3-lobed ; posticous lip entire or shortly 2-lobed ; 
palate often marked by spots or transverse wrinkles. Stamens 2 ; one 
anther-cell distinctly below the other, definitely tailed ; pollen elHpsoid, 
with 2 or 3 longitudinal smooth areas containing stopples, continued to 
the pole or not, with longitudinal rows of tubercles often reduced to 
granular patches or obsolete. Ovary with 2 (or 1 ) ovules in each cell ; 
style linear, usually more or less hairy in the lower half ; branches 2, 
minute, subequal. Capsule 4-seeded , stalk solid, usually short, not 
slender: placenta not rising from the base elasticolly ; seeds rough or 
tubercular, rarely hairy. In J. heterocarpa, and a few allied species, 
besides the normal 4-seeded capsule there occur 1- seeded dimorphic, 



[Begin Page: Page 180] 



180 



XCVIII. ACANTHACE/E (cLAUKE). 

[Jitsticia. 

spinous-vvinged capsules. — Herbs or shrubs. Leaves entire or obscurely 
wavy-crenate. Flowers small or medium-sized, purple-yellow or white, 
in spikes (strobilate or loose, or interrupted below), terminal or axillary, 
or in axillary clusters, or solitary, or in slender loose axillary spikes, or 
in panicles, or in reduced (often panicled) cymes ; floral leaves broad, 
imbricated (as in strobilate spikes), or narrow, long, or small ; bracts 
long elliptic, or narrow small, or 0. 

Species 200; throughout all warm regions. 

*Betonica. — Spikes strobilate; floral leaves ovate, often 

somewhat 1 -ranked. Sepals 5, except in 11 . J. tenella. 

Pollen hardly tubercled. 

Floral leaves white reticulated with green or purple 

veins. Capsule hairy. (Species 1-7 are all one in 



the opinion of T. Anderson and of S. Moore.) 

Floral leaves reticulated with green veins. 

Petiole \-^ in. long 

Petiole O-Jg'^ in. long. 

Leaves softly hairy beneath. 

Leaves up to 3 in. long 

Leaves |-| in. long 

Leaves nearly glabrous. 

Leaves 2\ in. long 

Leaves 1| in. long 

Leaves f in. long 

Floral leaves reticulated with purple veins . 
Floral leaves not white, reticulate-veined. 
Sepals 5. 

Leaves up to 7 in, long; floral leaves | in. long, 
white margined 



Leaves up to 3| in. long ; floral leaves V^ In. long 
Leaves up to 1 in. long, round 

1. J. Betonica. 

2. J. betonicoides. 

5. J. ruwenzoriensis . 

6. J. andongensis. 
4. J. trinervis. 

3. J. nilgherrensis. 

7. J. versicolor. 

Sepals 4 ; floral leaves \ in. long .... 

'^ROSTELLTJLAEIA. — Flowers in terminal spikes, hardly 
strobilate, more or less interrupted at the base; floral 
leaves narrower than in subgenus Betonica, upper 
imbricated. Flowers 1-3 under each floral leaf, which 
becomes the " proper bract " when there is only 
1 flower under it. 

Sepals 5 (in a few species the posticous sepal much smaller 
than the others), not conspicuously white-margined. 
Floral leaves ovate or elliptic (see also 21 . J. nyassana). 



[Species in tiiis group of wliicii tine fruit is un- 
known may turn out to be of tlie genus 
Moneclima?'^ 

8. J. Pseudorungia. 

9. J. pmtcinervia. 

10. J. Emini. 

11. J. teneiia. 

12. J. plnyiiostacliys. 

Fiowers 3-2 under eacin fiorai ieaf 
Fiowers 1 under eacli fiorai ieaf (bract). 

Leaves acuminate ; ovary giabrous . . .13. J. iata. 

Leaves subotuse ; ovary siiaggy ... 14. J. simpiicispica. 

Coroiia\-\ in. iong. 

Leaves 5 in. in diam., very iong petioied, cordate .15. J.Jittonioides 

Leaves f in. iong ; fiorai ieaves orbicuiar 

16. J. mossambieensis. 



[Begin Page: Page 181] 



Justicia. 



XCVIII. ACANTHACE-E (cLARKE). 



181 



Leaves \ in. long; floral leaves narrowly elliptic . 17. J. baravensis. 
Floral leaves linear-oblong or linear (small narrow- 
elliptic in 21 , J. nyassana). 
Sepals yV" V in. long, linear-lanceolate or linear. 
Cupsule soft with many minute deflexed hairs. 
Spikes '^ in. broad. 

Bracts and bracteoles without linear yellow- 
hairy tips. 
Leaves ovate to elliptic. 

Sepals hispid, and also with minute 

moniliform hairs . . .18. J.JIava. 

Sepals hispid, but with no moniliform 

hairs 19. J. palustris. 



Leaves lanceolate to linear . . .20. J. kirkiana. 

Bracts and bracteoles with linear yellow-hairy 

tips 21 . «7. nyassana. 

Spikes \ in. broad 22. J. linearispica. 

Capsule (as ovary also) quite glabrous. 
Spikes continuous or nearly so. 

Petiole 0-i in 

Spikes more or less interrupted at the base. 
Spike linear-oblong, somewhat interrupted . 
Spike long-linear, much interrupted . 

Sepals I in. long, conspicuously white-margined. 

Leaves subsessile ; corolla § in. . 

Leaves petioled ] corolla 1 in. . 

Sepals 4, subequal, small, with very small flowers 

23. J, longecalcarata. 

24. J. tanaensis. 

J. aridicola. 
J. stachytarphe- 



toides. 

27. J. togoensis. 

28. J. tilugurica. 

29. J. diffusa. 

**'^Calophanoides. — Flowers axillary, sessile, clustered or 
solitary j uppermost clusters hardly confluent into a 
spike. 

fBranches herbaceous, internodes long. Leaves more or 
less hairy. Flowers mostly 4 or 2 in each cluster 
under one floral leaf with minute (or no) bracts, 
though solitary flowers also occur. All the capsules 
seen in this group normal, 4-seeded, exceeding \ in. 
long. [Species 30-34 of this group, together with 
37, may be treated as one (for which composite 
species T. Anderson devised the name J. neglecta) ; 
Oliver accepted this view, but kept 35. J. dys- 
choristeoides distinct.] 

Capsule glabrous; style-base usually hairy, and some- 
times tip of capsule slightly hairy. 
Sepal-tips lanceolate, or subobtuse shortly linear-tipped. 
Leaves dark green, lower long-petioled . 
Leaves pale green, short-petioled .... 
Sepal-tips linear, acute, hispid. 
Leaves 1-3 in. long. 



Sepals \ in. long ; corolla \ in. long . 
Sepals i in. long ; corolla less than '^ in. long 
Sepals -| in. long. 

Corolla |-1 in. long, tube narrow . 
Corolla \ in. long, tube broad 
VOL. V. 

32. 
33. 

34. 
36. 

J. insular is. 
J. calcarata. 

Galeopsii. 
Lazarus. 

leikipien.'^is. 
pinguior. 



[Begin Page: Page 182] 



182 



XCVIII. ACANTHACEiE (CLARKE). 

[Justida, 

Leaves J in. long, very glabrous 
Capsule hairy. 

Leaves oblong, scabrid hairy .... 
Leaves lanceolate to linear, glabrate . . . , 
Leaves ovate to lanceolate, hairy 

j-fHarnieria. — Branches herbaceous ; internodes long. 
Leaves more or less hairy. Flowers several or one in a 
cluster. Capsules normal, 4-seeded ; and also (often 
mixed therewith in the same cluster) abnormal, ovoid, 
Bubpyramidal, 1 -seeded capsules, with strongly toothed 
wings. — N.B, In J. Mollugo, J. shehelensis, J. hetero- 
carpa, var. /9, and in J. lepfocarpa no abnormal 
capsules have been seen, and the plants may prove to 
belong to groups f or ttt- Further, the typical 
dimorphic-fruited J. Melampyrum was esteemed by 
Oliver to be possibly only a seasonal form of 
J. instilaris, T. Anders, in group f. 
Flowers 5 in. long at least. Normal capsules more than 
\ in. long. 

Lower leaves ovate-lanceolate, base acute 
Lower leaves long-petioled, base rounded 



Leaves \ in. long, obovate, snbsessile 

Flowers scarcely \ in. long. Normal capsules less than 

\ in. long. 

Lower leaves ovate-lanceolate. Flowers sessile. 

Sepals '^ in. long. Normal capsules '^J in. long . 

Sepals i in. long. Capsule \ in. long . 

Lower leaves oblong-elliptic. Flowers subcymulose . 

•fffFlowers scattered, many solitary, or axillary on short 
pedicels ; but clusters of 3-1 flowers frequently occur. 
[These form a badly-limited group, placed with 
Gendarussa by T. Anderson and Bentham. I do not 
see any particular affinity between J. Gendarussa and 
J. odora (the "type" of the present group), but I 
have 1 1 great improvement in the arrangement to pro- 
pose.] 

Mature leaves glabrous ; in J. Fischeri sometimes with 

a few bristles on the margins. [Corolla |-§ in. 

long. Capsule glabrous.] 

Leaves linear ; capsule § in. long .... 

Leaves ovate or oblong; capsule hardly \ in. long. 
Leaves hardly \ in. long; corolla purple . 
Leaves exceeding i in. long ; corolla (where 
known) yellow. 
Leaves obtuse. 



Nerves obscure 



Nerves distinct 



Leaves apicuiate 



Mature ieaves (often minuteiy or tliiniy) liairy. 

Species of West Africa (ieaves f in. iong; coroiia 
vioiet) 

Species of East Africa. 
Capsuie giabrous. 

Leaves \ in. iong; coroiia \ in. iong 

35. J. dysciioristeoides. 

37. J. sexanguiaria. 

38. J.fiiifoiia. 

39. J. Wliytei. 

43. 
44. 
45. 



J. Melampyrum. 
J. Lindaui. 
J. shehelensis. 

J. heterocarpa. 
J. leptoearpa. 
J. Mollugo. 

46. 

47. 

48. 
49. 
50. 

51. 

52. 

J. LorteoB. 
J. Phillipsice. 

J. odora. 

J. sansiharensis. 

J. Fischeri. 



J. hrevicaulis. 
J. microphylla. 



[Begin Page: Page 183] 



Justicia. 



XCVIII. ACANTHACE'^ (cLARKE). 



183 



Leaves 1 in. long; corolla | In. long . . 53. J. gesnerlfulla. 

Capsule hairy. 

Leaves 1 in. long; corolla about \ in. long . 54. J. diclipter aides. 

Leaves V^ in. long ; corolla \-\ in. long . 55. J. urbaniana. 

****GENDAETJasA. — Panicle terminal, or the axillary 
cymes running into an elongate terminal quasi-panicle. 
Bracts linear, shorter than the calyx, inconspicuous ; 
floral leaves (if any) remote from the calyx, at the 
principal divisions of the panicle. [N.B. There is no 
essential diflference between the inflorescence of h 
species such as J. cordata and that of subgenus 



Bostellularia ; the primal'y branches of the " panicle " 
carrying smaii clusters of fiowers at their tops are 
altogether homologous with the lateral branches carry- 
ing short terminal spikes in RostellulaHa ; the 
tangible diflference is that in the subgenus Gendarussa 
the bracts are narrow, not longer than the calyx.] 
Panicle linear, nearly continuous (a very glabrous 

shrub) 56. J". Oendanissa. 

Panicle more lax, with the lateral cymes more or less 

evolutc. 

Flowers 1 in. long or more. 

Corolla very deeply 2-lipped. 

Ovary glabrous ; leaves nearly glabrous 
Ovary and capsule hairy. 

Leaves up to 5 in. long, sparsely pubescent 
Leaves l'^ in. long ; pubescence brown- 
glandular 

Leaves '^ in. long, minutely densely grey- 
hairy 

Corolla-tube much longer than the lips . 
Flowers '^-f in. long. 

Panicle branches divaricate or recurved ; flowers 



solitary. 

Ovary and capsule glabrou*. 

Panicle oblong ; floral leaves often large, ovate 62. J. laxa. 
Panicle linear ; floral leaves small, linear . 63. J. vyramidata. 

Ovary and capsiile hairy 64. J. exten'^a. 

Panicle branches oblique, erect, with a cluster of 

3-1 flowers at the top. 

Branches and leaves glabrous .... 65. J. cordata. 

Branches and leaves hairy .... 66. J. piloso-cordata. 

Panicle branches of short 1 -sided spikes; flowers 

solitary 67. J. ntasaiensis. 

Panicle compound ; floral leaves or minute ; flowers 

in small distant sessile clusters ... 68. J. interrupta. 

Panicle compound with capillary branches; flowers 

solitary 69. J. glabra. 

Ansellia. — Spikes axillary, weak, unilateral, with '^qw 
distant solitary flowers. Corolla small. Capsule small. 



ellipsoid, short-stalked, 4-seeded, very thin in texture ; 
seeds strongly rugose. These plants form a small, 
distinct, closely-allied group, and appear to me related 
to some American species of Dianthera (as D. ovata. 



[Begin Page: Page 184] 

184 xcviii. ACANTHACE'^ (clarke). [JiLstida. 

Walt., Rhytigloftsa humilis, Nees) ; but in Ansellia 
the tail of the lower anther is well developed, so that 
the group Ansellia cannot be united with Dianthera 
unless, with Lindaii, the unmanay'^eably lonp series of 
species of Juslicia be increased by sinking Dianthera 
altogether in it. Lindau assigns these species of sect. 
Ansellia as " typical " examples of his section 
Rostellaria (characterised by Lindau as having 
flowers in dense spikes). The sect. Ansellia, as 
intimated by T, Anderson, is possibly best dealt with 
by making it a separate genus. 
Spikes usually with more than 2 flowers. 

Corolla about " in. long. (These three species in the 
arrangement of Lindau are but one.) 

Nearly glabrous. Leaves oblong or linear . . 70. J. anselliana. 



Pilose. Leaves 2-3 in. iong 71 . J. matammensis. 

Piiose or pubescent. Leaves '^-§ in. iong . . 72. J. uncinuiata. 

Coroiia I in. ion'^ or neariy so 73. J. crassiradix. 

Spikes 2- fiowered ; leaves subsessile, base truncate . . 74. J. Nuttii. 

1 . J. Betonica, Linn. S}). Plant. 21 . Shrubby, nearly glabrous. 
Leaves :> by l'^ in., ovate, acuminate, shortly acuminate at the base; 
petiole J, -J in. long. Spikes 4J by | in. long, strobilate; bracts some- 
what 4-ranked, '^ by '^ in., ovate, acute, white green-nerved ; bracteoles 
J by \ in., similar to the bracts. Sepals \ in. long, linear, pubescent. 
Corolla h in. long, white, rose-spotted. Filaments glabrous, dilated at 
the top ; one anther-cell below the other, very long-tailed ; pollen 
ellipsoid with 2 stopples, the longitudinal band passing completely round 
the grain, with one row of patches on each side of each stopple. Pistil 
nearly glabrous. Capsule '^ by i in., retrorsely hairy, 4-seeded ; stalk 
^ in. long, solid, stout ; seeds rugose. — T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. 
vii. 38 ; C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iv. 525. Adhatoda 
Betonica, Nees in Wall. PI. As. Rar. ill. 103, and in DC. Prod. xi. 385. 
Nicoieha Betonica'^ Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xviii. 5G, G3, t. 2, fig. 56, 
and in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 329, and in Engl. Pfl. 
Ost-Afr. C. 370.— Rheede, Hort. Malabar, ii. t. 21. 

Upper Guinea. Sierra Leone (ex Lindau). 

£o\irer Guinea. Angola and Damaraland (ex Lindau). 



Xfile Ziand. Abyssinia : Kordofan, (ex Lindau). 

XKEozamb. I>ist. Portuguese East Africa: Goiongoza, Carvallio ! 

No example tliat matclies at all closely the ovate-leaved J. Betonica, Linn, (type, 

Rheede, Hort. Malab. ii. t. 21), has been seen by me from Africa except Carvalho's; 

and the above distribution is given on the authority of Lindau, who possibly 

(as T. Anderson) considered several of the succeeding species as mere varieties of 

J. Betonica. But Lindau admits liicoteba nilyherrensis and N. versicolor as 

species. 

This species also occurs in India and Malaya. 

2. J. betonicoides, C. B. Clarke. Leaves 3 by J-f in., oblong or 
lanceolate, hairy beneath and on the nerves above, subsessile. Style 
rather densely hairy ; otherwise as J. Betonica. 



[Begin Page: Page 185] 

Justicia.] xcviii. acanthace.e (clarke). 185 

wile Ziand. British East Africa: Jur; Jur Gliattas, Schweinfurth, 1423.1 

Mittu, Schxoeinfurth, 2793 ! Bongo, Schweinfurth, 2543 ! along Gilgil River, north of 

Lake Naivaslia, 6000-7000 ft., Scott-Elliot, 6647 ! 

XVIozaznb. Bist. British Central Africa: Nyasaland ; Taiiganvika Plateau, at 
Fort Hill, 3500-4000 ft., Whyte ! 



The plants here collected Ho not match exactly. In Scott-Elliot, 6647, the bracts 
are more than \ in. long, very wliite scarious ; in Schiveinfurth'^ 1423, the stems are 
very hairy, the bracts more than \ in. long, mucronate ; in other examples the bracts 
are '^\ in. long, green. 

3. J. nilgherrensis,. Wall. Cat. 2135. Small, procumbent, nearly 
glabrous. Leaves f by '^ in., lanceolate, sessile. 13racts '^ '^y \ in., 
greenish- white, green-veined ; bracteoles \ in. long, lanceolate. Fila- 
ments glabrous, except close to their point of attachment ; otherwise as 
J. Betonica.— C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iv. 520 ; S. Moore in 
Journ. Bot. 1880, 309, partly. Adhatoda nihjherrica, Nees in DC. 
Prod. xi. 38G ; Wight, Ic. t. 1544. Nicoteha nikjherrensis, Lindau in 
Engl, ct PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 329. 

ItovreT Guinea. Angola : Huilla, Wehcit.sch, 5043 I 

This specimen has acute leaves and laxer spikes tlian in the South Indian 
J. nilgherrensis. 

4. J, trinervia, Vahl'^ Enum. i. 156. Small, procumbent, nearly 
glabrous. Leaves Ih by '^ in., oblong-elliptic, obtuse, sessile. Spikes 

1 J by J in., flexuose ; bracts \-\ in. long, ovate, acute, green-veined. 
Flowers rather smaller than those of ./. Betonica. — C. B. Clarke in 
Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iv. 526. J. Betonica, T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. 
Soc. ix. 51 0. Adhatoda trinervia'^ Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 386. .1 . varie- 
'^ato, Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 385; A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii. 154; 
Solms-Laub. in Schweinf. Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. 104. Nicoteba tHnervia, 



Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 329. Gemlarussa varie- 
gata, Hochst. ex Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 385. 

wiie Ziand. Abyssinia : Sana ; on dry liiiis near Docliii, Scliimper, 516 I 
Aiso in Soutliern India. 

5. J. ruwenzoriensis, C. B. Clarke. Stems 8 in. long, with 
patent white hairs. Leaves |-f in. in diam., ovate or round, softly 
hairy beneath ; petiole hardly any. Spikes 2 by '^-J in. ; bracts | in. 
long, ovate or obovate, scarcely acute, haiiy, green-nerved. Corolla ivs 
of ./. Betonica, but rather smaller. Filaments glabrous ; pollen with 3 
large stopples. Ovary hairy ; lower part of the style very hairy ; 
otherwise as ,/. Betonica. 

llCozamb. Sist. German East Africa : Karagwe, on dry hills, 4000-5000 ft. 
Scott- Ell lot, 3120 ! 

Possibly another variety of J. Betonica. 

6. J. andongensis, C. B. Clarke. Branches 18 in. long, with two 
hairy lines. Leaves 2| by j in., cuneate-triangular at either end, 
glabrous or minutely hairy on the nerves beneath; petiole <>-jV 1"- 
long. Spikes, flowers and bracts nearly as of J. Betonica, Linn. Fila- 



[Begin Page: Page 186] 



180 XCVIII. ACANTHACEiE (CLARKE). [JtlSticia. 



merits glabrous ; pollen with 3 stopples. Style hairy. — J. Betonica, 
S. Moore in Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. o09, partly. 

Ko'wer Guinea. Angola : Pungo Andongo, IVelvoitsch, 5111! Malangc, 
Pogge, 301 ! Amboland, Schinz, 36 ! 

The leiives of this plant, which are subsessile with both ends nearly alike, do not 
agree with the Indian J. Beionica. But this may be a form of J. nilgherrensis 
{Welwitsch, 5043), as S. Moore took it to be. 

7. J. versicolor, C. B. Clarke. Woody shrub; branches and 
innovations densely and minutely grey-hairy. Leaves 2J by | in., 
oblong-elliptic, obtuse, when mature nearly glabrous; petiole 0-J in. 
long. Spikes terminal, 3 by 1 1 in.; floral leaves | by i in., narrowly 
elliptic, obtuse, loosely imbricate, coloured, purplish-veined. Sepals 5, 
\ in. long, equal, narrow -lanceolate, 3-nerved, minutely hairy. Corolla 
|-1 in. long, pale- violet; tube very short; posticous lip subentire. 

One anther-cell below the other, spurred ; pollen ellipsoid ; stopples 3, 
bands reaching the poles, with rows of patches not of tubercles. Capsule 
nearly 1 in. long, densely shortly hairy, 4-seeded ; stalk short, thick, 
solid ; placentae not rising elastically ; seeds irregularly tuberculate. — 
Nicoteha versicolor', Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xxii. 118. 

Xsower Guinea. Angola : Huilla, Welwitsch, 5049 ! Humpata, Newton, 1 1 7 I 
No specimen at Kew. 

8. J. Pseudorungia, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 63. Under- 



shrub, 3 ft. high, very slightly hairy. Leaves up to 7 by 2.^ in., acumi- 
nate at either end, margin wavy ; petiole up to 1 in. long, but often 
(the wing from leaf -base being elongate). Spikes 4 by | in., strobilate ; 
bracts f by J in., with a white scarious margin ; bracteoles f by i in., 
similar. Sepals 5, '^-J in. long, minutely hairy. Corolla J in. long, 
white ; filaments glabrous ; one anther-cell below the other, tailed ; 
pollen ellipsoid, with 2 stopples, and one row of circular patches on each 
side of each stopple. Pistil glabrous. Capsule J-J in. long, glabrous, 
4-seeded ; seeds rugose ; valves not rising elastically. — Lindau in 
Engl, ct PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. 
C. 374. 

wile ]Land. British East Africa : Nyika country near Mombasa, Wakefield ! 

XMCozamb. 2>l8t. Zanzibar, Hildehrandt, 982 ! German East Africa : Usambara ; 
Mascheua, Hoist, 8801 ! Kilimanjaro, '^OOO ft., Johnston, 164 ! Ulugura, Stuhhnann, 
9037! 

9. J. paucinervia, T. Anders. MS. Stems simple, 8-12 in. long; 
innovations rusty with moniliform brown hairs. Leaves 3J by 1-2 in., 
oblong or ovate, narrowed at either end, nearly glabrous except the 
nerves; cystoliths numerous on both faces; petiole J-lj in. long. 
Spikes terminal, 2 by J in., very loose, obscurely strobilate; bracts \-\ 
in. long; obovate, veined, fimbriate, almost lobed at the top, brown- 
ciliate, scarcely imbricate ; bracteoles 0. Sepals 5, scarcely J in. long, 
linear, hairy. Corolla \ in. long. Filaments glabrous ; one anther cell 
below the other, tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, with 2 longitudinal bands and 



[Begin Page: Page 187] 

Justicia.] xcviii. ACANTHACEiE (clarke). 187 

stopples, no tubercles. Ovary nearly glabrous ; style-base somewhat 
hairy. 

liOwer Guinea. Gaboon : Sierra del Crystal, Mann, 1672 ! 

The stem and leaves of this species are unlike those of any other Justicia, but 
simulate those of DisticJiocalyx angxistifolia, D. polyneura, &c., which grow at the 
same place. 

10. J, Emini, Lindau in Engl. Jahrh. xx. ^8. Hairy. Upper 
leaves 1 in. long, ovate, subsessile; lower 2-3 in. long, narrowed at the 
base into a petiole | in. long. Spike terminal, somewhat interrupted at 
the base ; bracts round ; Howers solitary ; bracteoles very small. Sepals 
5, equal, \ in. long, linear, hairy. One anther-cell below the other, 
tailed ; stopples 2 ; one row of obscure patches on either side each 
stopple. Ovary glabrous ; style-base hairy. — Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, 
Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373. 

Wrile Hand. British East Africa: Mpororo; Ruhanda, Stuhlmann, 2086 ! 

The locality is quoted as Rubanga by Lindau, but this is clearly an error, 
as, according to Stuhlmann, Rubanga is the name of a Deity only. 



Lindau separates Nicoteha (i.e. J. Betonica) froin Justicia by the pollen only, 
which is said to be " banded " in Nicoteha, ** tubercled " in Justicia. The pollen is 
essentially the same in the two genera ; but the longitudinal row of tubercles on either 
side the stopple in Justicia is " obsolete " or depressed into circular granular patches 
in Nicoteha. As to the present species, however, placed by Lindau in Justicia, the 
tubercles are not more strongly indicated than they are in many species of Nicoteha. 

11 . J. tenella'^ T. Anders, in Joum. Linn. Soc. vii. 40. Slender, 4- 
12 in. long, nearly glabrous. Leaves up to 1 by f in., ovate, tip obtuse, 
triangular, base slightly decurrent ; petiole \-\ in. long. Spikes \-\ 
by i in., very dense, strobilate. Peduncles \-'^\ in. long, axillary, 
2-0 together ; floral leaves somewhat 4-ranked, \ in. in diam., nearly 
round ; bract J — j'^ in, long, lanceolate ; bracteoles similar, rather 
smaller. Sepals 4, y\- in. long, obtuse, minutely pubescent. Corolla 
i in, long, bluish-white. Stamens 2 ; anther-cells ellipsoid, one below 
the other tailed ; pollen very small, ellipsoid, with 3 stopples and 
longitudinal bands reaching the poles, but no tubercles. Capsule '^ in. 
long, 4-seeded, glabrous ; stalk y'^'^ in. long, solid ; placentae not rising 
elastically ; seeds smooth, with very short hairs on all sides, — Lindau in 
Bolet. Soc. Brot. x. 147. Rostellaria tenella, Nees in DC. Prod, xi. 3('»'.> ; 
Benth. in Hook. Niger Fl. 482. R. ci-enulata, Nees in DC, Prod. xi. oOO. 
R. parviflora'^ Benth. in Hook. Niger Fl. 481 , .Etheileina rvpestre, 
Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 262. Micranthus I'upestris, 0. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 
493 ; Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 29H. Ruiujia 
Baumanniij Lindau in Engl. Jahrb, xxii, 120, Anisostachya tenella'^ 
Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 329, fig. 132, E-G. 
Phaulopsis rupestris, Lindau in Engl, it PrantI, Pflanzenfam. Nachtr. 
zu ii.-iv. 305. 



irpper Guinea. Senegambia, Heudelgf. 327 I Sierra Leone : Lester Peak, 
Scott-Elliot, 3851 ! and without precise locality, Afzelius ! Rattray! Togoland, 
1600 ft., Banmann, 221 ! BUttner, 185! Cameroons: Rio del Rev, Johnston! 
Efulen, Bates, 272 ! Yaunde, Zenker, 299 ! 



[Begin Page: Page 188] 

188 xcviii. ACANTHACE'^ (clarke). [Jitsticia. 

lower Guinea. Princes Island, Barter, 19S5 I Island of St. Thomas, Don ! 
Wehcii-sch, 5200 ! Moller ! Gaboon : Sierra del Crystal, Mann, 1 690 ! 

Mozamb. DIst. German East Africa: Usaramo, Stuhlmann, 869b \ Uluguru, 
Stuhlmann, 8994 ! 

12. J. phyllostachys, C. B. Clarke. Hairy ; branches 2 ft. long, 
angular, dividing. Leaves up to 4 by 1§ in., narrowed at both ends ; 
petiole li in. long. Spikes up to 2J by 1 in,, dense; floral leaves § by 
\ in , acute (but the lower are often 1 in. long, approximating to ordi- 
nary leaves, so that the inflorescence appears leafy), with 3-1 flowers 
under each ; bracteoles 2, minute. Sepals 5, subequal, \ in. long, linear- 
lanceolate. Corolla up to | in. long ; tube linear-cylindric ; very little 
inflated upwards ; lips scarcely \ in. long, posticous oblong-elliptic, 
subentire. One anther-cell below the other, tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, with 
2 stopples and several rows of tubercles on the bands. Pistil glabrous 
except a few scattered hairs on the style. Capsule 1 in. long ; 4-seeded, 
glabrous ; stalk solid, less than -f-'^ in. long ; placentae not rising 



elastically ; surface of .seeds irregularly corrugate. 

Xiow'^er Guinea. Angola : Cunene River, Johnston I 

Mozamb. BIst. Nyasalund ; between Mpata and Tanganyika Plateau, 2000- 
3000 ft., Whyfe ! Nylka 'plateau, 6000-7000 ft., Whyte, 118! Mount Clllradzulu, 
4000 ft., Whyte ! 

The Nyslsallind plant Is the type of this species ; the plentiful material varies from 
soabrld to softly hairy. The Angola fragment Is Imperfect, and appears the same so 
far as It goes. The lower anther-cell Is definitely tailed, but In one example only 
obscurely so. 

1 8. J. Iseta, S. Moore In Journ. Bot. 1 880, 31 1 . Perennial, 3 ft. 
high, hairy. Leaves up to 5 by If In., elliptic-lanceolate, acute at either 
end ; petiole J In. long. Spikes forming a terminal panicle, 1 J by j In., 
or a compound panicle 3 by 2 In., continuous, rather lax ; bract J-J In. 
long, lanceolate from an elliptic base, minutely hairy ; bracteoles \ In. 
long, similar to the bracts. Sepals 5, J In. long, linear or oblong-linear ; 
two antlcous rather broader ; postlcous hardly smaller than the two 
adjacent, but sometimes wanting (fide IS. Moore). Corolla | In. long, 
violet. One anther-cell below the other, tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, with 
2 stopples and single rows of tubercles. Pistil glabrous, except a few 
minute hairs near the style-base. Fruit unknown. — J. malcmgana, 
LIndau In Engl. Jahrb. xx. 71 , and In Engl, k, PrantI, Pflanzenfam. 
Iv. 3 B. 349. 

ZIo-wer Guinea. Angola: Pungo Andougo, W>Zt<?tY5cA, 5081 ! 5108! Malange, 



Buchner, 118 ! 

14. J, simplicispica, C. B. Clarke. Stem 12-18 in. long, weak, 
hairy. Leaves 1 -2 in. long, elliptic or oblong, obtuse at either end, 
hairy beneath, finally nearly glabrous. Petiole O-'^ in. long. Spike 
H '^y l-'^ '^'^•» i"'^ther dense; bracts each containing one flower (true 
bracts) § in. long, tip broad-elliptic, lanceolate ; bracteoles 2, J in. long, 
linear. Sepals o, \-h in. long, linear ; posticous one distinctly shorter. 
Corolla h-'^ in. long. Filaments glabrous ; upper anther-cell shortly 



[Begin Page: Page 189] 

Justicia.] xvciii. acanthace'^ (clarke). 1H<) 

tailed, lower with long tail, clavate, shortly 2-lobed at the tip ; pollen 
ellipsoid, longitudinally 3-banded without tubercles. Ovary shaggy. 

East Tropical Africa. Without locality, Scott-ELUot ! 

Capsule not seen. This may be a Monechma, near M. depauperatum. 

15. J. fittonioides, S. Mom-e in Journ. Hot. 1878, 134. Nearly stem- 
less. Leaves 5 by 4 in., round ellipsoid, white-blotched, glabrous, 
minutely pubescent on the nerves beneath, base cordate ; petiole h-''^ in. 
long. Peduncle axillary 2-4J in. long. Spike up to 2 by J in. '^ inter- 
rupted ; floral leaves \ in. long, ovate, with 1-4 flowers (a condensed 
cyme) ; bract to flower i in. long, linear-oblong. Sepals 5, " in. long, 



linear, pubescent. Corolla scarcely '^ In. long. Filaments glabrous; 
one anther-cell much lower than the other, tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, with 
8 stopples, the longitudinal ribs obscure, not reaching the pole. Ovary 
minutely hairy; style-base thinly hairy. Capsule |-| in. long, glabrous or 
nearly so, 4-seeded; stalk J- J in. long, solid, rather slender; seeds rough ; 
placentae not rising elasticaliy. — Nicoteba Jittonioides, Lindau in Engl. 
& PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 829, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 870. 

xrile Hand. HHtish East Africa : Nyika country near Mombasa, Wakefield ! 

This is placed in Betonica by S. Moore, and in Nicoteba by Lindau. The pollen 
is right for Nicoteba, but the "bracts" described by S. Moore are not homologous 
with the bracts of J. Betonica, 

IG. J. mossambicensis, Liindau in Engl. PJi. Oat-Afr. C. 373. 
Annual, IJ ft. high, pubescent. Leaves | by \ in., ovate, obtuse. 
Flowers 3-1 , clustered in the axils of each floral leaf; floral leaves 
in spikes terminal and on very short axillary branches ; proper floral 
leaves round, \ in. in diam., imbricated, interspersed with oblong leaves 
J-| in. long ; calyx '^'^ in. long. Corolla J-J in. long. One anther-cell 
below the other strongly tailed. Ovary 4-ovulate (Lindau). — Adhaloda 
mossambicensis, Klotzsch in Peters, Reise Mossamb. 217 

XVXozainb. I>ist. Portuguese East Africa ; Mozambique Isle, Peters I in Berlin 
Herbarium. 

The example Is young, and nearly all the spikes have been damaged by some 
insect. The very small Howers point to sect. Harnieria, which the round bract* do 
not suit. 



17. J. baravensis, C. B. Clarke. Branches 2 ft. long, crooked, 
divided, nearly glabrous, with many cystoliths. Lciives J by '^ in., 
ovate, minutely scabrous, hairy, finally glabrate ; petiole 0-yV in. long. 
Spikes terminal up to 2 by J in., more or less interrupted at the base ; 
pubescent, with many gland-tipped hairs ; middle floral leaves (even in 
fruit) loosely imbricate, J by ^^ in-> narrow-elliptic, obtuse, with ;'.-l 
flowers; bracteoles 2, I in. long, linear-obovate. Sepals 5, linear, \ in. 
long, hairy. Corolla (from fragments) J in. long. Capsule J in. long, 
sessile, 2-seeded, ellipsoid, with many deflexed hairs. Seeds compres.»<ed, 
black, ammonite- marked — i.e. resembling those of J.jiava, but smaller. 

irile Hand. South Somaliland : Barava, '^i7f/<°imH'^/, 13091 

No specimen :it Kqw . 



[Begin Page: Page 190] 

190 xcviii. ACANTHACEiE (clarke). [Justicia. 

1 8. J. flava, Vahl, Symb. ii. 1 5, not of Kurz. Herb, 2-4 ft. high, 
hairy. Leaves up to Z\ by 1 ;'' in. (usually smaller), ovate-lanceolate, 
hairy on both surfaces, shortly decurrent on the petiole ; petiole 0-§ in. 
long. Spikes terminal, 4-8 by \ in., continuous, or interrupted at the 
base, lower whorls sometimes distant and passing into axillary clusters ; 
floral leaves \-\ in. long, broad -lanceolate to linear-oblong, obtuse, con- 
taining 3-1 flowers, green, hairy ; flower-bract nearly similar but 



smaller. Sepals 5, y'^A in. long, with long white hairs and also 
with very short moniliform hairs. Filaments glabrous ; one anther-cell 
below the other, tailed ; pollen ellipsoid with two stopples and a row of 
tubercles on each side of the stopple upon the longitudinal band. 
Ovary nearly glabrous except at the top ; style hairy below, branches 2, 
very short, oblong, subequal. Capsule \ by '^ in., 4-seeded, shortly and 
densely retrose-hairy ; stalk yV~i '^"'^'^ aaaaq' nearly as thick as the cap- 
sule ; seeds globose, moderately compressed, yellow-brown, finally nearly 
black, marked by corrugations perpendicular to the margin (as in many 
Ammonites). — J. plicaia, Vahl, Enum. i. 156; Schumach. <t Thonn. 
Beskr. Guin. PI. 11 ; T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 39; Oliv. in 
Trans. Linu. Soc. ser. 2, Bot. ii. 345; S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1880, 
310 ; Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349. J.fasciataj 
Drege, Zwei Pfl. Docum. 160, 195; T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. 
Soc. vii. 39 ; Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349, 
and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373. ./. major, T. Anders, in Journ. 
Linn. Soc. vii. 39 ; Lindau in Engl. <fe PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 
349, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373; and in Ann. Istit. 
Bot. Roma, vi. (1896) 83. J. minor, T. Anders, in Joum. Linn. 
Soc. vii. 39 ; Engl. Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr. 392; Lindau in Engl. <k 
PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349; Bendle in Journ. Bot. 1896, 411. 
J. palustris'^ Oliv. in Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Bot. ii. 345 ; liindau in 
Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost- 
Afr. C. 373 (including var. dispersa, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 72), not 
of T. Anders. J. suaveolens, Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. 
iv. 3 B. 349. /. fallax, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 74, and in 
Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349. J. fruticulosa, Lindau in 
Engl. Jahrb. xx. 75, and partly in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 



3 B. 349. Dianthera americana, a and /3 Forsk. Descr. '^gypt.- 
Arab. 9. D. JIava, Vahl, Symb. i. 5. Tyloglosaa major and T. minor '^ 
Hochst. in Flora, 1843, 73. Adinatoda flava'^ Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 401. 
A. plicata, Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 401 ; Bentli. in Hook. Niger Fl. 484. 
A. suaveolens y''^ee'^ in DC. Prod. xi. 401 . A.major'^ Keesin DC. Prod. xi. 
397; A. Ricli. Tent. Fl. Abyes. ii. 156. A. minor, Nees in DC. Prod, 
xi. 400 ; A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii. 156 ; Solnis-Laub. in Schweinf. 
Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. 103, 242; Zarb, Catal. Spec. Bot. Pfund, 32. 
A.fasciata, Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 402. 

Upper Guinea. Gold Coast: Cape Coast Castle, Vogel ! Togo'land, Butfner, 
21 8 ! 258 ! 286 ! 289 ! 397 ' 648 ! Kliny, 1 88 ! 1 90 ! Baumann, 393 ! Lagos, 
Millen, 32 ! 37 ! Rowland ! Niger Territory : by the River Quorra (Niger), Vogel, 
167 ! Lower Niger ; Onitsa, Barter, 619 ! 1779 ! 

irile Ziand. Nubia : Hor Tamanib uear Suakin, Lord ! Erkowit Mountain 



[Begin Page: Page 191] 

JlCSticia,.] XCVIM. ACANTHACEJE (cLARKE). 191 

near Suakin, Schweinfurth, 256 ! Eritrea : Aidereso, 4000 ft., Schiveinfurth Sf Riva, 
1445! Ginda, 3000 ft., Schweinfurth Sf Riva, 2128 ! Keren, Steudner, 1526! Habab, 
6000 ft., Hildebrandt, 681 ! Abyssinia : Gondar, Boehm, 53 ! mountains near 
Gageros, 3500-6000 ft., Schimper, 172 ! 2296 ! Modat, Schimper, 1043 ! Tacazze 
River, 4000 ft., Schimper, 1251 ! and without precise locality, Schimper, 31 ! 429 ! 
685 ! 1224 ! Somaliland : on the coast at Barava, Kirk ! Galle Borani, Riva, 240 ! 



Duua River, Riva, 11 92! Adda Galla, James '^ Thrupp I Darrar and Smith River, 
Donaidson, Smitli ! and witiiout precise iocaiity. Miss Editin Coie ! Britisli East 
Africa : east side of Lake Aibert Edward, Scott-Eiiiot, 8085 I Uganda, Stulnimann, 
1367 ! Bakoba, Stuliimann, 4005 ! Kavirondo ; Samia, Scott-Eiiiot, 7o82 ! Mauogu 
Mountain, 2000 ft., Jolinston ! Taita ; Ndara Mountain, 2000-3000 ft., Siidelirandt, 
2451 ! Gregory! Ukamba, Hiidebrandt, 2714! 2717! Gregory! Sabaki River, 
Gregory ! Duruma, Hiidebrandt, 2334 ! Mombasa, Kirk ! Hiliielirandt, i«JiO ! 
Scott-Eiiiot, 6120 : 6125! Nyika country near Mombasa, Wakefieid ! 

Itonver Guinea. Angoia : Loanda, Weiwitscli, 5135 ! Pungo Andongo, 
Weiwitscli, 5074! 50'^7! Goiungo Aito, 1000-2500 ft., Weiwitscin, 5183! Huiiia, 
Weiwitscli, 5035 1 5036 ! Antunes, 142 ! Ambriz, Monteiro ! Maiange, Bucliner, 
46! 

Mozamba ]>ist. German East Africa : Kiiimanjaro, Voikens, 513 ! 440 ! 
Meyer, 61 ! 346 ! Neto ! Jolinston, 59 ! Usambara ; Tanga, Voikens, 171 ! Ralie, 
Voikens, 22.01 ! Masolieua, EoUt, 8732 ! 8867 ! East Africa, Fisclner, 87 ! Portuguese 
East Airica : Mozambique, Preiado, 23 ! Britisli Central Africa : Nyasaland, Masuka 
Plateau, 6500-7000, Whyte ! 

The colour of the corolla is known to be yellow in J. plicata (the Upper Guinea 
plant), in the more ovate-leaved Angola plant, in the Abyssinia (Eritrea) plant, and 
in the Mozambique examples (including the Natal J. fasciata). The colour of the 
corolla is not known to me in J. major and J. minor (Abyssinia) ; but the type 
examples appear to me identical with the J. fiava from Arabia and Eritrea (Schwein- 
furth). Species have been founded on the degree of denseness of the inflorescence, and 
the distance (| — 2 in.) by which the lowest whorl of 6 (or fewer) flowers stands apart 
from the next upper whorl. S. Moore says that "in this species there is considerable 
diversity in the size and number of seeds on the same specimen " ; and Lindau 



refers J. major to sect. Monechma, J. plicata to sect. Rostellaria. I remark on 
these views that J. major and J. plicata iook to me identicai, and that the seeds are 
most uniform in all the examples cited here. The most striking aberrations from the 
typical J. fiava among the material above brought together are : 

(1) Hildebrandt, 1940, from Mombasa (and several similar examples from the same 
neighbourhood) , published by Lindau as J. palustris, var. dispersa : this has ovate 
leaves, 1 by § in. The indumentum of the calyx is that of J, fiava (not of 

J. palustris). 

(2) Welwitsch, 5035, 5097, from Angola (and other examples from the same 
locality), published by S. Moore as J. plicata'^ var. ; this has ovate leaves, but is rather 
larger than Hildebrandt, 1940. 

(3) Rowland\s Lagos plant, which has floral leaves up to f in. long, spikes dense 
(in one case going ofi" into a close compound panicle). 

(4) Schweinfurth, 256, from Mount Erkowit, near Suakin, a small plant with 

small leaves, and the spike much interrupted below (with, in fact, axillary clusters of 
flowers). This may be a separable species ; but the fruit and seeds, the flower and 
calyx-indumentum, are as in J. fiava. 

19. J. palustris, T. Anders. inJoum. Linn. Soc. vii. 38. Leaves up 
to 6 J by 1 J in., oblong, tapering at either end ; petiole very short. Sepals 
hispid, without minute moniliform hairs ; otherwise as J. fiava. — Zarb, 
Oatal. Spec. Bot. Pfund, 32; Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Ptianzenfam. iv. 



[Begin Page: Page 192] 

192 XCVIII. ACANTIIACE.« (cLARKE). [JtlSticict. 

?> B. 27!), %. 108, E, and in Ann. Istit. Bot. Roma, vi. (181 M)) 82. 
Tyloglossa pa Iusi7' is and T. acuminata, Hoclist. in Flora, 184o, 72, 1?k 
Adiiatoda palitstris, I'^ee'^ in DC. Prod. xi. 402; A. Ricln. Tent. Fl. 
Abyss, ii. ir)7; Solnis-Laub. in Scliweinf. Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. lO:'^. .1. acit- 
minata, Xees in DC. Prod. xi. 400; A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii. 156. 
Geiidarussa palusiris, Hochst. in Flora, 184:>, 72. 

Wile Hand. Kordofan, Kotschy, 61 ! 80 ! Gallabat, Schweinfurth, 74 ! Abyssinia : 

near Gafta, Schimper, 121 1 ! near Goelleb, Schimper, 139 ! 2156 ! Somaliland, Keller, 

194! 195: 180! 

This species is here separated from J. fiava solely by the indumentum of tile 
calyx. Several examples determined by Oliver and Lindau as ,/. palusfris have been 
cited accoidingly under J. fiava. The Somali example called J. palustris by Lindau 
{Biva, 1 156) has not been seen; Keller, 194, is smaller and greyer than J. 2)(ilustrh; 
and is name»l J. suaveolens by Lindau. 

20. J. kirkiana, T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 39. Leaves 
1 J by J in., lanceolate, or (in one example) 4J by J in., linear, otherwise 
as J. fiava. — Lindau in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 'M''^. J. fasciata, Lindau 
in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. ?u2>. 

Mozamb. ]>lst. German East Africa : Usambara ; Duga, Hoist, 3216 ! 
Portuguese East Africa : Lower Zambesi ; Lupata, Kirk ! Shiramba, Kirk ! and Tete 



Hill, Kirk ! Lake Nyasa, Simons ! 

The example of Hoist, marked by Lindau J. fasciata, Nees (i.e. for me J.flava)'^ 
matches very well one of the type examples of J. kirkiana. That is to say, the 
present species might be an extreme form of J.flava, but the flowers appear, when dried, 
white with purple marks, and were noted by Hoist as " white purple-stained." 

21 . J. nyassana, Lindau in Engl. Jahrh. xx. 06. Floral leaves 
lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, very acute ; bracts and bracteoles with 
linear yellow-hairy tips. Corolla Vl'^ in. long. Capsule J-J in. long, 
otherwise as J. flava, — Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 
349, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. ;'^>73. 

XVIozamb. SIst. German East Africa : Usaramo, Stuhlmann, 6875 ! Ukarai ; 
Mrogoro, »S'^e(AZjwan», 8220 I Usambara, '^oZ.?'^, 485 1 British East Africa : Nyasaland 
Kondowe to Karonga, 2000-6000 ft., Whyte ! Tanganyika Plateau, at Fort Hill, 
3500-4000 ft., Whyte! Mount Chiradzolu, 4000 ft., Whyte! and without precise 
locality, Whyte, 40 I Buchanan, 290 1 

Capsule 4-8eeded, but Lindau puts the species in sect. IVIonechma. Lindau also 

says the spikes are subcapitate, the corolla glabroJis ; he described from poor material. 

The corolla is perhaps purple. 

- 22. J. linearispica, C. B. Clarke. Root woody; branches G-1 in. 
long, minutely pubescent. Leaves 1 by I in., oblong, subobtuse at 
either end, sessile, when mature glabrous. Spike 4 by | in,, much 
interrupted at the base ; floral leaves scarcely J[ in. long, lanceolate, 
2-1 -flowered — i.e. containing usually one corolla and an empty bract to 



upper flower. Sepals 4, '^ In. long, linear-lanceolate, hairy and with 
stalked glands, the 5th postlcous much smaller. Corolla J in. long. 
One anther-cell below the other, tailed ; pollen with 2 stopples banded, 
tubercles minute. Ovary shaggy, style glabrous. Capsules J by 
scarcely '^-j i'^'^-) linear, hairy. 



[Begin Page: Page 193] 

Justicia.] xcviii. acanthace'^ (clarke). 198 

XVXozamb. BIst. British East Africa: Stevens)n Road, betA-een Lake Nyasa 
and Lake Tanganyika, Scolt-IUUot, 8267 ! 

This species is manifestly close to J. stachytarpheloides ; tile inflorescence and 
flowers are very similar thous'^h smaller ; the loaves are diverse. 

23. J. longecalcarata, Lindau in Engl. Jahrh. xx. 73. Innova- 
tions dense with yellow strigose hairs. Leaves 3 by | in., glabrate 
except for obscure hairs on the midrib beneath ; petiole \ in. long. 
Spikes i-J in. long, hairy; bracts and bracteoles linear- oblong, obtuse. 
Calyx, corolla, stamens, and pistil nearly as of ./. JIava. Capsule h in. 
long, 4-seeded, glabrous. — Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam". iv. 
3 B. 349, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373. 

Wile Xiand. British East Africa : Ukamba, Hildebrandt , 2721 ! Sontii of 
Lake Baringo at Nyemps, Gregory ! 



nXozamb. Sist. German East Africa: Kilimanjaro; Voikens, 1764! 2184! 

and on tine piain between Upper Pangani River and Hinjo River, soutli-east of 

Kilimanjaro, 2200-2600 ft., Voikens, 563 ! 

In Folkens, 2184, the entire spikes are hardly f in. long ; the fine examples of 
Gregory have inflorescences up to 9 in. long: the lowest whorl of flowers 2^ in. 
distant. 

24. J. tanaensis, 0. B. Clarke. Branches 2 ft. long, glabrate, 

full of cystoliths ; innovations with strigose hairs. Leaves S'^ by 1'^ in., 
narrowed at both ends, nearly glabrate, full of cystoliths ; petiole '^ -1 in. 
long ; upper leaves smaller, passing gradually into floral leaves, I by \ in. 
Spikes terminal, interrupted, nearly glabrous; flowers 3 — 1 in each 
floral leaf-axil. Sepals 5, \ in. long and upwards, linear-oblong, white- 
margined, slightly scabrous. Corolla '^ in. long or rather more, bluish 
{Thomas), hairy without. One anther-cell below'^ the other, long-tailed. 
Capsule h in. long, rather stout, 4-seeded, glabrous. 

zrile land. British East Africa : j'ana River, Thomas, 38 ! 

The smooth capsule brings this next J. long ecal car ala. The long-petioled green 
leaves do not match. 

25. J. aridicola, Rendle in Journ. Bot. 1890, 410. Woody ; 
branches grey-tomentose. Leaves '^ by \-}i in., elliptic to round, grey- 
tomentose or finally nearly glabrate ; petiole O-'^ in. long. Spike 2h by 
h in., with G whorls, lower approximate, topmost hardly confluent ; 
floral leaves \~'^ in. long, linear, somewhat obovate, with 3-1 flowers. 
Sepals 5, \ in. long, linear, subequal, pubescent. Corolla A-J in. long. 



One anther-cell below the other, long-tailed; pollen ellipsoid, with 2 
bands and stopples, a row of tubercles on either side of the stopple. 
Style with very few scattered hairs. Capsule J in. long, 4-seeded, 
glabrous ; stalk y\j- in. long, solid ; placentae not rising elastically ; seeds 
tubercled, much as in J. JIava. 

KTIIe Hand. Somaliland : Adda Galla, James '^V Thrupp .' Hammar, Miss Edilh 
Cole ! Darar, Donaldson Smith I 



[Begin Page: Page 194] 

194 xcviii. ACANTIIACE.E (clarke). [Justicia. 

26. J. stachytarphetoides, C. B. Clarke. Hairy, 3-8 ft. high. 
Leaves 4 J by 2 in., broad-elliptic, acuminate at either end ; petiole 
J-1 in. long. Spikes 8-13 by h in.; lowest whorls 1 in. apart, upper 
confluent, 3-1 -flowered; outermost bract (floral leaf) \in. long, elliptic, 
acute; bract and bracteoles (or sterile bracts?) \ in. long, lanceolate, 
hairy. Sepals 6, '^ in. long, subequal, linear. Corolla h in. long. One 
anther-cell lower than the other, obUque, long-tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, 
with 2 longitudinal bands, large stopples, no tubercles. Young pistil 
glabrous. — Duvernoia stachytarphetoides, Lindau in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. 
C. 372, and in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam, iv. 3 B. 339. 

ASozamb. X>l8t. German East Africa : Umba River Valley, Smith ! Usaraino, 
iStuhlmann, 8121 ! Portuguese East Africa : Beira, Schlechter ! Lower Zambesi ; 
Shupaiiga, '^'^>'^ .' Scott! 



The capsule has not been seen, and possibly may be densely minutely hairy, 
though the young pistil is glabrous under the microscope. It is difficult to form 
genera that are " natural " in the Order Acanthacece, but it is surely too un- 
natural to place this species under Duvernoia. Lindau appears to have done this on 
one character only — viz., that the lines of tubercles often seen on the smooth bands 
of the pollen in Justicia are here not actual tubercles, but obscurely indicated by 
markings (as is the case in some species placed by Lindau in Justicia). 

27. J. togoensis, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 72. Small herb. 
Leaves l'^- by f in., elliptic, hairy, subsessile. Inflorescence terminal, 

-J in. long, dense ; bracts f by j?'^- in., very hispid ; bracteoles 4 in. long, 
linear. Sepals f in. long, linear-oblong, white-edged, hispid. Corolla 
f in. long. Lower anther-cell tailed. — Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, 
Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349. 

Upper Guinea. Togoland, BiXttner'^ 222 ! 

The example is young, the spike not grown out ; the affinity is perhaps with 
J.flava, as Lindau suggests. 

28. J. ulugurica, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xxii. 126. Branches 
woody. Leaves 1 by i in., ovate, acute, glabrous. Spikes terminal, 
loose, short ; bracts | in. long, lanceolate ; bracteoles minute. Sepals 
'^ in. long, subulate, glandular, hairy. Corolla green or light violet ; 
tube J in. long and more ; limb \ in. long. Lower anther-cell tailed. 
Fruit wanting. 



XMIozazub. BIst. German East Africa : Ukami ; Uluguru, Stuhlmann, 8866 ! 

29. J. diffusa, Wiiid. Sp. PI. i. 87. Stems 8-24 in. long, weak, 
hairy. Leaves \'^ by J — j in., elliptic or ovate, narrowed at either end, 
sparsely hairy ; petiole 0-i in. long. Spikes 1 -1 J by J-J in., sparsely 
hairy ; bracts 4 in. long, narrow-lanceolate, green with scarious margins ; 
bracteoles similar to the bracts but smaller. Sepals 4, J in. long, 
narrow-lanceolate. Corolla -| in. long, purple or rose. ' Filaments 
glabrous; one anther-cell below the other, tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, with 
2 longitudinal bands, not tubercled. Ovary nearly glabrous ; style 
thinly hairy, branches 2, subequal, minute. Capsule i in. long. 



[Begin Page: Page 195] 

Justicia.] xcviii. acanthace'^ (clarke). r.l.j 

4-seecled, minutely hairy (at least on the top and sutures) ; seeds with 
simple tubercles all over. — T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. ix. r>IL' ; 
C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iv. r>;3H. ,/. procuiahens, Linn. Fl. 
Zeyl. 7, at least in part ; T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 40 ; 
Engl. Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr. 81) v;. ,/. simplex, Lindau in En'^d. k 
PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 849. Roslellularia diffusa, Neesin Wall. 
PI. As. Rar. ill. 100, and in DC. Prod. xi. 371. A*, ahyssinica, Nees in 
DC. Prod. xi. 872; A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii. 153. BarleHa pumild, 
Hochst. ex Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 372. 

Nile Xiaud. Abyssinia : Tigre ; lower part of Mount Sholoda, Schimper, 21 I 



on mountains near Axuin, Sckimper, 1524 ! and without precise iocaiity, Scliimper, 
639 ! Quart in- Diiion Sf Petit, 285 ! 

Aii tiiis African materiai is aiike, but in matcliing it against tine numerous sub- 
species of J. procumliens found in India, different views iiave been taken, some 
uniting it witin J. simpiex, D. Don. 

30. J. insuiariSy T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 40. Herba- 
ceous; brandies 3 ft. iong, straggiing, anguiar, more or iess liispid; iower 
nodes distant, often fiower-bearing. Leaves up to 3i by |-1 in., narrowed 
at eitlier end, siiglitiy liairy on botli surfaces or giabrate; petioie '^-l in. 
iong. Fiowers 3-1 in eacin axii, sessiie; fiorai ieaves \-\ in. iong, round or 
obovate, some narrower often added. Sepais 5, subequai, '^-J- in. iong, 
broad-ianceoiate or subovate, scarcely acute, sparsely hispid. Corolla 
exceeding J in. in length, purple ; tube very httle dilated at the top ; 
anticous lobe much longer than the posticous 2-fid lobe. Filaments 
glabrous ; one anther-cell below the other, tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, with 
2 stopples, longitudinally banded, with several rows of tubercles on 
the band. Ovary glabrous ; style base hairy. Capsule exceeding J in. 
long, glabrous, 4-seeded, with a short thick solid stalk ; seeds reticu- 
late rugose. — Lindau in Engl. <fe PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349, 
and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373, partly. J. rostellarioides, Lindau in 
Engl. Jahrb. xx. 69, and in Engl. &, PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349. 
J. karschiana, Biittner in Verhandl. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. xxxii. 1890, 
40. Adhatoda diffusa'^ Benth. in Hook. Niger Fl. 483. 

Upper Guinea. Sierra Leone, Afzelius ! Ij'a'^o'^, Rowland ! Yoruba, Millsun. 
40! Togoland, Kling, 187! Biittner, WO \ 187! 228! Cameroons : Rio del Key. 
Johnston ! Staudt, 83 ! 469 ! Yaunde, Zenker, 564 ! 612 ! Zenker <'^ Staudt, 343 '. 



Batanga, Bates, 41 ! Fernando Po, Vogel ! Mann, 168- ! 

liower Guinea. Gaboon : Munda ; Sibange Farm, Soyaux, 296 ! Biittner, 
463 ! Angola : San Salvador, Biittner, 457 ! 

Soyaux, 296, is identical with Vogel's Fernando Po plant. Vogel's specimen at 
Kew is noted on the herbarium sheet " dimorphic fruit," which is very likely to be 
the case ; but I can find no dimorphic fruit on any of the West African species of this 
group. It is possible that the herbarium note was grou; 1 on J. Lindaui, which 
is extremely like J. instdaris, but has linear very acute sepaU. 

31. J. calcarata, llochst. in Flora, 1843, 73, in ohs. Rootstock 
woody, oblique. Branches 2 ft. long, weak, with soft spreading hairs in 
places. Leaves up to 3 by 1 in., tapering at either end, with scattered 



[Begin Page: Page 196] 

196 xcviii. ACAITTHACE.'^ (clarke). [Justicia. 

hairs on both surfaces or glabrous except the midrib beneath : petiole 
O-'^ in. long. Flowers 3-1 in each axil, sessile, floral leaves J- J in. 
long, ovate or elliptic, some narrower oblong often added. Sepals T), 
subequal, '^-\ in. long, broadly lanceolate or linear-obovate, scarcely 
acute, glabrous or very minutely hispid. Corolla exceeding '^ in. in 
length, purple ; tube very little dilated at the top ; anticous lobe 
distinctly longer than the posticous 2-fid lobe. Filaments glabrous ; 
one anther-cell below the other, tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, with 2 stopples, 



longitudinally banded, with several rows of tubercles on the band. 
Ovary glabrous; style-base hairy. Capsule J in. long, glabrous, 
4-seeded, with a short thick solid stalk ; seeds reticulate rugose. — ./. 
negleciay T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 40 (Abyssinian plant only) ; 
Zarb, Cat. Spec. Bot. Pfund. 32 ; Engl. Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr. 393 
(Abyssinian plant only). J. Rostellai'ia, Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, 
Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 340, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373, in small 
part, and in Ann. Istit. Bot. Roma vi., 1 896, 82. Tyloglossa Schimperi, 
Hochst. in Flora, 1843, 73. AdhcUoda Rostellaria, Nees in DC. Prod, 
xi. 897 ; Solms-Laub. in Schweinf. Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. 103, 242 ; Zarb, 
Cat. Spec. Bot. Pfund, 32. Rostellaria Schimperi, Hochst. in Flora, 
1843, 73 inobs. 

wile Hand. Kordofan, Pfund, 39 ! 432 ! Eritrea : Marakliat Valley, Sagnneiti, 
7000 ft., Schweinfurth " Riva, 1708! Gallabat, Schweinfurth, 75! 76! Abyssinia: 
near Adowa, Schimper, 1 06 ! 1 1 01 ! Steudner, 1 522 ! Quartin- Billon Sf Petit, 294 ! 
and without precise locality, Schimper, 964 ! Plowden ! British East Africa : Bongo ; 
Gurfala, Schweinfurth, 2241 ! 

This species should perhaps be united with J. insularis, from which it hardly 
differs except by its green (not dark) colour. T. Anderson united it with J. Galeopsi-t, 
which has a different calyx. The sheet iu Kew Herbarium, witii Hochstetter's 
printed ticket, " Tyloglossa rostraia'^ Schimper, 1657 and 1659," is mMVed Adhatoda 
Rostellaria, /3 humilis, Nees, and contains Justicia calcarata and Axystasia Schimperi, 
mixed. As to the specific name to be selected, J. calcarata, Hoclist., represents the 
plant here described, while J. neglecta, T, Anders, (still more J. Rostellaria, Lindau) 
represents an agglomeration of plants here separated. 



32. J. Galeopsis, T. Anders. MS. Petioles shorter than in 
./. insuiarisy the ieaves being mostiy obiong, subsessiie. Sepais ^ in. iong 
and upwards, iinear, very subuiate upwards ; otherwise as J. insuiaris. 
— J. negiecta, T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 40, partly. Adhatoda 
Kotschyi, Benth. in Hook. Niger Fl. 483. 

Upper Guinea. Upper Senegal, Lecard, 145 I Gambia, Skues! Sierra Leone : 
Sugarloaf Mountain, Scott-Elliot, 3974! Regent, Scott-EUiot, 4I'^Q\ and without 
precise locality, Afzelius ! Forsttr ! Don ! Winwood Reade ! Dahomey, Burton I 
Lagos : Abbeokutrt, Irving, 65 ! on the road to Akokulu, Millen, 61 ! and without 
precise locality, Rowland ! Millen, 169 ! Niger Territory : Nupe, Barter, 1038 ! 
Cameroons, 700 ft., Passarge, 1 9a ! 21 a 1 27a ! 38a ! 71 a ! 

JTIIe Xiand. Jur, Schweinfurth, 1744! 

This species differs from J. insuiaris, T. Anders., in the long subulate tips to the 
sepals. Millen, 1 69, has very thick stems, } in. in diam., and glabrous succulent leaves, 
and may be specifically separable. Millen, 61 , excellently dried, has full purple-red 
flowers, while there is on it the collection note of Millen (doubtless correct), "yellow." 



[Begin Page: Page 197] 

Jicsticia.] xcviii. AOANTHACEiE (clarke). 197 

33. J. Lazarus, S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1880, 313. Sparingly 
pubescent or glabrate. Leaves 1 -2 in. long, ovate or elliptic, upijer 
often narrower, oblong; petiole 0-J in. long. Sepals '^ in. long, lineal- 



subulate, pubescent. Corolla '^ In. long, or less, otherwise resembling 
J. Galeopsls. — J. Insularls, S. Moore In Journ. Bot. 1880, 341 ; LIndau 
In Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373. ./. thomeejisis, LIndau In Engl. Jahrb. xxll. 
12G ; and In Engl, k PrantI, Pllanzenfam. Iv. 3 B. 349. 

Ilower Guinea. Angola: Golungo Alto, 1000-2400 ft., Welwltsch, 51 17! 

5143! 521 1 ! Pungo Andongo, Welwltsch, 5093! Hullla, Welwltsch, 5051 ! 5058! 

Antu)les ! Islands of St. Tholnas, De Louza ! 

This Is very like J. IVlelampyrum, S. IVIoore, but has the capsule glabrous. 

34. J. lelklplensis, S. Moore In Journ. Bot. 1894, 137. Stems 
angular, glabrous or patently hispid. Lower leaves 2 by J In., lanceo- 
late or ovate-lanceolate, upper linear 1 J by '^-J In., subsesslle. Sepals 
\ — '^ In. long, linear-subulate, minutely pubescent. Corolla \-\ In. 

long ; tube narrow, only slightly funnel-shaped upwards ; otherwise as 
J. Galeopsls. — LIndau In Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C, 373. ./. neglecUl, Ollv. 
In Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix. 129. JItstlcIa, sp. n. 6, T. Thorns, In Speke, 
Nile Append. G43. 

Irlle Hand. Eritrea ; Habab, Schwelnfurth, 459 ! Abyssinia : Sokota, Eohlfs 
Sf Stecker ! Aman Eske, 7000 ft., Schlmper, 418! British' East Africa: Un>oro, 
Speke Sf Grant I Uganda, Wilson, 91 ! Lyklpla, Gregory ! 

35. J. dyschorlsteoldes, C. B. Clarke. Stems trailing, with 

many erect branches. Leaves J by '^ In., obtuse, very glabrous. Sepals 
\ In. long, lanceolate, scarlous, thinly hispid, minutely red-dotted. 
Corolla J In. long. Capsule slightly exceeding \ In. In length, glabrous ; 
otherwise as J. calcarata. — Justlcia, sp. aflf. J. neglectol, Ollv. In Trans. 



Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Bot. ii. 345. 

Mozamb. Bist. German East Africa: Kilimanjaro, 4000-6500 ft., Jolinston. 

Tiiis plant bears a remarkable general likeness to Dyschoriste radicans ; the habit, 
stems, leaves, inflorescence, general size of flowers and erect fruits, might deceive any 
collector in the Held. 

36. J. pinguior, C. B. Clarke. Stout, hairy. Leaves 2'^ by 1 in., 
ovate, hairy on both surfaces; petioles less than J in. long. Flowers 
3-1 , sometimes more, in dense axillary clusters; floral leaves '^-% in. 
long, ovate; proper flower-bracts or minute. Sepals \-l in. long, 
linear, hispid. Corolla J-f in. long, purple, broad. One anther -cell 
wholly below the other, tailed ; pollen long ellipsoid, with 2 stopples and 
several rows of tubercles on each side of them. Ovary glabroius ; sty It- 
base hispid ; disc unusually large, cup-shaped. Capsule \ in. lung, 
glabrous; stalk very short ; seeds 4-tubercled. 

vile Z.and. British East Africa : Lykipia, 6000-8000 ft., r//o;H.von .' Uuwcnzori ; 
Toru Dist., Kivatii, 8300 ft., Scott-Elliot, 7656 ! 

This species differs much from all the preceding, and should perhaps he removed to 
another part of the genu5. 



[Begin Page: Page 198] 



198 xcviii. ACANTHACEiE (clabke). [Justicia. 

37. J. sexangulariSy Lindau in Engl, d: FrantI, FJianzen/am. iv. 

3 B. 349. Stems 20 in., branclied, 6-angular, scabrid- liairy. Leaves 
up to 2 by J in., oblong, subobtuse, minutely and sparsely scabrid, 
hairy, subsessile. Flowers 3- 1 in an axil (no terminal spike) ; floral 
leaves oblong. Sepals J in. long, linear, subobtuse, microscopically 
scabrid-hairy. Corolla J in. long, purple. Capsule J-'^ in. long, narrow- 
ellipsoid, slightly hairy near the top ; stalk very short ; seeds 4, densely 
tubercled. — J. paliistris, T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 38, partly. 
Ti/loglossa Kotschyi, Hochst. in Flora, 1843, 74. Adhatoda Kotschyi, 
Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 397 (excluding var. /3). Rostellaria sexangularis, 
Hochst. in Flora, 1843, 74. 

Xrile Xiand. Kordofan : Melbes, Kotschy'^ 293 ! 

Nees (in DC, Prod. xi. 397) joined this plant with a Senegambian plant, probably 
J. Galeopsis'^ T. Anders., with which this species might be united. I have not found 
the scrap of U. Don's collecting which Bentham (in Hook. Niger Fl. 483) thinks may 
have been Adhatoda Koischyi'^ Nees. It was by some slip that T. Anders, reduced 
this species to J. palustris, T. Anders., which has (as T. Anderson sa'^s) "flowers 
in terminal spikes." 

38. J, filifolia, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 70. Straggling, 

sparingly hairy; branches elongate with long internodes. Leaves 3 in. 
long, lanceolate and ovate-lanceolate, nearly glabrous ; petioles up to 
li- in. long ; upper leaves (sometimes nearly all the leaves) narrow, 
linear-oblong or oblong, J-J in. broad. Flowers 1-3 together in the 
distant axils, often surrounded by several shortened floral leaves 



\ — \ in. long, elliptic or orbicular. Sepals '^ in. long, narrow-lanceolate, 
acute, hispid. Corolla \ — '^ in. long, white with purple marks. Ovary 
hairy. Capsule \ in. long, hairy all over. — Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, 
Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373. 

Mozamb. DIst* German East Africa : Ukarai ; Mrogoro, Stuhlmann, 8233 ! 
Portuf^uese East Africa : Lower Zambesi ; Shupanga, Kirk ! British East Africa : 
Nyasaland : near Blantyre, Last ! Buchanan, 51 1 Mandala, Scoti ! Zomba, 5000- 
6000 ft., Whyte ! Kondowe to Karonga, 2000-6000 ft., Whyte ! and by the River 
Shire, Kirk ! 

Last's specimen, from which Lindau described, has lost all the lower leaves, the 
upper are very narrow, as usual in this species. 

39. J. "WTiytei, S. Moore in Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Bot. iv. 32. 
Rootstock stout, woody ; branches 1-2 ft. long, hairy. Leaves lanceo- 
late, lower often ovate, hairy ; petiole 0-;'^ in. long, mostly very short. 
Flowers axillary, 1-3 together. Sepals i in. long, linear, acute, hairy. 
Corolla J in. long, purple. Pollen of Justicia with 3 stopples (Lindau) 
or with 2 (in example supplied by Lindau). Capsule exceeding \ in. 
long, hairy. — Lindau in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373. J. Rostellaria, 
Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349, and in Engl. Pfl. 
Ost-Afr. C. 373, in great part. J. fruticulosa, Lindau in Engl, ik PrantI, 
Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349, partly. 

Upper Ouinea. Cameroons : 4000 ft., Passarge'^ 129 ! 

If lie ]band. Eritrea : Erkowit Mountain, i'^chweinfurth, 25G ! British East 



[Begin Page: Page 199] 

Justicia.] xcviii. acanthace.e (clarke). 199 

Africa : Lykipia, Thomson ! near Lake Naivasha, 6000 ft., Scott-Elliot, 7038 ! 
Ukamba, Scott-Elliot, 6306 partly ! 6489 ! 

nCozamb. SIst. German East Africa : Karagwe ; Buknba, /S'^MA'^'^nanM, 4124 
Kilimanjaro: Lake Chala, Volkens, 319! and Marangu, 5000 ft., Volkens, 71 1 ! 
Usambara, Hoist, 8914 ! 8935 partly I British Central Africa : Nynsaland ; Shire 
Highlands, on Mount Ndirandi, Scott-Elliot , Si67 \ Mount Mlanje, Whyte ! 136! 
Masuka Plateau, 6500-7000 ft., Whyte! and without precise locality, Buchanan. 
304! 641! 711 ! 

In the examples called J. Rostellaria by Lindau, the leaves are more ovate than 
in the type J. Whytei (with lanceolate leaves); but the acute linear sepals and hairy 
capsule do not bring it near J. -calcarata. The other part of Scott-Elliot, 6306, 
is DIsperma Mlimandscharicum. 

40. J. Melampymniy aS'. Moore in Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Bot. iv. 
32, Sparingly minutely hairy ; branches weak, 1-2 ft. long. Leaves 
mostly elliptic -oblong, short-petioled, l|-2 in. long ; but on some speci- 
mens are leaves (from the lower half of the branch) broadly ovate with 
longer petioles. Flowers axillary, about 3 in each axil ; floral leaves 
often round or ovate, V^ in. in diam., but longer oblong floral leaves 
occur. Sepals J-i in. long, lanceolate, acute, hispid. Corolla \-\ in. 



long. Normal capsule J In. long, thinly hairy all over with 4-tubercled 
seeds; abnormal capsules J In. long, nearly glabrate. — LIndau In Engl. 
Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373. J. Insularls (an var. ?), Ollv. In Trans. Linn. 
Soc. xxix. 129. JusfAclaj sp. n. 7, T. Thoms. In Speke, Nile Append. 
643. Aclhaloda striata, Klotzsch In Peters, Relse Mossamb. 21(1. 

IVIle 3&and. British East Africa: Ruwenzorl, Scott-Elllof^ 7764! 

DLo'wer Cnlnea. Angola ; Malange, Buchner'^ 121 ! 

Bf ozanlb. SIst. German East Africa : Dar-es-Salaam, Stnhlmann'^ 7557 ! 
Mnansa, Stuhhnann'^ 4161 ! and without precise locality, Speke Sf Grant ! Portuguese 
East Africa : RIos de Sena, Peters'^ 8 ! Mossamblque, Prelado, 12 ! mountains east of 
Lake Nyasa, Johnson I British Central Africa : Kondowe to Karonga, 2000-6000 ft., 
JFhyte ! Masuka Plateau, 6500-7000 ft., Whyte ! Nyasaland ; Fort Johnston, Scott- 
Elllot, 841 1 ! Blantyre, Buchanan'^ 126! Whyte! Mount Zomba, 4000-6000 ft., 
Whyte ! Mount Mlanje, Whyte, and without precise locality, Buchanan, 535 ! 980 I 

41 . J, IjIndatUy C. B. Clarke. Branches patently hispid. Leaves 
(even the uppermost) ovate-lanceolate, hairy. Floral leaves obovate, 
round. Corolla " In. long, and upwards. Normal capsules exceeding 
J In. In length ; abnormal 1 -seeded capsules fully | In. long, with 
strongly tubercled wings. — J. heterocarpa, LIn-dau in Engl, tt PrantI, 
Pflanzenfam. Iv. 3 B. 349, fig. 139, K-0, and In Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 
373, partly. 

Irlle 3band. British East Africa : Tana River, Thomas'^ 59 ! 

nCozamb. BIst. German East Africa : Usambara, Kwa Mslluza, Jlolsf, 4324 ! 



Lindau, in calling this J. heterocarpa, supposes that the large flowers produce the 
normal capsules, while the abnormal capsules arise from very small (or cleistoganious) 
flowers similar to those seen on J. heterocarpa. This is very probably so. But the 
J. heterocarpa, T. Anders., appears to me to differ by its dense clusters and long- 
tipped w'^hite-hairy sepals; moreover, though the examples of J. heterocarpa, 
T. Anders., show abundant normal capsules, they do not show a single corolla 
approaching in size that of JSolsf^ 4324. 



[Begin Page: Page 200] 

200 XCVIII. ACANTHACEiE (CLARKE). [JllStida. 

42. J. shebelensis, Rendle in Jovrti. Bot. 18()G, 409. Very woody, 
much-branched undershrab ; branchlets hairy or glabrate. Leaves 
i by J- J in., obovate, rounded, hairy ; petiole scarcely yV in. long. 
Flowers 4-1 , subsessile in remote leaf -axils. Sepals 5, \ in. long, subu- 
late, hairy. Corolla J in. long, yellow. Lower anther-cell tailed. 
Capsule unknown. 

Xrile £and. Soinalilaiid : River Shebele, Donaldson Smith ! 

43. J. heterocarpa, T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 4L 
Annual, 8-20 in. high ; pubescent. Leaves 1 J by |-| in., ovate or 
ovate-lanceolate, minutely pubescent or glabrate ; petiole up to '^-f in. 
long. Axillary clusters dense, of 2-4 or more flowers. Sepals '^ in. 
long, linear, tips acute white-hairy. Corolla \-\ in. long. Capsule 



'^-J in. long; seeds 4, tubercled ; abnormal 1 -seeded capsules seen in 
all the examples cited. — C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iv. 531 ; 
Engl. Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr. 303; Lindau in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 
373, partly. Hamieria dimorphocarpa'^ Solms-Laub. in Schweinf. Beitr. 
Fl. Aethiop. 110,243. 

M-lle Hand. Nubia : const up to 4000 ft.. Bent ! Schweinfurlh , 83 ! 347 ! 
Eritrea: Mount Ghedem, near Massowa, Schweinfurth Sf Siva, 120! Keren, 
Steudner, 1505 ! Bogos, Hildehrandt ! Abyssinia : Togcdele, Ehrenberg ! Gageros, 
4000 ft., Schimper, 162 ! 2300 ! and without precise locality, Schim'per, 1296a ! 
Somaliland : Hahi, James Sf Thrupp ! Warandab, Keller, 214! British East Africa: 
on rocks above Lake Elmeteita, Scott-Elliot, 6630 ! 

XVXozamb. BIst. German East Africa : Kiliiuanjaro ; IVlarangu, 4800 ft., 
Volkens, 900! British Central Africa: Kamboli, Nutt/ 

44. J. leptocarpa, Liyidau in Engl. Jahrh. xx. 70. Closely 
resembles J. heterocarpa, but is rather larger in all its parts. Clusters 
dense, of many flowers. Sepals \ in. long, linear-lanceolate to linear, 
acute, green with white margins, white-hairy. Capsule \ in. long, 
sparsely hairy; abnormal capsules rarely found. — Lindau in Engl, 
k PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 
373. 

Vile Hand. Eritrea : Keren, Steudner, 1505 1 nearSaati, Schtoeinfurth Sf 
Riva, 500 ! 

IMCozaxQb. BIst. German East Africa : Kilimanjaro ; Marangu, 2700 ft.. 



Volkens, 2167 ! Usambara ; Kwa Mshuza, Hoist, 8903 ! Plains near Pangani, 
Voikens, 4:04:1 M asli eua, 5'o'^5'^, 8799 ! Britisii Centrai Africa: Ngamiiand; Kwebfe, 
Lugard, 129 ! 

Voikens, 454, appears identicai witli Steudner, 1505, wliicli Solins-Laubacli marked 
J. Iieterocarjja, possibiy correctiy. But I cannot find an abnormai capsuie on tliese 
exampies. 

45. J. MoUugOy C. B. Ciarke. Scabrous Inispid. Leaves numerous, 
up to j by J-i in., obiong. Axiiiary clusters subcymoseiy developed ; 
flowers pedicellate. Corolla scarcely i in. long. Capsules \-}r long, 
with many-celled hairs on the upper part ; none abnormal. — ./, lepto- 
carpa, Lindau in Engl, k PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 340, partly. 

Mozamb. I>l8t. British Central Africa : Xyasaland ; Karonga, 2000-6000 ft., 
Whyte ! and without precise locality, Buchanan! 



[Begin Page: Page 201] 

Jusf-icia.] xcviii. acanthace.e (ciarke). 201 

40. J. Lorteae, Rendle inJourn. Hot. 1897, 879. Branches 8-1 G in. 
long, slender, woody, round, glabrous, with long internodes. Leaves 
1 by '^'^J in., linear, glabrous. Flowers 2 (or oftener 1) sessile in remote 
axils ; bract and bracteoles less than -f^ in. long. Sepals 5, nearly \ in. 
long, subequal, linear, minutely pubescent. Corolla i-J in. long ; 
anticous lip longer than the posticous. One anther-cefl much below 



the other, strongly tailed. Capsule f In. long, 4-seeded, glabrous ; stalk 
V^ in. long, solid, thick; placentas not rising elastically ; seeds tuber- 
cular-scabrous. 

Wile Hand. Somaliiand'; Upper Sheikh, and Waggar Mountains, Mrs. Lort- 
PhiUips! 

47. J. Phillipseae, Rendle in Journ. Bot. 1897, 378. Root stout. 
Branches scarcely (5 in. long, slender, divaricate, glabrous ; internodes 
long. Leaves up to J by V^ in., ovate, scarcely acute, glabrous ; petiole 
up to J in. long. Flowers solitary, rarely 2 together, axillary, sessile ; 
bract 0. Sepals 5, equal, i in. long, linear, with few hairs, very few 
gland-tipped. Corolla J in. long, purple, glabrous without, very 
sparingly hairy within. One anther-cell below the other, tailed. Cap- 
sule f in. long, 4-seeded, smooth ; stalk short, solid, thick. 

srile Hand. Somaliiand : Golis Range, Mrs. Lort-Phillips ! Waggar 
Mountains, Mrs. Lort-Phillips 1 Ujiper Sheikh, Mrs. Lort-Phillips ! and between 
Debar and Hammer, Mrs. Lort-Phillips ! Donaldson Smithy 337 I 

48. J. odora, Vahl, Enum. i. 164. Undershrub, 1-2 ft, high, 

glabrous (except the calyx and corolla) ; twigs woody, glaucous. Leaves 
1 by \-\ in. (in Thomas, 81 , up to 3 by If in.), obtuse, base narrowed ; 
petiole O-y'^ in. long. Flowers axillary, solitary or more rarely 2-3 
together, the cyme being then developed with obovate floral leaves 
\-\ in. long. Sepals 5, '^ in. long, linear, microscopically pubescent. 
Corolla h in. long, yellow [Thomas). One anther-cell below'^ the other, 
tailed ; pollen of Justicia, stopples 2. Capsules '^ in. long, rather stout, 
4-seeded, glabrous ; stalk nearly '^ in. long, thick, solid ; seeds tuber- 



cular-scabrous. — T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 42 ; Lindau in 
Ann. Istit. Bot. Roma, vi. 1896, 82 ; Rendle in Journ. Bot. 1896, 31)8. 
J. polijmooylia, Scliinz in Verliandl. Bot. Yer. Brandenb. xxxi. (1889) 
203 ; Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349. ./. leuco- 
der7nis, Schinz in Verliandl. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. xxxi. (1889) 202. 
? Dianthera odora, Forsk. Fl. '^gypt.-Arab. 8. Adhatoda odora, Nees 
in DC. Prod. xi. 399. A. Hypericum, Solms-Laub. in Schweinf. Beitr. 
Fl. Aethiop. 102. 

Ifflle Ziand. Nubia : Suakim, Schweiufurth, 042 ! Abyssinia : Mawerr, 30(X» ft., 
Schimper, 136! Tacazze River, 3000—4000 ft., Schimper, 2135! and witliout precise 
locality. Schiynper, 1447! Somaliland: Widaba, Miss Edith Cole! Tola ( Tula 1'^ 
River, Kirk ! Habr Aual, Robecchi, 262 ! Donaldson Smith ! Tana River, Thomas., 
81 ! Habab, 3000 ft., Hildehrandt, 454 ! 

Ziower Guinea. Amboland : Oshando, Schinz, 32 I 

IWozamb. I>lst. Ngamiland : near Kwebe, Luqard, 72 ! 

" When dried smells as Anthoxanthum," Nees. 



[Begin Page: Page 202] 

202 xcviii. ACANTHACEiE (clarke). [Justicia, 

49. J, sansibarensiSy Lindciu in Engl. Jahrh. xx. 71. Stout 

shrub ; branches pubescent. Leaves up to 2\ by 1 in., ovate, obtuse. 



when mature glabrous; petiole J in. long; upper leaves scarcely 1 in. 
long, subsessile, round elliptic, passing into small round floral leaves. 
Flowers 3-1 in each axil ; bracts and bracteoles minute or 0. Calyx i in. 
long. Corolla | in. long. One anther-cell lower than the other, 
spurred. Capsule J in. long, '^-seeded, glabrous; stalk short; seeds 
tubercular-scabrous. — Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. o B. 
840, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 378. 

Mozaxnb. DIst. Zanzibar, Hildehrandf, 983 ! German East Africa, Hanning- 
ton! 

50. J. Fischeriy Lindau in Engl. Jahrh. xx. G5. Glabrous; branches 
woody. Leaves |-2 in. long, ovate ; base rounded ; tip triangular- 
apiculate ; primary nerves prominent beneath ; margins white, thickened 
and often hispid-ciliate ; petiole hardly any. Flowers 3-1 in the axils 
of distant leaf-pairs ; bracts J by '^ in., elliptic. Sepals 5, equal, '^ in. 
long, glabrous, lanceolate with linear tip. Corolla J — § in. long, yellow. 
One anther-cell below the other, tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, banded, with 
'2 stopples ; tubercles obsolete. Ovary glabrous ; style-base hairy. 
Capsule h in. long, glabrous, stalked, 4-seeded. — Lindau in Engl. & 
PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. 
C. 378. 

Mozamb. Sist. German East Africa : Usambara ; Kwa MsLuza, Hoist, 
8897 ! and without precise locality, Fischer, 89 ! 490 ! 

Var, ? Iceterirens, C. B, Clarke. Leaves | by i in., oblong or narrow elliptic, 
narrowed at base, green when dried, primary nerves obscure beneath, margin not 



thickened but liispid-ciliate ; petiole '^VtV '^"- '^'^"7 distinct ; otiierwise as 
J. Fisciieri. — J. Icetevirens, Rendie in Journ. Bot. 1 896, 409. 

Wiie I'^and. Somaiiiand : between Lake Steplnanie and Lake Kudoipin, 
Donaidson Smitli! 

Tliis iooks distinct from Fisclier's piant ; but in Hoist, 8897, tiiere are on one 
brancli ieaves varying from narrow cuneate-obiong apicuiate to ovate obtuse, 

51 . J. brevicauiis, S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1 880, 341 . Rliizome 
tliick. Brandies 2-'^ in. iong, Inairy. Leaves | by J in., obovate-obiong, 
subobtuse, liairy, finaiiy more or iess giabrate, subsessiie. Peduncies 
up to J in. iong, axiiiary, 1 -fiowered, liairy; bracteoles 2 a little below 
the flower, y\'^ in. long, linear, hairy. Sepals i in. long, linear-oblong, 
hairy. Corolla J in. long or rather more, violet (S. Mooo'e). Lower 
anther-cell shortly tailed ; pollen ellipsoid with 2 stopples and bands, 
no tubercles. — Engl. Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr. 393. 

Ttovrer Guinea. Angola : Huilla, Welvntsch, 5774 ! 

52. J. microphylla, Lindau in Engl, d' PrantI, Pjianzenfam. iv. 
3 B. 849. Procumbent, woody, IJ ft. long. Leaves up to \ by 

\ in., ovate-oblong, pubescent. Flowers axillary, solitary ; bracts \ in. 
long, obovate. Sepals \ in. long. Corolla \ in. long. Anther-cells 
obliquely opposite. Capsule rather more than \ in. long, 4-seeded, 



[Begin Page: Page 203] 



Jibsiicia.] xcviii. acanthace'^ (clarke). 203 

glabrous. — Lindau in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373. Adhatoda microphylla, 
Klotzsch in Peters, Reise Mossamb. 217. 

Mozamb. Bist. Portuguese East Africa : Mozambique Isle, Peters ! 

The material for this species is in such a state that I can add little to Lindau's 

account. But there are ripe capsules and the species is certainly a Juslicia. 

53. J. gesnerifolia, Rendle ill Joum. Bot. 1800, 308 (gesneriflora, 
Rendle, I.e. 414). A woody, small, much branched, pubescent slirub ; 
branches in. long, angul'^-r. Leaves 1 by J in., spathulale-obovoid, 
green, minutely pubescent on both faces, subsessile. Flowers axillary, 
solitary, | in. long, corolla-tube much inflated. Lower anther-cell 
tailed; pollen ellipsoid with 2 longitudinal bands. Capsule -i in. long, 
4-seeded, glabrous. 

Nile Hand. Somaliland : Shebele River, Donaldson Smith ! 
The name intended by Rendle was gesnerijiora. 

54. J, diclipteroides, Lindau in Engl. Jahrh. xx. 65. Herbaceous ; 
branches numerous, 8 in. long, pubescent upwards. Leaves up to 1 by 
4 in., ovate or narrow elliptic, acuminate or obtuse, pubescent; petiole 
0-i in. long. Flowers axillary, solitary or 2 together ; bracts vei y 
small. Sepals i in. long, subulate, hairy. Corolla less than J in, long, 
purple-red. Capsule \ in. long, stalked, 4-seeded, sparsely hairy. — 
Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349, and in Engl. Pti. 



Ost-Afr. C. 373. 

wile iLand. British East Africa : Ukamba, Hildelnrandt, 2726 1 Duruma, 
Hildebrandt, 2331 ! Taita Mountains, Gregory I and Leikipia, Nyuri River, 
Gregory ! 

55. J. urbaniana, Lindau in Engl. Jahrh. xx. 04. Small, slender, 
very rigid shrub ; branches hispid or strigose. Leaves V-J in. long, 
elliptic or oblong, sparsely hairy; petiole O-'^'^j in. long. Flowers 1-2 
in the leaf-axils ; bracts yV-J in. long, obovate or roundish. Sepals 
^-\ in. long, linear, minutely hairy. Corolla \-\ in. long. One anther- 
cell below the other, tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, banded, with 2 stopples 
and rows of tubercles. Capsule J in. long, 4-seeded, pubescent. — 
Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349. 

inie Xiand. Somaliland : Ahl Mountains, Hildebrandf, 860b ! Maid. Hilde- 
hrandf^ 1402 ! Darror, James Sf Thrupp ! 

50. J, Gendamssa, Linn.f. Suppl. 85. Shrubby, 2-4 ft. high. 
Leaves 4 by | in., glabrous ; petiole J in. long. Spikes terminal, 4 by 
I in., almost continuous, lax, often running into a panicle by the 
development of the cymes in the lower axils ; bracts linear, scarcely \ 
in. long. Sepals '^ in. long, nearly glabrous. Corolla \ in. long, or 
rather more, nearly glabrous, white or rose with purple spots; tube 
very little widened upwards. One anther-cell lower than the other, 
tailed ; pollen with 2 stopples, banded, without tubercles (or with 



[Begin Page: Page 204] 

'204: xcviii. ACANTHACE.E (clarke). [JusHcia. 

tubercles according to Lindau in Engi. Jalnrb. xviii. 64, t. 2, fig. 95). 
Capsuie In in. long, clavate, glabrous ; seeds unknown. — Jacq. Eclog. 
PI. t. life. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iv. 532; Lindau in 
Engl. ikPrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 3-47, fig. 139, D, and in Engl. 
Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373. Gendarussa vulgaris, Nees in Wall. PI. As. Rar. ill. 
104, and in DC. Prod. xi. 410 ; Wight, Ic. t. 468. 

Mozamb. DIst. Zanzibar, Stuhlmann, 698! 1058! German East Africa: 

Usambara ; Tangn, Volkens, 146 ! Portuguese East Africa : Gorongoza, Carvalho ! 

The Zanzibar examples of this common South-Asian plant (now widely spread in 
warm- countries) were probably introduced into Afruja ; it may be otherwise with the 
Tanga example. 

57. J. Rendlei, C. B. Clarke. Branch 3J ft. long, stout, 
nearly glabrous. Leaves 3 by IJ in., narrowed at both ends, nearly 
glabrous ; petiole f-1 J- in. long- Cymes axillary, short, 3-8- 
flowered, arranged in terminal panicles ; floral leaves J-1 in. long, 
resembling the lower leaves but smaller. Sepals 5, \ in. long, linear- 
lanceolate, pubescent. Corolla IJ in. long; tube '^ in. long, rather 
thick ; lips broad, curved. One anther-cell transverse, the other below 
it, with a fine longish tail, or several short fine tails or nearly tailless ; 
pollen globose with 3 stopples, longitudinal smooth depressions very 
narrow and not reaching the poles, without rows of tubercles. Pistil 



glabrous. — Duvernoia speciosa'^ Rendle in Journ. Bot. 1 896, 1 29, 41 1 . 

Xrile Ziand. Somaliland : Sheikh Husein, Donaidson Smith ! 

58. J. Preussii, C. B. Clarke. Stem 6-9 ft. high, with deflexed 
hairs. Leaves 5 J by 2 in., elliptic, acute at either end, when young hairy, 
when mature hairy on the nerves of both surfaces; petiole J-J in. long. 
Inflorescence terminal, 6 by 1 in., a constricted linear panicle, grey- 
hairy ; branches very short 1 -4-flowered cymes, with a floral leaf at 
the base of each branch, i to j in. long, elliptic, acute ; flower-bract 
scarcely i in. long, linear. Sepals i in. long, equal, linear-lanceolate, 
grey hairy. Corolla IJ in. long, clear blue, hairy without; tube J in. 
long ; anticous lip |-1 in. broad, with 3 short ovate lobes ; posticous 
lip '^ in. broad, oblong, nearly entire. Stamens 2 ; filaments glabrous; 
anther-cells 2, one completely below the other, elliptic ; upper oblique 
transverse, hairy, with a minute basal spur or muticous; lower 
distinctly spurred ; pollen ellipsoid, longitudinally banded, with one row 
of depressed tubercles on either side of each of the 3 stopples. Style- 
base hairy, tip very shortly and equally 2-fid. Capsule f by i in., 
thickly hairy, 4-seeded ; stalk | in. long ; seeds rugose. — J. spectabilisy 
T. Anders. MS. Salviaca7ithics Freiissii, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 75, 
and in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 351 , fig. 1 07, G, 
fig. 141, A. 

Upper Guinea. Cameroons: Buea, 3000 ft., Freuss, 675! Cameroon 
Mouniaiu, 2000 ft., Mann, 1298 ! 

This is separated generically from Justicia by Lindau on the ground that the 

upper anther-cell is sometimes shortly tailed, as is the case in several other species of 



Justicia (as in J. ximplicispica). 



[Begin Page: Page 205] 

Jusiicia.] xcviii. acanthace.e (clarke). 205 

59. J. salviiflora, C. B. Clarke. Young branches and inflores- 
cence densely covered with brown gland-tipped hairs. Leaves H by 
J in., ovate, narrowed at either end, hairy ; petiole \ in. long. Inflores- 
cence terminal, leafless, loosely and irregularly panicled ; bpacts hardly 
J in. long, linear. Calyx J- in. long, divided nearly to the base into 

5 equal linear-lanceolate segments. Corolla-tube \ in. long; lips ''^ in. 
long, gaping, upper strongly curved. Filaments glabrous ; one anther- 
cell entirely below the other, strongly tailed; pollen ellipsoid, with 
t3 stopples ; longitudinal bands without tubercles. Ovary densely 
glandular hairy; style hairy at the base only, branches 2, subequal, 
minute. — Duvernoia salviijiora, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 42, and 
in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 8 B. 339, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. 
C. 372. 

XMCozamb. Bist. German East Africa : Massuini, Fischer, 506 1 Usagnra, 
Stuhlmann, 207. 

60. J, grisea, C. B. Clarke. Shrub, densely minutely grey 
pubescent. Leaves f by J in., ovate, very pubescent, finally glabrate. 
Spikes terminal and axillar}'^ short, few-flowered; bracts \ by ^^.^ in., 
glandular hairy. Sepals \ in. long, pubescent. Corolla l\ in. long; 



lips § in. long, broad, curved. One anther-cell lower than the other, 
long-spurred ; pollen ellipsoid, banded, without tubercles. Ovary 
hairy. — Duvernoia somalensis, Lindau in Ann. Istit. Bot. Roma, vi. 
[1896] 81. 

Wile Iband. Somalilaiul : Daua River, Jiiva, 427 ! 

61. J, beloperonoides, Lindau in Enyl. Jahrh. xxii. 127. 
Branches 2 ft. long, woody. Leaves 1 by J in., ovate, hairy, soon 
glabrate; base obtuse, sometimes subcordate; petiole 0-j'^'^ in. long. 
Cymes 2-1-flow'^ered, in the penultimate axils; bracts linear, small. 
Sepals J in. long, linear, hairy and with a few stalked glands. Corolla 
carmine-red ; tube |-| in. long, cylindric, much curved, narrowly 
funnel-shaped upwards; lips J-J in. long. One anther-cell below the 
other, distinctly tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, banded, with 2 longitudinal 
rows of tubercles on either side of each of the two pores. 

XVIozamb. Bist. German East Africa : Uluguru near Lukwangulu, 8000 ft., 
Stuhlmann, 9141 ! 

62. J. laxa'^ T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 43. Shrubby, 

4-5 ft. high ; young parts densely minutely grey tomentose, becoming 
nearly glabrous. Leaves 9 by 4'^ in., narrowed at either end ; petiole 
1-2 in. long. Panicle terminal, 10 by 6 in., open ; branches dis- 
tant, rectangular, spreading, subdeflexed, often again divided, with 
an ovate floral leaf 1-1 Jin. long at the base of most of the branches; 
pedicels '^\ in. long ; bracts J in. long, linear, often several indicating a 
condensed cyme with only one flower developed. Sepals 5, subequal,. 



\-\ in. long, narrow-oblong, acute, nearly glabrous. Corolla l-''^ In. 
long, greenish-white {G. Mann). One anther-cell below the other, 
distinctly tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, with 3 stopples ; beside each stopple 



[Begin Page: Page 206] 

206 XCVIII. ACANTHACEIE (CLARKE). [JusHcia. 

a single longitudinal row of round spots, not tubercles. Capsule 1 in. 
long, 4-seeded, pubescent ; stalk J in. long, solid ; seeds tubercular- 
scabrous. — Adhatoda paniculata, Benth. in Hook. Niger Fl. 482. 
Dicvernoia paniculata, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 43, and in Engl. & 
PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 339. 

Upper Guinea. Cameroons, Freuss, 1350! Fernando Po, Vogel, 144 ! Mann, 63 ! 

Var. contracta, C. B. Clarke. Panicle branches shortened, hardly exceeding 

1 in, in length : floral leaves (all but the lowest) reduced, \ in. long, linear. Capsule 1 in. 

long, 4-seeded ; stalk exceeding \ in. in length, narrow, solid ; seeds tubercular. 

Upper Guinea. Cameroous: Efulen, '^a'^f*, 367 ! Jensoki, 5«cMo?z .' Lolodorf, 
Staudt, 418 : 

Kower Guinea. Gaboon : Munda ; Sibange Farm, Soyaux, 399 ! 

(53. J. pyramidatay C. B. Clarke. Upper part of the stem 

viscous rusty with many-celled hairs. Leaves broadly ovate or obovate, 



rusty hairy on the'midrib beneath. Panicles 8 by | in.; fiorai ieaves 
'^ in. iong, iinear. Coroiia iight-red (G. Mann) ; otherwise as J. iaxa. — 
Duvernoia pi/ramidata, Lindau in Engi. Jahrb. xxii. 124. 

Upper Guinea. Cameroons : Yaunde, Zenker Sf Staudt, 460 ! Bipinde, 
Zenker, 1047 ! 

Ibower Guinea. Gaboon : Sierra dei Crystai, Mann, 1671 ! 

These exampies match one another cioseiy, and appear distinct enough from typical 
J. Iaxa, but J. Iaxa, var. contracta, is about halfway between. 

64. J. extensa, T. Anders, in Joum. Linn. Soc. vii. 44. Panicle 
6-10 in. long, oblong or ovate. Calyx hairy. Filaments minutely 
hairy; pollen ellipsoid, banded, with 2 stopples, and one row of 
depressed tubercles on each side of each stopple. Ovary shaggy. 
Capsule rather shorter than that of J. Iaxa, shortly hairy all over. — 
S. Moore in Joum. Bot. 1 880, 341 . Duvernoia extensa, Lindau in 
Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 372. D. Stuhhnanni, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. 
XX. 43, and in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 339. 

Upper Guinea. Sierra Leone : near Kambia, Scott-Elliot, 4210 ! Ashanti, 
Cummins, 6! Lagos: Eppah, Barter, 3301 ! Musin Road, Millen, 21 of 1892 collec- 
tion I near Lagos, Rotvland, 12 ! 34 ! Cross River, Johnston ' 

Kower Guinea. Angola, Welwitsch, 1248 ! 

Mozamb. Bist. Between Tanganyika and Victoria Nyanza, 3000 ft., Stuht- 
mann, 2953 ! 



The breadth and degree of compounding of the panicle varies considerabiy. The 
panicie is more hairy than that of J. iaxa, but the mature ieaves are often shining 
giabrous. 

65. J. cordata, T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 44. Shrub, 
neariy giabrous except the fiowers ; branches woody. Leaves 1 by 
\ in., ovate, subsessiie ; base truncate or cordate. Peduncies J-IJ in. 
long, rigid, anguiar, obiiqueiy erect, from the iower and upper axiis ; 
fiowers 1 -3, clustered in a congested cyme at the apex of a peduncle, 
bracts smaller than the sepals. Sepals 5, equal, " in. long, lanceolate; 
minutely and sparsely pubescent. Corolla-tube scarcely \ in. long; 



[Begin Page: Page 207] 

Justicia.] xcviii. acanthace'^e (clarke). 207 

lobes L in. long, anticous 8-lobed, posticous erect, curved, subentire, 
hooded. Anther-cells separated by a broad connective, oblique, one 
slightly lower and with a short distinct tail ; pollen small, oblong- 
ellipsoid, banded longitudinally, with 2 large stopples, no tubercles. 
Ovary glabrous; style-base very sparsely hairy. Capsule J in. long, 
glabrous; stalk J in. long, very thick, solid. — Engl. Hochgebirgstl. 
Trop. Afr. '6\)3. J. cyruxnchifolia, K. Br. in Salt, Abyss. Append. G2. 
Leptostachya cordata, Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 378. Rhaphidospora 
cordata, Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 4D9 ; A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii. IGI; 
Soims-Laub. in Schweinf.' Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. 113, 244; Lindau in 



Engl, ife Prant:, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 320, fig. 11 0, N a (not 6), and in 
Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 370. Gendaricssa cordata, Hochst. ex Nees in 
DC. Prod. xi. 379, and 499. 

TTIIe Land. Eritrea: Bellaka, 5000-6000 ft., Hildebrandt, AQW Habab, 
Rildehrandt, 632 ! Harasio Valley, 5000 fc, Schweinfurth Sf Siva, 699 ! near Acrur, 
6200 ft., Schweinfurth '^ Riva, 759 ! 1231 ! and Keren, Steudner, 1518 ! Abvsainia : 
mountain sides along the river Tacazze, Schimper, 1250! and without precise locality, 
Schimper, 24^^21 1384! Salt! 

Mozamb. Bist. German East Africa ! Kilimanjaro, 3500 tt., Volkens, 1 735 ! 

66. J. piloso-cordata, C. B. Clarke. Branches 3 ft. long, softly 
hairy. Leaves 2 J by 1 in., subobtuse at either end, hairy, very hairy 
on the nerves ; petiole scarcely ^'^ in. long. Peduncles 1 in. long, 
axillary, solitary'^ hairy, 1 -flowered ; bract J in. long, linear-lanceolate. 
Sepals 0, '^ — i in. long, linear-lanceolate, minutely hispid. Corolla | in. 
long ; stamens and ovary as of J. cordata. 

Idower Guinea. Angola : Malange, Mechoiv'^ 453 ! 

This plant greatly resembles J. cordata, except in its hairiness. The l-flowered 
peduncles do not make much difference, for the arrangement of the bracts shows that 
the flower (in J. piloso-cordata) represents a reduced congested cyme. 

67. J, masaiensiSy C. B. Clarke. Shrub; branchlets woody, 
quadrangular, hairy; internodes V'^ in. long. Leaves up toj oy 

J in., subsessile, round-elliptic, glabrate, reticulated beneath, tip 



obtuse, apiculate. Spikes 0-1 in. iong, laterai 3-1-fiowered; bracts 
smaiier tiian tine caiyx; fiowers soiitary. Caiyx J in. iong; iobes 5, 
somewliat united at tine base, Unear, trianguiar, sub-3-nerved, minuteiy 
scabrous. Coroiia f in. iong, very liairy witliout ; tube \ in. iong, 
iips broad. One antlier-ceii beiowtlie otiier, ratlier strongiy taiied ; 
poiien eiiipsoid, stoppies 2 ; a row of spots ou eacln side of eacli 
stoppie. 

Niie Xiand. Britisli East Africa : Scott-Eiiiot, 6634 I 

68. J. intemipta, C. B. Ciarke. Slirub. Leaves up to 7 by 3 in., 
ovate, acute at eitlier end, giabrous; petioie up to 1 in. iong. Panicie 
8 in. in diam., open, neariy ieafiess; fiowers in sessiie distant ciusteis 
on tine brandies; bracts I in. iong, iinear. Sepais J in. iong, ianceoiate, 
minuteiy liairy. Coroiia § in. iong ; tube } in. iong. Lower antlier- 



[Begin Page: Page 208] 

208 XCVIM. ACANTHACE.E (cLARKE). [Justicia. 

ceii witli a distinct smaii spur, sometimes aitogetlier muticous ; poiien 
eUipsoid, banded ; stoppies 2, witliout rows of tubercles. — Duvernoia 
interrupta, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xxii. 123. 

Mozamb. BIst. German East Africa : Ukami ; Uluguru, Stulilmann, 8967 

GO. J. glabra, Roxh. Hort. Beng. 4. Pubescent or nearly- 



glabrous except the flowers, slender, erect or rambling. Leaves 2J 
by 1 in. (occasionally up to 5 by 3 in.), ovate, acuminate ; petiole 
0-J in. long, or in the lower leaves 1-2 in. Peduncles slender; 
cymes loose ; upper peduncles running into large loose panicles ; bracts 
to the flowers minute, linear ; floral leaves at the base of peduncles often 
'^-1 in. long, ovate. Sepals \-\ in. long, linear, pubescent or nearly 
glabrous. Corolla J-'^ in. long. One anther-cell below the other, 
tailed. Pollen ellipsoid, with 3 stopples and longitudinal rows of 
spots. Capsule f in. long, shortly hairy all over, 4-seeded ; stalk ] in. 
long, slender ; placentae not rising elastically ; seeds covered with long 
scabrous tubercles. — Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. Carey & Wall. i. 132 ; T. Anders, 
in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 4-i (including var. pubescens). Ehajyhidospoi'a 
glabra, Nees in Wall. Plant. As. Rar. ill. 115, and in DC. Prod. xi. 499 ; 
Wight, Ic. t. 1554; Solms-Laub. in Schweinf. Beitr. F\. Aethiop. 244; 
Lindau in Engl, & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 329, and in Engl. Pfl. 
Ost-Afr. C. 370. R. abyssiyiica, Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 500 ; A. Rich. 
Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii. 161. Gendarussa dichotoina, Hochst. ex Nees in 
DC. Prod. xi. 508. 

Wile Hand. Eritrea: Embat Kalla, 4500 ft., Schiveinfurth Sf Riva, 2002! 
Bogos, Hildehrandt, 697 ! and Keren, Steudner, 1519 ! Abyssinia : Valley of tbe 
Tacazze, Schimper, 903 ! and without precise locality, Schimper, 184 ! B'^iti'^h East 
Africa : Taita, Rildehrandt, 2533 ! 

Mozamb* Sist. ZaiiziVwr, Hildehrandt, 1 135 ! German East Africa : Kili- 
manjaro, 2000-4000 ft., Volkens, 1797! 2187! Usambara ; Masheua, Hoist, 
8797! Portuguese East Africa; Lower Zambesi; below Shigogo, Kirk! British 
Central Africa : Nyasaland ; between Kondowe and Karonga, 2000-6000 ft., 
Whyte ! between Mpata and the Tanganyika Plateau, Whyte ! Upper Shire Valley, 



Kirk ! and without precise locality, Buchanan, 707 I 

70. J, anselliana, T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 44. Stems 
12-20 in. long, weak, nearly glabrous. Leaves If by J-i in., linear 
to lanceolate (in Ansell's type example, on which are also ovate leaves § 
in. long), glabrous, or very nearly so ; petiole O-'^ in. long. Peduncles 
solitary, axillary, distant, slender, nearly glabrous, h-lh in. long, each 
terminating in a slender scorpioid 2-8-flowered cyme, J-H in. long; 
bracts or bracteoles shorter than the calyx. Sepals '^ in. long, linear, 
glabrous or very nearly so. Corolla \ in. long. One anther-cell below 
the other, definitely tailed ; pollen very small, ellipsoid, with 2 stopples 
and 2 rows of tubercles on each side of each stopple. Capsule J in. 
long, glabrous, very thin-walled ; seeds deeply wrinkled, with a scarious 
wing on the margin in the West African type plant, becoming 
gradually obsolete in the Eastern specimens. — Oliv. in Trans. Linn. 
Soc. xxix. 130 (including var. anyustifolia) ; S. Moore in Journ. 



[Begin Page: Page 209] 

Justicia.] xcviii. acantiiace.*: (clarke). 209 

Bot. 1880, 841 ; and in Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Bot. iv. 32 ; Lindau 
in Engl. " PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. P, B. 841), and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. 
C. 878, partly. Justicia, sp. n. 8, T. Thorns, in Speke, Nile Append. 
043. Adhatoda a7iselliana, Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 408 ; Benth. in 
Hook. Niger Fl. 484. Dianthera, sp., Benth. in Benth. et Hook. f. 
Gen. PI. ii. 1114. 



Upper Guinea. Liberia; Cape Paliuas, Aiiseii ! Lower Niger, Ibu (Abo), 
T'^ogei, 14! 

irile Xiand. Britisli East Africa : Bongo ; Sabbi River, Scliweinfurtli, 2646 ! 
Madi, Speke Sf Grant, Kavirondo, Scott- JEiiioty 7123 ! Kariandusi River, nei»r L;ike 
Eimeteita, 6000 ft., Scott-Eiiiot, 6633 ! Lake Nukura, 6000 ft, Scott-Eiiiot, 6810! 
Kamasia, west of Lake Baringo, Gregory ! 

liower Guinea. Angoia : Pungo Andongo, Weiwitscli, 5098 ! 5172 ! 5173 I 

IMEozamb. X>ist. Britisli Centrai Africa : Nyasaiand ; Tanganyika Piateau at 
Fort Hiii, 3500 ft., Wliyte ! Sliire Higliiands, Buclnanan, 483 ! Mount Miange, 
Wliyte ! and witliout precise iocaiity, Buclianan, 876 ! 1385 ! 

71 . J. matammensiSy Oiiv. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix. 1 80. More 
pubescent in all parts than J. anselliana, and leaves not linear. Leaves 
(in Schweinfurth's type plant) up to 2 J by 1 in., in many Zambesi 
examples 1 by J-| in. ; petioles of upper leaves with prominent long lax 
hair. Peduncles more or less pubescent. Capsule often hispid in the 
upper part; otherwise as J. anselliana. — Oliv. Le. ser. 2, Bot. ii. 345 ; 
Lindau in Engl, & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349, and in Engl. Pfl. 
Oot-Afr. C. 373. J. anselliana, Lindau in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 
873 mainly, and in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3B. tig. 112, 
D, E. Justicia, spp. n. 2-4, T. Thoms. in Speke, Nile Append. 643. 
Adhatoda niatammensis, Schweinf. in Verb. Zool.-Bot. Gesell. Wein, 
xviii. (18G8) 674. 



utile £and. Upper Senaar: Fazokl, Figari I Gallabat : Matamma, Schwein- 
furth, 130c ! British East Africa : Niamniam, Scliweinfurtli, 3883 ! Upper Nile, 
Freeman Sf Lucas! Buddu ; Buganga, Scott-Elliot, 7454! Kikuyu, Scott-Elliot, 
6543 ! Ukaniba, Scott-Elliot ! 6343 ! Taita, Hildehrandt, 2840 ! 2854 ! Gregory ! 
Duruma, Gregory ! 

liower Guinea. German South-west Africa: Ainboland, Schinz, 13 I 35 I 

South Central. Monbuttu : Munza, Schweinfurth, 3459 ! Lunda : Lulua 
River, Fogge, 305, 307, 308 ! and Lomani River, Fogge, 1013 ! 

Mozamb. I>lst. Zanzibar, Hildehrandt, 980 ! German East Africa ; Kili- 
manjaro, Volkens, 512! 532! 916! Johnston! Karagwe ; Bukoba, Stuhbnunn, 
3296! Usukuma : Soke country, Stuhlmann, 4195! Unyamwezi, Speke '^- Grant! 
Usanibara : Lutindi, Hoist, 3432 ! Amboni, Hoist, 2809 ! Nyika, Hohf, 57yA 1 
Kisokwe, Hanyiington ! Portuguese East Africa : Lower Zambesi ; Shupanga, Kirk ! 
Lower Shire Valley, Kirk, British Central Africa : Nyasaland, Zomba and vicinity, 
2500-3500 ft., Whyte ! Matabeleland, Elliot ! Rhodesia ; Tamasanka, Holuh, 1208 ! 
1209! 1210! 

Hoist, 3432, 8865, named by Lindau's hand J. anselliana, I tbink nearly typical 
J. matammensis. Though the two species are closely allied, I bave no difficulty in 
separating them ; but 1 doubt whether some of the small (and small-leaved) planta 
referred here should not rather be sorted with J. uncinulata. 



[Begin Page: Page 210] 



210 xcviii. ACANTHACE'^ (clarke). [Justida. 

72. J. uncinulata, Oliv. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix. 130, t. 129, 

Jig. A . Kootstock woody ; brandies 4-() in. long. Leaves J-| by J in., 

elliptic or ovate ; upper petioles thinly hispid. Capsule barely } in. 
long, hispid near the top, shorter and broader than that of ./. 
matammensis. — Lindau in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373. Justicia, sp. n. 5, 
T. Thorns, in Speke, Nile Append. 543. 

irile 3'^and. Somaliland, Mrs. Lort-Phillips ! Uganda, Stuhlrnann, 1334 I 

Mozamba Sist. German East Africa : Kilimanjaro, Smith ! Usambara, Hoist, 
8950 ! Usagara ; on the Robeho Mountains, 4700 ft., Speke Sf Grant ! 

Var. teriuicapsa, C. B. Clarke. Capsule slender, glabrous. 

Xrile Xiand. British East Africa : Upper Nile, Freeman Sf Lucas, 79 ! Karian- 
dusi River, near the south end of Lake Elmeteita, 6000-7000 ft., Scott-Elliot, 
6628 ! Man, 7000 ft., Scott-Elliot, 6852 ! and on dry plains near Lake Naivasha, 
Scott-Elliot, 6521 ! 

Mozamba Dist. German East Africa : Kilimanjaro ; Marangu, 5000 ft., 

Volkens, 916 ! Kara'gwe, 5200 ft., Stuhlrnann, 1864 ! Mwansa, on Lake Victoria, 

at Smith Sound, Stuhlrnann, 4520 ! and without precise locality, Fischer, 32 ! 305 ! 

These small plants, as to leaves, hairs and flowers, agree with J. uncinulata, but 

the capsules are tho.<e of </. anselliana. The example of Freeman & Lucas is annual. 



1 1 in. long, and has small (many abnormal) flowers. 

73. J, crassiradix, C. B. Clarke. Nearly glabrous. Rhizome 
creeping in swamps, scaly ; proper roots many, long, cylindric, thick. 
Stems erect, 6 — 10 in. long. Leaves distant, 2 by J in., obtuse, sessile, 
erect. Sepals up to J in. long, nearly glabrous. Corolla J in. long. 
Pollen with 3 stopples, no tubercles. 

Mozamb. Dl»t« British Central Africa : Urungu ; Fwambo, Carson, 62, 68, 
and 107 of 1893 collection ! 

Var. ? hispida, C. B. Clarke. Whole plant (leaves on both surfaces) hispid. 
Capsule 5 in. long, hispid at the top. Rhizome not seen in this variety. 

xrile Xiand. 40-60 miles from the coast (Mombasa), Johnston ! 

Xlf ozamb. SIst. British Central Africa : Nyasaland, Shire Highlands, 
Buchanan, 461 ! 

The habit, leaves, and flowers resemble those of J. crassiradix. 

74. J. Nnttii) C. B. Clarke. Stems 15 in. long, straight, un- 
divided, sparingly hispid ; internodes 3 times as long as the leaves. 
Leaves up to 1 by f in., ovate, thinly hispid, base truncate or rounded, 
tip triangular ; petiole hardly any or in lowest leaves up to y'^'^ in. long. 
Peduncles few, penultimate, 1 -3 in. long, 2-flowered : bracts \ in. long, 
linear. Sepals nearly J in. long, linear, minutely and very sparsely 
scabrous. Corolla nearly J in. long. Pollen ellipsoid ; stopples 2, with 
one row of tubercles beside each. 



Mozamba l>l!«t< German East Africa : between Lake Tanganyika and Lake 
Rukwa, 6000 ft., Nutt ! 

Tliis is a distinct, strongiy marked species. 

Var. 13. iiantyrensis, C. B. Ciarke. Stem and ieaves very liispid. Leaves up to 
2 by 1 in. 

Mozamb. Bist. Britisli Centrai Africa : Nyasaiund ; Biantyre, Buclnanan, 
20 ! 165 ! 



[Begin Page: Page 211] 

Justicia.] xcviii. acantliace'^e (ciarke). 21] 

Buclianan, 20, was an erect piant, 1 1 ft. Iii'^b, witli penuitimate peduncies- 
Buclianan, 165, appears prostrate or against a rock, witli remote axiiiary divaricited 
peduncies. 

Imperfectiy known species. 

75. J, Hoepflneri, Lindau in Engi. Jalirli. xx. 66. Under- 
slirub. Leaves h in. iong, iinear-ianceoiate or iinear, giabrous. Fiowers 
soiitary, axiiiary ; bracteoies \ in. iong, ianceoiate, fineiy liairy. Caiyx 
\ in. iong. Coroiia neariy In in. iong. Capsuie \ in. iong, sparseiy liairy. 
Seeds 4, almost smooth. -'^Lindau in Engl. <fe PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 



349. 



Ibower Guinea. Angola : Mossumedes, Hoepfner, 10. 

This wouid appear to be iVIoneclima Saisoia, or nenr it, but Lindau especiaiiy says 
tine seeds are 4. Tine one exampie cited was not found by me in tine Beriin 
Herbarium. 

76. J, Romanise, Sclnweinf. <fc Volkens, Liste PI. SomaliSy 17. Shrub ; 
branchlets glabrous. Leaves f by J in., oblanceolate, glabrous, sub- 
sessile. Flowers axillary, solitary; bracts minute, ciliate. Sepals J in. 
long. Corolla J in. long, yellow. Lower anther-cell spurred. — Ghika, 
Pays des Somalis, 217. 

XSTile 3baad« Somaliland : Salul Torrent, Ghika. 
No specimen at Kew. 
Perhaps near J. odora, Vahl. 

77. J. Mannii, T. Anders, in. Joum. Linn. Soc. vii. 44. Shrub. 
Leaves 3-6 by 1-3 in., ovate, glabrous; petiole 1 in. long. Spikes 
axillary 2, 1 in. long, loose, glabrous, few-flowered ; bracts i in. long, 
linear, acute. Sepals shorter than the bracts, ovate-lanceolate. Corolla 
1 J in. long, purple. Anther-cells muticous. Ovary glabrate, 4-ovuled. 

Upper Guinea* Fernando Po, Mann. 

Justicia Mannii, T. Anders. MS. in Herb. Kew, \s Adhatoda orbicularis (Lindau 
sub Duvernoid). It is evident that T. Anderson applied the name Justicia Mannii 



to two widely different piants, and probabiy canceiied one of tliem Inimseif. 

78. J. Poggei, Lindau in Engi. Jalirli. xx. 61 . Leaves up to S'^ by 

1 ;'^ in., narrowed at eitlier end, siiglitiy liairy; petioie sinort. Spikes 
terminal and axillary, dense; bracts I by J in., ovate, cuspidate, 
thinly hispid, margin scarious; bracteoles nearly J in. long, oblong. 
Sepals J-i in. long, hairy. Corolla J in. long, glabrous. One anther- 
cell lower than the other, with a very small spur. — Lindau in Engl, it 
PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 350. 

Soutta Central. Lunda : Mussumba, Togge, 304. 
Fruit not seen, but 1 suspect the genus to be Rungia. 

79. J. guerkeana, Schinzin Verh. Bat. Ver. Brandenh. xxxi. (iss'.i) 

201 . Nearly glabrous. Branchlets woody ; internodes J in. long. Leaves 
IJ by J in., linear-oblong, tapering at the base, subses.-'^ile. Spike ter- 
minal, 2-3 byj in. ; upper bracts strobilate, lower separate, 1 -flowered 



[Begin Page: Page 212] 

212 XCVIM. ACANTHACE.« (CLARKE). [Justicia, 

(1-8-flowered ex Schinz), nearly i by \ in., roundish, short-acuminate, 
with a prominent scarious margin ; bracteoles \ in. long, lanceolate. 
Sepals 5, J in. long, linear-lanceolate, nearly glabrous. Corolla J in. 
long. One anther-cell below the other, strongly tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, 
with 2 stopples ; a single row of minute (but pointed) tubercles on each 



side of each stopple. — Lindau in Engi, k Pranti, Pfianzenfam. iv. 3 B. 
349. 

ZiOwer Cuineai German South-west Africa : Great Namaquaiand ; between 
Tiras and Rehoboth, Schinz ! 

There is no fruit ; possibiy a Rungia. 

80. J. somaiensis {Franch. Sort. Somai., 53). Smaii shrub; 
branches siender, crispediy pubescent. Leaves obovate - obiong 
or obovate, obtuse, sparingly adpressediy puberuious ; petiole short. 
Racemes lax ; flowers solitary, between 2 ovate or orbicular almost 
membranous subsessile ciliate bracts ; bracteoles subulate. Calyx 
5-partite nearly to the base ; segments linear. Corolla V'^ in. long, 
concealed by the 2 flatly adpressed bracts as in Dicliptera, purple, 
pubescent without ; tube not longer than the calyx ; limb distinctly 
2-lipped ; upper lip narrow, 2-toothed, lower spreading. Stamens 2 ; 
lower anther-cell long-tailed. Capsule clavate, pubescent ; cells 2-ovuled ; 
seeds orbicular, flat. 

IVileZiand. ISomaliland : Mana, Revoil. 

44. MONECHMA, Hochst. in Flora, 1841, 374. 

Sepals 5, small, narrow, posticous one sometimes much smaller. 
Corolla small, 2-lipped ; posticous lip subentire. Stamens 2 ; one anther- 
cell below the other, long-tailed, tail often clavate, 2-fld at tip ; pollen 
ellipsoid, longitudinally banded, with or without rows of tubercles. 
Ovary slightly hairy near the top ; ovules 1 -2 in each cell ; style hairy 



at the base, subequally and shortly 2-lobed at the top. Capsule small, 
ellipsoid, 2-seeded, compressed, hairy (except in M. lolioides), on a short 
solid stalk or subsessile ; placentae not rising elastically from the base of 
the valves ; seeds discoid, quite smooth without tubercles or corruga- 
tions, usually glabrous, rarely with minute hairs. — Leaves entire. 
Spikes strobilate or lax, or flowers axillary and solitary ; bracts ovate 
to linear-oblong; bracteoles minute or 0. 

Species 21 , African ; one extending through Arabia to Bombay. 

The present genus is not equivalent to Justicia, Sect, iv. Monechma, Lindnu (in 
Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349), which includes several species which do 
not satisfy Hochstetter's characters for Monechma. The genus, as here understood, 
differs from Justicia by the capsule having two smooth seeds ; it is Schtvabea of Nees 
and Bentham, not of Endlicher (which had 4 stamens and did not belong to the tribe 
Eu-Justiciece). 

*ScHWABEA. — Seeds with a tuft of rigid many-celled thick 

hairs at the hilum, and a similar tuft at the opposite 

margin. 

Inflorescence hispid with long white hairs . . . \. M, hispidum. 



[Begin Page: Page 213] 



Monechma.] 



XCVIII. ACANTHACEiE (CLARKE) 



218 



**Eu-MoNECHMA. — Seeds (without tufts of hairs) glabrous, 
or with very minute scattered hairs. — Justicia, Benth. 
in Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PI. ii. 1 1 09, partly. 
Spikes strobilate, terminal and also on short pseudo- 
axillary peduncles ; bracts ovate, enclosing the calyx. 
Bracts not viscous glandular. 

Bracts round, dilate on the margins . . .2. 

Bracts elliptic acute, scabrous on the nerves . .3. 

Bracts viscous glandular. 

Tip of bracts triangular, hardly acute . . .4. 

Tip of bracts acuminate 5. 

Spikes terminal ; bracts from narrow-elliptic to linear- 
oblong. 

Leaves ovate, elliptic, or broadly oblong. 
Leaves nearly sessile. 

Leaves ovate, rounded at the base . . .6. 

Leaves oblong-elliptic, narrowed to the base . 7. 



Leaves with petioles rareiy exceeding \-\ in. in 

iengtii. 

Bracts not marginate 8. 

Bracts witli paie margins ... .9. 

Leaves witli petioles \-\ in. long ; bracts mar- 
ginate 10. 

Leaves linear to linear-oblong 1 1 . 

Flowers solitary, axillary, running almost or quite into 
spikes at the ends of the branches ; leaves and bracts 
(or floral leaves) lanceolate, mucronate or apiculate 
Leaves and bracts glabrate .... 
Leaves and bracts long-white-hairy on the margins. 

Leaves 1 in. long ; sepals \ in. long ... 13. 

Leaves \ in. long; sepals \ in. long ... 14. 

Flowers scattered, all (or nearly all) solitary ; leaves 

hairy. 

Flowers sessile. 

Leaves scarcely acute. 

Leaves 2 in. long .... 
Leaves \ in. long. 



Branches 12-15 in. long; many internodes 

exceeding 1 in. in lengtln ... 16. 

Brandies sliort ; internodes oV"'^ '^"* ^'^ lengtli 17. 
Leaves rigid, acute or mucronate. 

Leaves ultimately glabrate ... .18. 

Leaves thinly hairy 19. 



Flowers on axillary pedicels oV'^ ''"* ''°°S* 

M. hracteatum. 
M. scabrinerve. 

M. Welwiischii. 
M. tettense. 

M. subsessile. 
M. varian.s. 

M. depauperatii) 
M. seabridton. 

M. marginatum. 
M. lolioides. 



. . 'AA. 



12. M. genistifoliui 

M. arenicola. 
M. Desertoruin. 

15. M. Nepeta. 

M.JioHdum. 
M. apissum. 

M. SaUola. 
M. hereroenfie. 
M. cleomoid&K. 

1 . M. hispidom, Hochat. in Flora, 1 841 , 375, 1 843, 76. Anoual 
1 -2 ft. high, hispid-scabrous or glabrate. Leaves up to 3 by A-J in., 
entire, harsh, base naiTOwed ; petiole yV-J in. long. Spikes (in fruit) 
up to 3-4 by f in. (exclusive of the bracts) ; bracts }-l in. long, oblong, 
the lower leat-like, petioled, up to 1 '^-1 in. long; brncteoles J-J in. 
long, mth conspicuous long white stiff hairs. Sepals f», subequal, nearly 
distinct, J in. long, linear, hispid. Corolla hardly exceeding J in. in 
length, white slightly purple-spotted, 2-Upped, as of the smaller Justicias. 
Stamens 2 ; one anther-cell below the other, white-tailed ; pollen 

VOL. V. H 



[Begin Page: Page 214] 

214 xcviii. ACANTHACE.E (clarke). [3lo7iechina. 

ellipsoid, banded, stopples 2, no tubercles. Capsule J in. long, woody; 
seeds J by y'^'^ in. — Jiosticia ciliaris, Linn. f. Suppl. 84 ; Jacq. Hort. 
Vind. ii. 47, t. 104 (ciliata). J. Biittneri, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 
(18, and in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 8 B. 349. Pogonospeo'mum 
ciliare and P. hispidum'^ Hochst. in Flora, 1844, Bell. G. Sch'^vahea 
ciliaris, Nees in DO. Prod. xi. 884, excluding syn. Endl. ; A. Kich. Tent. 
Fl. Abyss, ii. 154; Benth. in Hook. Niger Fl. 482; Solms-Laub. in 
Schweinf. Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. 1 1 3 ; T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 
45; Oliv. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix. 130; Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. 
xviii. 04, t. 2, fig. 98, and in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 346, 
and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 372. S. spicigera, Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 
384; T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 45. 

Upper Guinea. Senegainbia, Heudelof, 167 ! 505 partly I Gambia, Brovjn- 

Lester, 51 ! Sierra Leone : near Bayabaya on the Scarcies River, Scott-Elliot, 4588 ! 

Togoiand, Biittner, 148 ! Baumann, 326 I 

Nile Xiand. Ivordofan, Kotschy, 239! Pfund, 83! Gallabat, Schweinfurth, 14! 

81 ! 84 ! British East Africa : .lur : Jur Ghattas, Schzveinfurth, 2463 ! Madi, SpeJce 

Sf Grant ! 

XVIozaxab. SIst. British Central Africa: Nyasaland : between Kondowe and 
Karonga, 4000-6000 ft., Whyte, 381 ! 



Nees says the flowers are axillary and solitary In Pofjonospermum clllare, but spiked 
In his Schll-ahea splclgera : he has written on one example of Heudelot's clllarls, on 
another splclgera, and they look to me one collection. The spikes when young In Pogo- 
nospermum are dense, but they open out much In fruit ; the bracts show a passage 
from leaf to bract, and are throughout the spike so very long and leaf-like In this 
genus that they might bo described as floral leaves. LIndau says the pollen Is 
tubercled ; I find It unusually devoid of rows of tubercles, or even of spots. 

2. M. bracteatum, Hochst. In Flora, 1841, 375, 1843, 75. Stems 
1-3 ft. high, pubescent. Leaves up to 4| by 1-IJ In. (usually much 
smaller), when mature glabrate or puberulous, tip obtuse ; petiole |-1 
In. long. Spikes subsesslle (sometimes more than 2 at one node), 2 by 
'^ In., strobllate; bracts | — '^- In. In diam., circular or slightly elliptic, 
obtuse (sometimes with a minute point), pubescent, dilate with long 
white several-celled hairs round the margin nearly or quite to Its 
summit (but see var. enumerated below). Calyx \ In. long, hairy. 
Corolla J-J In. long. Lower anther-cell with a long tall, obtuse sub- 
clavate at the tip. Capsule \ In. long, densely clothed with short white 
(mostly deflexed) hairs ; seeds yellow-brown often with black blotches. — 
Nees In DC. Prod. xl. 41 1 ; Solms-Laub. In Schwelnf. Beltr. Fl. Aethlop. 
112, 244 ; Zarb, Cat. Spec. Bot. Pfund. 32. M. afflne, Hochst. In Flora, 
1843, 7r,; Nees In DC. Prod. xl. 41 1 ; A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, II. 
158. M. cleblle, Nees In DC. Prod. xl. 41 1 ; Solms-Laub. In Schwelnf. 
Beltr. Fl. Aethlop. 112, 224. DIanthe'radehllls, Forsk. Fl.'^gypt.-Arab. 9. 
Justlcia debllls, Yalhl, Symb. II. 15, and Enum. I. 135; T. Anders, In 
Journ. Linn. Soc. vll. 43 ; Engl. Hochgeblrgsfl. Trop. Afr. oHo ; Ollv. 
In Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix. 129; LIndau In Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzen- 
fam. Iv. 3B. 349, fig. 139, q. In Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373, and In 
Ann. Istlt. Bot. Roma vl. (1890) 83. J. bracteala, Zarb, Cat. Spec. Bot. 



Pfund. 32. J. blepharostegia, T. Thorns, in Speke, Nile Append. G43. 



[Begin Page: Page 215] 

Moneclima.] xcviii. acantlnace.e (clarke), 215 

J. Gregorii, S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1894, 138; Lindau in Eiif,1. Pri. 
Ost-Afr. C. 373. J. allniflora'^ Ehrenberg MS., not of Blume. Gendarussa 
debilis, Nees in Linn'^ea xvi. 302. 

WHe Z.and. Kordofsin, Kotaciiy, 261 ! 759 ! Ffund'^ 167 ! Darfur, Pfund, 424 ! 
Yal\\\q»'^\a, Kotscliy, 49! Galabat : '^l\\K.Vimm2i, Scliweinfurtli, 124! Eritrea : Keren ! 
iS/'^ewrfner, 1520! Bogos, 5000 tt., Hildebrandt, 441 ! Abyssinia: Eilet, Elirenberrj ! 
Wadi Togodele, JElirenberg ! Gagcros, 3500 ft., Scliimper, 179 ! Gapdia, Scliimper, 
759 ! and witliout precise locality, Schimper, 419 ! 749 ! 756 ! Somaliland : Adda Galla, 
James cf Thrupp ! Ogaden, Riva, 339 ! IJerbera, Robecchi, 243, and without precise 
locality. Miss Edith Cole! Mks. Lort- Phillips ! British East Africa: near Lake 
Buringo, Gregory ! 

IVXozamb. Bist. German East Africa : Karagwe, Speke Sf Grant, 433 ! 
Kilimanjaro, Volkens, 2175 ! Usambara, Hoist, 10 ! Ukauii ; Mrogoro, 1600 
ft., Stuhlmann, 8200! Unyamwezi ; Iramba District, Stuhlmann, 4217 I British 
Central Africa : Nyasaland ; Tanganyika Plateau at Fort Hill, 3000-4000 ft., Wkyte ! 
between Kondowe and Karonga, 2000-6000 ft., Whyte, 94 ! 

Var. /3 hirsutior, C. B. Clarke. Stem very hairy. Mature leaves hairy beneath ; 

bracts densely white, ciliate on the margin. — Justicia debilis, Oliv. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 



ser. 2, Bot. ii. 345. 

XTile liancl> British East Africa: Taita ; Maungu Mountain, Jolnnston! and 
Ndara Mountain, Hildebrandt, 2397. Ukamba, 5000-6000 ft., Scott-Elliot, 6749 ! 

Mozainb. Bist. German East Africa : Usambara, Kwa Mshuza, Moist, 8991 I 

All the specimens of this have dried a very dark green instead of the grey yelluw- 
green of typical M. bracteatum. 

Var. 7 angustifolia, C. B. Clarke. Leaves narrower, in an e.xtreme form 5 by 

•| in. — M. angustifolium, Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 412. Justicia blepharostegia, Drege, 

Zwei Pfl. Docum. 160, 195 ; T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 43. 

Mozamb. DIst. Portuguese East Africa : Lower Zambesi, near Sena, Kirk ! 
British Central Africa : Nyasaland ; Shire River, Kirk ! 

Var. 5 non-strobilifera, C. B. Clarke. Flowers 3-1 clustered in distant leaf- 
axils ; upper clusters approximate. 

Nile Z.and. Eritrea : Habab, 6000 ft., Hildebrandt, 442 ! 

Mozamb. Dist. British Central Africa: Nyasaland; Kondowe U> Karonga, 
2000-6000 tt., Whyte ! 

Var. e stricta, C. E. Clarke. Bracts elliptic-oblong ; spikes narrower. 

Wile Hand. Eritrea : Keren, Steudner, 1499 ! Abyssinia, Schimper, 207 ! 



511 !876 ISteudner, 1521 ! 

Var. '^ eciliata, C. B. Clarke. Bracts without -cilia; otherwise as typical 
M. bracteatum, Hocbst. 

Nile Xiand. Eritrea : near Ginda, 3300 ft., Schweinfurth Sf Riva, 2195 ! 

XVKozamb. DIst. British Central Africa : NyasalamI ; Nyika Plateau, 6000- 
7000 ft., Whyte ! 135 ! 118b ! 

Also in Arabia. 

3. M. (?) scabrinerve, 6'. B. Clarke. Leaves 2 by j in., reticu- 
late beneath by prominent nerves (both primary and secondary), 
minutely scabrous. Biacts J by '^ in., elliptic, acute, scabrous-nerved 
and with a few long white simple hairs ; otherwise as typical M. bi-ac- 
teatum. 



[Begin Page: Page 216] 

21 G xcviii. ACANTHACE'^ (clarke). [Monechina. 

wile Xiand. British East Africa : near Lake Elmeteita, 6000 ft., Scolt-Elliot, 
6676! 

Flowers not seen ; hence, if anthers prove without tails, this may be an EchoUum 
near E. anisacanthus. 



4. M. "Welwitschii, C. B. Clarke. Bracts ovate, triangular acute 

at the tip, viscous-hairy ; sepals with some gland-tipped hairs ; other- 
wise as M. bracteatum. — Justicia monechmoicles, S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 
1880,311. 

Sower Guinea. Angola : Loanda, Welwitsch, 5065 ! 5123, 5140 ! 5184 ! 

5. Moore says that Mo7iechma is characterised by having the spikes in opposite 
axils, a character not often seen, in the present plant. In Monechma the spikes are 
not always in opposite axils, while in the present plant they are so sometimes, 

5. M. tettense, C. B. Clarke. Leaves elongate. Bracts 
(especially the lower ones) ovate, acuminate ; otherwise as M. Wel- 
witschii. 

IVKozamb. BIst. Portuguese East Africa : Lower Zambesi ; Kaimba Island, 
opposite Tete, Kirk ! Shupanga, Kirk ! British Central Africa : Nyasaland, Buchanan, 
438 ! Lake Nyasa, Simons ! 

One anther much below the other, with a long tail, obtuse eniarginate at 
the tip. 

G. M. subsessile, C. B. Clarke. Rootstock woody; branches 10 
in. long, simple, hairy. Leaves l\ by j in., ovate, scabrid on the nerves 
beneath, base obtuse or subcordate ; petiole O-j?'^ in. long. Spike 
terminal, 2 by f in., dense; bracts |-| by \ in., elliptic-lanceolate, 
subacute, minutely hairy, not marginate ; bracteoles 2, § in. long, 
broadly oblong. Sepals 5, J in. long, linear, posticous one a little (or 



considerably) shorter. Corolla f in. long, yellow with 2 pink streaks 
down the throat. Filaments glabrous ; one anther-cell below the other, 
with a long clavate tail, 2-3-toothed at the tip ; pollen ellipsoid, banded 
longitudinally, with 2 stopples, and no tubercles. Ovary shaggy. 
" Capsule containing only 2 flat seeds " {Oliver). — Justicia siibsessilis, 
Oliv. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix. 129, t. 129, fig. B; Lindau in Engl. 
Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373. Justicia, sp. n. 3, T. Thorns, in Speke, Nile 
Append. G-43. 

Mozami)* BIst. German East Africa : Karagwe, Speke '^ Grant, 213 ! 

Prof. Oliver says this was his t. 1 29, fig. A, whereas it was t. 1 29, tig. B. Inside 
the two large "bracteoles" there is sometimes (as correctly drawn by Prof. Oliver) 
an extra small bracteole, indicative of an undeveloped cyme. 

7. M. varians, C. B. Clarke. Rootstock woody; stems up to 1 8 
in. long, with erect branches, more or less hairy. Leaves up to 2 by 
i in., acute at either end, subsessile. Spikes terminal, W by f in. 
dense ; bracts up to J by '^ in., oblong-elliptic, obtuse, hairy or nearly 
glabrous, not marginate; bracteoles up to J in. long, linear, somewhat 
obovate-oblong (or one of these bracteoles maybe the true flower bract). 
Sepals 5, whereof 4 are \ in. long, linear, minutely hairy (many hairs 
gland-tipped), the posticous sepal hardly j\'^ in. long. Corolla scarcely 



[Begin Page: Page 217] 



Monechma.] xcviii. acanthace'^ (clarke). 217 

'^ in. long. Filaments glabrous; anther-cells round, one obliquely 
above the other, short-tailed, tail of the lower cell of medium length, 
terete, obtuse; pollen ellipsoid, without distinct tubercles. (Jvavy 
glabrous when young ; style very thinly hairy. 

Mozamb. 3>iBt. British Central Africa : Nyasalnnd, 2000-7000 ft, W//i/te ! 

Twice collected ; examples at 6000-7000 ft,, hairy all over ; those at 2000-6(X)0 ft. 
nearly glabrate. 

8. M. depauperatum, C. B. Clarke. Stem 3-5 ft. high ; branches 
more or less angular and hairy. Leaves up to 3 by 1 in., elliptic- 
lanceolate, subacute at either end, sparsely hairy or glabrate above, 
hairy on the nerves beneath; petioles 0-J in. long. Spikes H-4 in. 
long, elongated in fruit, terminal ; bracts | by \-\ in., elliptic or oblong, 
obtuse or subacute, minutely pubescent, not margined ; bracteoles 0. 
Sepals 5, subequal, \-\ in. long, linear-lanceolate, minutely pubescent. 
Corolla I in. long, pale yellow (Barter). Filaments glabrous; anther- 
cells ellipsoid, one much below the other, long-tailed, tail clavate sub- 
bifid at the tip ; pollen ellipsoid, banded, with 2 stopples, one row of 
depressed tubercles (scarcely more than patches) on each side of earh 
stopple. Capsule nearly J in. long, 2-seeded, minutely pubescent to 
the base; placentae not rising elastically ; seeds smooth, shining, with 
scattered small simple white hairs. — Jicsticia depauperaia, T. Anders, 
in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 40. ./. Barteri, T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. 
Soc. vii. 39. J. sexsulcata, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 67, and in 
Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349. 



upper Guinea. Sierra Leone : Lomabnrn, Scott-Eiiiot, 5035 1 interior of 
West Lugos, Rotoiand ! Togoiand, Biittner, 202! Lower Niger: Onitsa, Barter, 
.59211380! 

9. M. scabridum, C. B. Ciarice. Leaves often obtuse at tlie base, 
minuteiy liairy on tine iower face. Bracts margined, sometimes green 
on tine back, witli scarious green-yeiiow prominent margins. Seeds witli 
more numerous iiairs, sometimes denseiy liairy near tlie margins : otlier- 
wise as J/, depaujyeratum. — Justicia scalnrida, S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 
1880, 310. J. marginata, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 73, and in Engl, 

it PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349. 

ZiOMrer Guinea. Angola: Pungo Andongo, TTeZjt'lYscA, 5085 ! 5092! Malange, 
Buttner, 33 ! 

Experienced botanists have united this in the herbarium with M. depauperatum. 
I doubt much if it should be specifically separated. 

10. M. marginatum, C. B. Clarke. Leaves up to .") by U in., 
narrowed at both ends ; petioles up to J-J in. long. Bracts '^ in. long, 

or rather more, very acute, with broad scarious-yellow margins ; other- 
wise as J/, depauperatum. — Nicoteha marginata, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. 
xxii. 119. 

Upper Guinea. Cameroons : Yaunde, Zenker Sf Standi, 556 ! 

This is put in a different genus from the 3 preceding species by Lindnu on the 

ground that there are no tubercles on the pollen. I think it is hardly specifically 



[Begin Page: Page 218] 

218 xcviii. ACANTHACE.E (clarke). \'^Monechma. 

separable ; but tliis is no argument againt the value of pollen as a generic cliaracter, 
for the pollen in the 4 species is the same. 

11 . M. lolioides, C. B. Clarke. Nearly glabrous, except the 
corolla; branches 12-20 in. long. Leaves from oblong (If by \ in.) to 
linear (2.\ by J in.), subobtuse, sessile. Spikes terminal, up to 5 by '^- in., 
loose, especially at the base, main rhachis glabrous; bracts J by -'^V "!•> 
green with white margins, glabrous. Sepals 5, similar to the bracts 

but rather shorter. Coiolla A in. long. Lower anther-cell long-tailed, 
tail clavate 2-lobed at tip ; pollen ellipsoid, with 2 stopples. Style-base 
hairy; ovary glabrous. Capsule \ in. long, 2-seeded, glabrous; the 
solid thick stalk scarcely '^V i''^- '^'^"g 5 seeds yellow-brown, smooth, as 
of the genus, but with minute white hairs round the margins. — 
Justicia lolioides, S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1880, 310, t. 214, fig. 1. 

Xiower Guinea. Angola: Pungo Andongo and Huilla, Welivitsch, 5090! 
5178:50991 

12. M. genistifolium, C. B. Clarke. Branches round, densely 

and minutely tomentose. Leaves up to 2 by J in., lanceolate, acute, 
mucronate, sessile, glabrous, yellow-green. Spikes up to 1 1 by J in., 
approximate towards the end of the branches ; bracts \'^y \ in., broad- 



lanceolate, acute, mucronate, glabrous. Sepals 5, J In. long, linear, 
puberulous. Corolla | In. long, blue and white {Lindner). One anther- 
cell much below the other, with a long clavate tall sub-2-lobed at the 
tip ; pollen ellipsoid, banded, with 2 stopples. Ovary minutely pubescent 
In the upper half. Capsule nearly \ In. long, pubescent, 2-seeded ; the 
solid broad stalk " In. long; seeds smooth, with acute margin. — Justlcia 
gealstlfolla, Engl, In Engl. Jahrb. x. 264; LIndau In Engl. & PrantI, 
Pflanzenfam. Iv. 8 B. 849. 

ZIower Guinea. German South-west Africa : Hereroland, Luderltz, 96 ! 
OtyltambI, BelcJc, 9 ! Damaraland ; Karlbib, 3000 ft., Marloth, 1424! Lindner \ 

The bracts are simply shortened leaves, and should perhaps be described as floral 
leaves. 

13. M. arenlcola, C. B. Clarke. Small shrub; viscous glandular- 
hairy; branches very thick, much ramified. Leaves 1 by \-\ In., 
broad-lanceolate, acute, mucronate, subsesslle, yellow-green, long-whlte- 
halry, approximate. Flowers axillary, sessile. Sepals \ In. long, linear, 
green. Corolla exceeding h In. In length. Style hairy at the base ; ovary 
minutely hairy In upper half. Capsule '' In. long, 2-seeded, minutely 
hairy; the solid thick stalk J In. long. — Justlcia arenlcola, Engl, In 
Engl. Jahrb. x. 264; LIndau In Engl. Jahrb. xlx. 151 , and In Engl. & 
PrantI, Pflanzenfam. Iv. 3 B. 349. /. Stelngroverll, Schinz ex LIndau 
In Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. Iv. 3 B. 349. 

ZIower Guinea. German South-west Africa : Hereroland ; Usakos and Ubib, 
Marlolh, 1247, 1445 1 Port Mine at Swakop River, Guerlch, 105, and without pre- 
cise locality, Luderltz, 97 I 



14. M. Desertorum, C. B. Clarke. Annual, 5 In. high, whlte- 

halry. Leaves h by \ In., lanceolate, acute, mucronate, sessile, long- 



[Begin Page: Page 219] 

Monechnla.'] xcvlll. acanthacetE (clarke). 219 

white-halry on the margins, yellow-green. Spikes J-| In. long, dense, 
forming a close panicle; bracts J by | In., lanceolate, acute, mucronate, 
long-white-halry on the margins. Sepals 5, '^ In. long, linear, puberu- 
lous. Corolla V'^ In. long. Lower anther-cell with a long acute tall; 
pollen ellipsoid, banded, with 2 stopples and single rows of tubercles. 
Ovary minutely pubescent In the upper half. Capsule scarcely f. In. 
long, 2-seeded, sparsely hairy In the upper part ; the solid thick stalk 
scarcely '^V In. long ; seeds smooth with acute margins. — Justlcia 
Deserto')'um, Engl, In Engl. Jahrb. x. 2G3 ; LIndau In Engl, k PrantI, 
Pflanzenfam. Iv. 3 B. 349. 

Ilower Guinea. Hereroland : Husab, 1000 ft., Marloth, 1462 ! 

15. M. Nepeta, C. B. Clarke. Stem G-24 In. long, much branched, 
with many long soft white spreading hairs; Internodes up to 1-2 In. 
long. Leaves up to 2 by \-\ In., with long hairs, some gland-tipped ; 
petiole 0-J In. long. Flowers solitary, axillary, remote. Sepals 5, 
\ In. long, linear-oblong, green, glandular-hairy. Corolla J- J In. long, 
violet-purple. Lower anther-cell with a long oblique simple tall ; 



pollen ellipsoid, with 2 stopples and one row of tubercles on each side 
of each stopple. Ovary thinly hairy in the upper part. Capsule 4 in. 
long, 2-seeded, thinly hairy in the upper part ; the solid stalk less than 
-'^'^'^ in. long; seeds smooth. — Justicia Nepeta, S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 
1880, 312. J. mossamedea, S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1880, 312. 

lower Guinea. Angola: Welwitsch, 5003! 5004! 5136! 5137! 5185! 
Lorenzo Marques, Qtiintas, 123! 

XMEozamb' Sist. British Central Africa : Ngamiland ; Kwebe, Lugard, 172 ! 

1 (5. M. floridum, C. B. Clarke. Branches 1 2-1 5 in. long, with 
spreading long soft white hairs and some viscid glandular hairs ; inter- 
nodes up to 1 -IJ in. long, those of branchlets scarcely \ in. in length. 
Leaves J by'^ in., with long white hair and gland-tipped hairs. Flowers 
solitary, in nearly all the axils. Capsule \ in. long, 2-seeded, somewhat 
hairy in the upper part ; the solid thick stalk -'^'^ in. long ; seeds smooth. — 
Justicia'^ sp. nova atfinis J. Nepetce, S. Moore in Journ, Bot. 1880, 342. 

lioxirer Guinea. Angola : WehvitscJi, 5120 ! Benguela ; Humbo, Welwitsch, 
5032 ! 

This is very near M. Nepeta, differing mainly in the ucU-niaiked stalk to 

the somewhat larger capsule. Tile small le;ives and very nuuieruus Howers might be 

accidental. 

17. M. spissuxn, C.B. Clarke. Branches viscous hairy ; internodes 
t}jj-'^ in. long. Leaves J by l'^ in., oblong-elliptic, subacute, nearly 



sessile, viscous iiairy. Fiower in tine axiis of neariy aii tine ieaves. 
Sepais 0, \ in. iong, subuiate, scarious, viscous Iiairy. Capsule l'^ in. 
long, 2-seeded, hairy; placentae not rising elastically ; stalk solid, very 
short ; seeds discoid, shining, smooth, brown with black blotches. 

liower Guinea. Angola : Loanda, Welwitsch, 5066 I 

No specimen in the Kew Herbarium. 



[Begin Page: Page 220] 

220 xcviii. ACANTHACE'^ (clarke). [Moneckinu. 

18. M. Salsola, C. B. Clarke. A viscid-hairy rugged shrub, 
divaricately much-branched, 1-2 ft. in diam. ; branches angular, 
ultimately glabrate. Leaves J by J in., linear-lanceolate, acute, hairy, 
subsessile. Flowers axillary, subsessile. Sepals V in. long, linear, gi'^een, 
hairy and glandular. Corolla \ in. long. Lower anther-cell with a 
long simple acute tail ; pollen ellipsoid, with 2 stopples, and 2 rows of 
spots (hardly elevated) on each side of each stopple. Capsule \ in. 
long, 2-seeded. — Jusiicia Salsola, S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1 880, 840. 

Ziower Guinea. Angola : Praia da Amelia, Welwitsch, 5023 ! 

Allied perhaps to M. arenicola, but has much more scattered flowers. 

11). M. hereroense, C. B. Clarke. Undershrub; branches round. 



densely grey woolly-tomentose ; internodes J in. long. Leaves f by 
y'^T in., lanceolate, mucronate, thinly hairy. Flowers axillary ; bracts 
nearly J in. long, lanceolate. Sepals J in. long, lanceolate-subulate. 
Corolla nearly J in. long, blue. Lower anther-cell long-tailed. 
Capsule i-J in. long, ellipsoid, subacute, sessile, 2-seeded, hairy ; seeds 
discoid, not tubercled. — Justicia hereroensis, Engl, in Engl. Jahrb. x. 
264 ; Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349. 

liower Guinea. Hereroland : Usakos, 2700 ft., Marloth, 1246! Great 
Namaqualand ; Relioboth, Pfeil, 130, 173 ! 

No specimen at Kew. 

20. M. cleomoides, C. B. Clarke. Woody, viscous glandular 
hairy. Leaves f by J in., spathulate-elliptic, obtuse; petiole 0-5 in. 
long. Flowers solitary; pedicels axillary, '^'IT'i '^'^- '^'^"S- Sepals 5, 

\ in. long, and upwards, linear. Corolla exceeding | in. long. Lower 
anther-cell (rather strongly) tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, with 2 stopples, 
and one row of small tubercles on either vside of each stopple. Ovary 
pubescent at the top ; style-base hairy. Capsule J in. long, 2-seeded, 
hairy, stalked. — Justicia deomoides, S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1880, 313, 
t. 214, fig. 2. 

&ower Guinea. Angola : Mossamedes, Boepfner ! Wehvifsch, 5006 ! 

Imperfecthj knoion species. 

21. M, (?) nkambense, C. B. Clarke. Branches stout, hairy. 
Leaves 2 by | in., ovate, pubescent ; petiole \-\ in, long. Flowers in 



the axils, and running into a terminal spike (1 in. long) ; bracts (floral 
leaves) with petioles J in. long (or rather more), erect, obovate ; bracts 
of terminal spike imbricate, f in. long, elliptic ; bracteoles very small. 
Calyx J in. long. Corolla | in. long. One anther-cell tailed. — Justicia 
ukambensis, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 09, and in Engl. &: PrantI, 
Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 349, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 373. 

irile Xiand. British East Africa : Ukamba, Hildehrandt, 2725 ! 

The example is young. I suspect a plant collected by Wakefield in a journey from 
Ribe to the Galla country to be this species ; but in the absence of fruit it is 
doubtful. 



[Begin Page: Page 221] 

Adhaioda.] xcviii. acanthace'^ (clarke). 221 

45. ADHATODA, Nees; Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PL ii. 111 2. 

Calyx subequally 5-tid to the base ; lobes clearly imbricate. Corolla 
large, 2-lipped ; tube nearly as long as the lips, inflated in the upper 
half ; anticous lip ovate, 3-lobed ; posticous nearly entire. Stamens 2 
glabrous ; anther-cells oblong, parallel, at nearly equal height, rounded' 
acute or shortly tailed at the base ; pollen ellipsoid, the longitudinal 
smooth depressions with rows of patches, hardly of tubercles. Ovary 
shaggy; ovules 2 in each cell; style very shortly and equally bilobed. 
Capsule oblong-clavate, on a short solid stalk, 4-2-seeded ; seeds rugose. 



sometimes obscurely so, not shining ; piacentae not rising eiasticniiy. 

Slirubs. Leaves iarge, eiiiptic, entire, mucin attenuate at either end. 
Spikes terminal, peduncled, forming a thyrsus or solitary ; bracts 
ovate or linear-oblong ; bracteoles 2, about as long as the calyx. 
Species 8, in the tropical parts of Asia, Africa and America. 

Adhatoda was described as a genus by Nees in Wall, PI. As. Kar. ill. (1832) 102 • 
and the name thus has priority over Duvernoia, Dr'^ge, first described by Nees in DC. 
Prod. xi. (1 847) 322. But, if the bare printing of the n?me Duvernoia by Drege in 
1837 be maintained to constitute priority of publication, it is not advisable to adopt 
the generic name Duvernoia for the subjoined species of Adhatoda, because Duvernoia, 
by reason of its campanulate calyx with subvalvate triangular lobes, would be by some 
(who sink Adhatoda in Justicia) kept up as a raonotypic genus. 

Adhatoda, though not well separable from Justicia by any one character, is here 
understood (as by Bentham) to comprise certain shrubs 4-12 ft. high, with large 
leaves and shaggy ovaries, in which the lower of the 2 anther-cells is not remote nor 
very long-tailed (as it is in Justicia). 

Bracts ovate or orbicular, '^-f in. broad ; spikes dense, 
strobilate. 

Bracts with sc&rious edges 1 . A. schimperiana. 

Bracts acute, with green edges .... 2. A. engleriana. 



Bracts round, with green edges .... 3. '^. orbicularia. 

Bracts oblong-linear ; spikes interrupted, not strobilate. 
One anther-cell lower than the other, base shortly 

tailed 4. .4. tristis. 

Anther-cells at nearly equal height, base rounded. 

Mature leaves pubescent on the nerves beneath . 5. A. robu>.ta. 
Mature leaves nearly glabrous .... Q. A. macula t a. 

1 . A. schimperiana, Hockat. ex Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 388. 
Shrub. Leaves G by 2J in., narrowed at eitlier end, obtuse, glabrous; 
petiole '^-J in. long. Spikes 3-7 by 1 in., several peduncled, often 
forming a terminal thyrsus, strobilate ; bract § by \ in., minutely 
pubescent, with a prominent scarious margin ; bracteoles J-'^ in. long, 
ovate. Sepals 5, nearly separate, subsimilar, '^ in. long, oblong-lanceolate, 
pubescent. Corolla 1 in. in total length, yellowish, purple-spotted, lips 
I in. long. One anther -cell slightly below the other, nuicronate at the 
base ; pollen ellipsoid, with two stopples, and rows of spots on the 
longitudinal smooth bands. Ovary and style-base shaggy. Capsule j-1 
in. long, pubescent, usually 4-seeded, lower J part a cylindric stalk ; 
placentae not rising elastically: seeds glabrous, rugose. — A. Rich. Tent. 



[Begin Page: Page 222] 



222 xcviii. ACANTHACE,« (clarke). [Ad/uitoda. 



Fl. Abyss, ii. 155; Solms-Laub. in Schweinf. Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. 242. 
,/usticia schimperiana, T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 38 ; Engl. 
Hocligebirgsti. Trop. Afr. 392 ; Oliv. in Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Bot. 
345; Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 348, fig. 131), 
E-J, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C 373. Gendmiissa schimpeonana, 
Hochst. in Flora, 1 841 , i. Intell. 24, name only. 



II 



Wile Land. Eritrea : near Acrur, 6000 ft. Schweinfurth Sf Eiva 741 ! 1067 ! 
Habab, 6000 ft., Rildebrandt, 457! Abyssinia: Tigre, 5000 ft., Schimper, 702! 
mountains near Axum, Schimper, 1 549! near Adowa, Schimper, 27! Dembea ; 
Gondar, Steudner, 1502 ! and without precise locality. Salt ! Schimper, 888 ! 930 ! 
Qvariin Dillon <'^ Petit, 292! British East Africa: Duruma, Hildebrandt, 2341 \ 
'J'aita; Maungu Mountain, 2000 ft., Johnston! 

IVIozamb. X>lst. German East Africa : Fischer'^ 164 ! 

From Lindau's figure it might be supposed that the ovary is glabrous ; it is very 
hairy. 

2. A, engleriana, C. B. Clarke. Shrub. Leaves up to 14 by 5 J 
in., tapering at both ends, with 12-10 pair of nerves, glabrate or 
pubescent on the midrib beneath ; petiole up to J in. long, or (even in 
the middle stem leaves) petiole winged to the base, auriculate. Spikes 
up to 7 by 2 in., dense, strobilate ; bracts somewhat 4-ranked, up to 1 
by § in., ovate, triangular-tipped, thinly hairy, green, with 5-1) dark 
veins. Sepals 5, :| in. long, or rather more, oblong, acute, pubescent. 



Corolla |-1 In. long; lips f In. long. Filaments glabrous; anther-cells 

2 at nearly equal height, the lower very shortly tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, 
banded with 2 stopples, a row of spots (or almost depressed tubercles) 
on each side of each stopple. Ovary shaggy, hairs many, gland-tipped ; 
style sparsely hairy at the base. Capsule 1 in. long, hairy, 4-seeded ; 
base for J in. solid, hardly narrowed ; seeds i in. in diam., circular, 

thin, brown, shallowly rugose-foveolate, opaque. — Juusiicia eiigleriana, 
Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 62, and in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 

3 B. 349, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 374. 

Mozamb. BIst. German East Africa : Usambara ; Masheua, Hoist, 3491 ! 
Magila, KirJc ! KIHmanjaro, Volkens, 506 ! 

3. A. orbicularis, C. B. Clarke. Shrub, 12ft. high; innovations, 
densely tawny-hairy. Leaves up to 1 1 by 4 J in., elliptic, acute, when 
mature pubescent on the nerves, base triangular; petiole J-lf in. long. 
Spikes up to 10 by I in., strobilate; bracts h in. broad, '^-J in. long, 
round, green, plicate, pubescent ; bracteoles J in. long, oblong-linear. 
Sepals 5, subequal, J in. long, oblong-linear. Corolla '^ in. long. 
Filaments hairy ; one anther-cell slightly below the other, mucronate, 
hardly tailed ; pollen ellipsoid, longitudinally banded, with single rows 
of spots on each side of each stopple. Ovary very hairy ; style-base 
hairy ; branches 2, equal, narrow-oblong. — Duvernoia orbicularis, Lindau 
in Engl. Jahrb. xxii. 123, and in Engl, k PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 
339. 

Upper Guinea. Cameroons : Yaunde, Zenker Sf Staudt, 41 ! Fernando Po, 



3fa«n,1435 ! 



[Begin Page: Page 223] 

Adhatoda.] xcviii. acanthace.*: (clauke). 228 

4. A. tristis, Xees in DC. Prod. xi. 404. Herbaceous up to A ft. 

high ; innovations densely fulvous-hairy. Leaves i) by 4^ in., shortly 
acuminate, when mature pubescent on the nerves beneath, base tri- 
angular ; petiole 1-2J in. long. Spikes in the upper axils (I by h in., 
interrupted at the base, not strobilate ; bracts scarcely '^ in. lonfj, 
lanceolate ; bracteoles similar, smaller. Sepals 5, J in. long or more, 
linear. Corolla | in. long, purple. Filaments very hairy ; one antlier- 
cell much lower than the other ; base acute, hardly mucronate ; pollen 
ellipsoid, longitudinally banded, with single rows of spots on each side 
of each stopple. Ovary shaggy ; style hairy. Capsule more than 1 in. 
long, stalk J in. long; seeds 4. — Benth. in Hook. Niger Fl. 4'^i4. 
Justicia tristisj T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 38. 

Upper Guinea. Caraeroons : Bipinde, Zenker, 1043 ! Fernando Pn, Vorjel, 101 I 
Mann, 165 ! 

5. A. robusta, C. B. Clarke. Shrub 10-15 ft. high, young parts 
densely rusty-tomentose. Leaves 10by4j in.; nerves 17 pairs; petiole 
Ij in. long. Thyrsus 9 by 4 in., nearly without floral leaves; flower- 
spikes 3 by J in. ; bracts in the lower part of a spike distant, \-}i in. 
long, obovate, shortly acuminate ; bracteoles nearly as the sepals. 



Sepals \-\ by yV in., oblong, acute, pubescent. Corolla |--J in. long, 
white. Filaments glabrous ; anther-cells at nearly equal height rounded 
at the base ; pollen ellipsoid, with 2 longitudinal smooth bands with- 
out tubercles. Ovary very hairy. Capsule not seen. — Justicia rohusta, 
T. Anders. MS. 

Upper Guinea. Fernando Po, 3000 ft., Mann, 634 ! 

This fine plant is closely allied in habit and characters to A. Vasica, Nees, but 
differs in the loose, not strobilate, spikes and the smaller bracts and flowers. 

6. A. maculata, C. B. Clarke. Climber, 10-15 ft. high, innova- 
tions densely and minutely fulvous-hairy. Leaves up to 7 by ;!} in., 
acute, when mature glabrate, base rounded or triangular ; petiole 
1-2 in. long. Spikes terminal, 3-4 by f in., interrupted, not strobilate ; 
bracts J in. long, lanceolate, puberulous. Sepals 5, subequal, ] in. 
long, and upwards, linear-lanceolate. Corolla 1 in. long, white, purple- 
spotted. Filaments glabrous ; 2 anther-cells at nearly equal height, 
rounded at the base; pollen elHpsoid, with 2 stopples, the longitudinal 
smooth bands having a granular (scarcely i'^potted) band on eacli side 
the stopple. Ovary shaggy. — Justicia maculata, T. Anders, in Journ. 
Linn. Soc. vii. 38. Duvernoia Bihchholzii, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 
43, and in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 339. 

Upper Guinea. Fernando Po, Mann, 202! Cameroons : Ouaqua Kiver, 
Buchholz ! 

Imperfectly known species. 



7. Duvernoia haplostachya, lAndau in Engl. Jahrb. xxiv. 321. 
Branches hairy. Leaves 4 by 2 in., ovate, narrowed at either end. 
hairy on the nerves beneath ; petiole J in. long. Spike terminal, 
simple, shorter than the leaves ; rhachis pubescent ; flowers opposit.> ; 



[Begin Page: Page 224] 

224 XCVIII. ACANTHACE'^ (CLARKE). [Adhatodci. 

bracts and bracteoles small. Calyx -j'^ in. long. Corolla-tube y'^ ''''' 
long ; lobes J in. long. Anther-cells at unequal height ; lower long- 
spurred. Ovary and style hairy. Capsule unknown. 

South Central. Congo Free State ; Towa Mountains, Descamps. 

This description reads like that of a Monechma; but without any knowledge of 
the pistil it is vain to guess. 

46. RHINACANTHUS, Nees ; Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PL ii. 



1112. 



Sepals 5, nearly distinct, subequal, small, linear, hairy. Corolla 2- 
lipped ; tube linear, longer than the lips ; anticous lip of 3 elliptic 
lobes ; posticous linear-oblong or ovate-oblong, subentire. Stamens 2, 
shortly exserted j anthers 2, one somewhat below the other, at the base 



acute, not tailed, or in R. subcaudatus slnortiy taiied ; poiien eiiipsoid, 
stoppies 3 on tine tliree smootli bands wliicli do not quite reacii tine poies. 
Ovary Inairy ; ovuies 2 in eacin ceii ; stigma of 2 smaii ianceoiate sub- 
equai iobes. Capsuie staiked, obiong, 4-seeded; piacentae not rising 
elastically from tine base of tine valves ; seeds covered with tubercles. — 
Rambling. Leaves entire, margins often obscurely undulate-crenate. 
Flowers in sessile distant clusters on the branches of the panicle ; bracts 
and bracteoles very small, linear. 

Species 3 or 4, in Africa and India. 

Leaves in the opposite pairs equal in length. 

Lower leaves narrowed at the base, ovate-lanceolate. 1 . B. communis. 

Lower leaves rounded or subcordate at the base . 2. R. rotundifolius. 

Leaves in the opposite pairs unequal in length . . 3. J2. subcaudatus. 

1 . R. communiSy Nees in Wall. PL As. Ear. ill. 1 09. Sparingly 
pubescent. Leaves 2-5 in. long, ovate to lanceolate, scarcely acute, 
nearly glabrous, base narrowed except in the upper floral leaves (which 
are sometimes sessile and sub-cordate) ; petiole 0-\ in. long. Panicle 
(in most of the East African examples as in India) 6-12 in. long, with 
few floral leaves, much-branched and with very many clusters of flowers ; 
in most West African examples the panicle has many floral leaves, 
1-3 in. long, and the flower-clusters are few. Bracts '^-\ in. long, 
linear. Calyx \-\ in. long. Corolla-tube J in. long, linear to the top ; 
lips J in. long, posticous linear-oblong. Capsule | in. long, thinly hairy ; 



seeds finally black.— Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 442 ; Wight, Ic. t. 464 ; T. 
Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 51 ; C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. 
Ind. iv. 541 ; S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1880, 342 ; Oliv. in Trans, Linn. 
Soc. ser. 2, Bot. ii. 346 ; Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xviii. 63, t. 2 fig. 68. 
li. gracilis, Klotzsch in Peters, Reise Mossamb. Bot. 218 ; Lindau in 
Engl, k PrantI, Pflanzeufam. iv. 3 B. 339, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 
371. R. nasutus, Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 339, 
and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr C. 371 . Justicia nasuta, Linn. Sp. Plant. 16 ; 
Bot. Mag. t. 325. J. scandens, Vahl, Symb. ii. 7. Leptostachya 
virens, Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 378 ; Benth. in Hook. Niger Fl. 482. 
P sender anthemum dichotomum, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 40, and in 



[Begin Page: Page 225] 

Rhinacanthus.'] xcviii. acanthace.e (clarke). I>25 

Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 330, and in En'^l. Pfl. Ost-Afr. 
C. 371.^^ 

Upper Guinea. Sierra Leone : Scarcies River, Scott-Elliot, 4428 ! and wiih- 

ont precise locality, Afzelius ! Cameroons : Batanga, Bates, 189! Bipinde, ICOO ft., 

Zenkei', 1260 ! Victoria, Pretiss, 1219 ! 1384 ! 

M"ile Hand. British East Africa: 40-60 miles from the Mombasa coast, 
Johnston! Nyika country near Mombasa, Wakefield! Wanga, Smith! Ukamba, 
Hildebrandt, 2628! Duruma, Hildebrandt, 2346! 



Ziower Guinea. Gaboon': on the coast, Middleton ,' Gaboon River, Mann, 
1015 ! Como River, Bates, 458 ! Munda ; Sibange Farm, Biittner, 358 ! Soi/aux, 
1 98b ! Angola, Welwitscli, 501 15191 ! 5204 ! 

IKozamb. I>l8t. German East Africa: Usagara; Mpwapwa, Siuliimann, 219 ! 
Usambara ; Duga, Hoist, 3289 ! Maslieua, Hoist, 8782 ! and Xyika Steppe, Hoist, 
3902a ! Portuguese East Africa : base of Morambala Mountain, Kirk ! Sena, 
Carvallio ! Britisli Central Africa : Nyasaland, Buchanan, 863 ! Shire Highlands, 
Buchanan, 72 I by the River Ruo, south of Blantyre, Scott-Mliot, 8598! Mount 
Mlanje, Scott-Elliot, 8655! near Blantyre, Last! Zomba, 3000 ft., Whyte ! and 
without precise locality, Buchanan, 863 ! Matabeleland ; banks of the River 
Matengwe, Holuh, 1285 ! 1286 ! 

I am unable to divide this widespread species into two. The leafy-panicled 
form has rather smaller flowers, and T. Anderson at first tried to make it a separate 
species. The form with a large panicle destitute of floral leaves {Pseuderanthemum 
dichotomum, hindavi = JRhinacanthns gracilis, Klotzsch) is the common form in India, 
the original Justicia Nasuta of Linnaeus. 

2. R. subcaudatuSy C. B. Clarke. Leaves of each pair unequal ; 
one often only |-J the length of the other, round-ovate. Corolla-tube 
about J in. long, slender ; posticous lip ovate-oblong. Lower anther- 
cell with a short white tail. Capsule J in. long, and seeds as of R. com- 
munis but smaller. 

Upper Guinea. Sierra Leone : near the Scarcies River, at Wallia, Scott- 
Elliot, 4276 ! and near Sasseni, Scott-Elliot, 4428 ! and without precise locality, 
Afzelius ! 



" Kondoi (native name), a medicine for indigestion " {Scott-Elliot). 

3. R. rotundifoliuSy C. B. Clarke. Branches 6-angular, pubescent. 
Lower leaves 2 by Ij in., glabrate, base rounded or subcordate, nerves 
prominent, finely reticulated on the under surface ; cystoliths many on 
both surfaces ; petiole '^ in. long. Panicle compound, with many floral 
leaves {i.e., cymes mainly axillary); flower clusters loose, or cymes 

J- J in. long, dense. Corolla yellowish-white {Thomas) \ tube W in. 
long. Capsule |-J in. long, pubescent, 4-seeded ; seeds tuberculate, 
black. 

wile Hand. British East Africa : Tana River, Thomas, 7 ! 89 ! 

Closely allied to R. communis, Nees, but diflfers from all forms of that species by 

the very broad rounded base to the leaves. 

Imperfectly known species. 

4. R. ndorensis, Sckweinf. in Hdhnel, Zum Rudolph-See u. 
Stephanie-See, Sonderahdr. 7. Small shrub, with the general aspect of 



[Begin Page: Page 226] 

220 xcviii. ACANTHACEiE (clarke). [Bkinacaiithus. 

Justicia uncinulata, Oliv. Leaves obovate. Corolla tube twice as 
long as the calyx, pubescent ; lobes ciliate. Style with scattered hairs. 



Engl. Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr. '^'^>1)4 ; Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflan- 
zenfam. iv. 3 B. 330, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 371 . 

wile Ziand. British East Africa : Ndoro, at the foot of Mount Kenia, 6500 ft., 
Hahnel. 

The above diagnosis is the whole given by Schweinfurth, noi* does Engler or 
Lindau add aught. 

47. ANISOTES, Nees; Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PI. ii. 11 11 . 

Sepals 5, nearly free, subequal, linear-triangular, 3-nerved. Corolla 
2-lipped, red ; tube short ; lips very long, entire or minutely lobed, 
narrow-oblong. Stamens 2 ; filaments long, glabrous ; anther-cells 2, 
linear-oblong, minutely white-tipped (not tailed) at the base, one a 
little below the other ; pollen ellipsoid, 2-banded, with one or two rows 
of marks or tubercles on each side of the stopples. Pistil glabrous ; 
ovules 2 in each cell; stigma subentire. Capsule (only known in .4. 
diversifolius) oblong, 4-seeded, stalk cylindric, placentse not rising 
elastically from the base of valves ; seeds scabrous, almost tubercular on 
the margins. — Shrubs. Leaves entire. Flowers sessile, axillary clustered, 
or in dense spikes ; bracts very small, shorter than the calyx. 

Species 5, in Africa and Arabia. 

The corolla is exceedingly like that of Macrornnr/ia, as are the stamens, pollen and 
pistil. Further, the capsule being unknown in 4 out of 5 species, the placing these 
species in Anisotes would appear provisional merely. But the peculiar, 3-nerved, 
elongate-triangular sepals, much longer than the bracts, leave little doubt that the 



5 species are congeneric. 

Flowers 1-3 togetlier in axillary clusters. 

Leaves up to 7 in. long 1 . A. sessiliflorus. 

Leaves I'^-l in. long 2. A. jyufvifolhis. 

Flowers in short shortly-peduncled axillary spikes. 

Flowers very many. Leaves large, up to 14 in. long 3. A. ZenTceri. 
Flowers few. Leaves |- in. long .... 4:. A. velutinus. 

1 . A. sessiliflorus, C. B. Clarke. Glabrate; innovations densely 
grey-tomentose with minute simple hairs. Leaves up to 7 by 2\ in., 
closely and minutely dotted on both surfaces, minutely scabrous-hispid 
on the nerves, finally glabrous, sessile. Flowers solitary or 2-3 together, 
axillary, sessile. Calyx \-\ in. long, minutely and densely grey-tomen- 
tose. Corolla- tube \ in. long ; anticous lip l-}-lf in. long. — flimantochilus 
sessiliflorus'^ Benth. in Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PL ii. 1 1 1 7; Lindau in 
Engl, 11 PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 346, fig. 110, P, and in Ann. 
Istit. Bot. Roma, vi. (1896) 82. //. sessilifolius, Lindau in Engl. Pfl. 
Ost-Afr. C. 372. 

Nile Z.ancl. Sonialiland, RoheccJd, 546, 652, 653 ! British East Africa : Ribe 
to Galla country, Wakefield ! Taita, Hildehrandf, 2375! 

Mozamb. Dist. British Central Africa : Nyasaland ; Shibisa (Chikwawa), on 



the River Shire, Meller ! 



[Begin Page: Page 227] 

Anieotes.] xcviii. acanthace'^e (clarke). 227 

2. A. parvifolius, Oliv. in Hook. Ic. PLt. 1527. Leaves f-l 

by J-J in., obovate ; otherwise as A. sessiiijiorus. — Oiiv. in Trans. 
Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Bot. ii. 346; Lindau in Engi. & Pranti, Pfianzenfam. 
iv. 3 B. 351 , and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 374. 

Zrile liand. British East Africa : Kilimanjaro expedition, 40-60 miles from 
the Mombasa coast, Johnston ! 

In A. sessiiijiorus there occur small leaves 1 -1 1 in. long on some shoots and in 
some axils. The material for A. parvifolius is scanty, and I suspect that with more 
it and A. sessiiijiorus may hereafter be judged to be one. A. trisulcus, Nees, the type 
of the genus, differs little but by the persistent grey pubescence. 

3. A, Zenker!, C. B. Clarke. Glabrate; innovations minutely 

hairy. Leaves up to 1 4 by 5 J in., narrowed at both ends; petiole 1 '^ 
in. long. Spikes axillary, 2 in. long, dense with very numerous flowers ; 
bracts small. Calyx J-i in. long, glabrous or sparsely bristly. Corolla 
IJ in. long. Stamens, pollen and pistil of the genus. — Himantochilus 
Zenkeriy Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 60, and in Engl. & Pranti, Pfian- 
zenfam. iv. 3 B. 346, fig. 141, B. 



Upper Guinea. Cameroons : Yaunde, Zenker, 119 ! 194, 647 ! 675 ! 

4. A. velutinus, Lindau in Engi. Jalnrb. xx. 76. Slirub, 2 ft. 
Iiigli, grey witli dense minute wiiite iiairs; brandies very woody. 
Leaves § by neariy J in., round-obovate, very obtuse ; petioie | in. long. 
Axillary peduncles J-J in. long, carrying 3-1 flowers close together at 
the top; bracts (or bracteoles) '^ in. long, linear. Sepals 5, '^ in. long, 
linear-lanceolate, 3-nerved. Corolla f in. long ; lips long ; anticous 
narrow, hairy without. One anther-cell below the other, mucronate at 
the base or very short-tailed. Ovary hairy towards the top. — Lindau 
in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 351. 

Wile Hand. Somaliland: Ahl Mountains, 6500 ft., Sildebrandt, 855b! 
Corolla hardly half the length of that of A. parvifolius. 

48. ISOGLOSSA, Oerst. ; Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PL 11. 1 1 1 1 . 

Calyx small, subequally 5-partite nearly to the base; segments 
lanceolate or linear. Corolla small or medium-sized (or 1 -1 J in. long 
in sect Pseud- Adhatoda), 2-lipped ; tube thick-cylindric or inflated in 
the upper half (not linear) ; anticous lip ovate, deeply 3-lobed or sub- 
entire, white, red or yellow with the palate often spotted ; posticous lip 
ovate to oblong, 2-lobed or nearly entire. Stamens 2 (without rudiments 
of the other two) ; filaments glabrous ; one anther-cell completely over 
the other, elliptic, or (in sect. Pseud- Adhatoda) anther-cells oblong 
parallel, one very slightly below the other; base of anther-cells rounded 
or minutely mucronate, not tailed ; pollen globose compressed, the 2 
flattened faces circular, nearly smooth, with a stopple in the centre. 
Pistil glabrous ; style very shortly and equally 2-lobed ; disc a thick»'ned 



ring (not a cup) ; ovary with 2 ovules in eacli cell. Capsule rather 



[Begin Page: Page 228] 



228 



XCVIII. ACANTHACKfi (cLARKe). 

[Isogloi 

small, ellipsoid, compressed, 4-seeded ; stalk short (or not longer than 
the ellipsoid part), cylindric, solid ; placentae not rising elastically from 
the base of the valves ; seeds small, tubercular-scabrous, tubercles often 
elongate. — Herbs, with slender branches, sometimes 6 ft. high. Leaves 
ovate or elliptic, acuminate at either end, entire, petioled ; upper leaves 
often sessile, cordate. Inflorescence panicled, terminal and with axillary 
branches, pubescent, often glandular ; floral leaves and bracts usually 
narrow or small (but larger and enclosing the calyx in /. substrobilina 
and /. Gregorii). 

Species 25, in Africa and the Mascarene Islands, besides a few in India. 

By some inadvertence, Lindau, in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 342, 
separates Isoglossa from all other JusticiecB by the character of 4 stamens ; it never 
has more than 2. 

*Eu- Isoglossa. — Anther-cells elliptic, one above the other. 



Most of the flowers' pedicelled. 
Species of West Africa. 

Leaves very tliin, nearly glabrate .... 
Nerves of leaves strong, beneath scabrous 
Species of East Africa. 

Mature leaves glabrous or very nearly so. 
Corolla '^-§ in. long. 
Panicle hairy. 

Leaves up to 3 in. long . . . , 

Leaves up to 7 in. long . . . , 

Panicle glabrate 

Corolla nearly 1 in. long .... 

Mature leaves pubescent, at least on the nerves. 

Bracts narrow. 

Panicle terminal. 

Leaves f in. long ; corolla \ in. long 
Leaves 4 in. long ; corolla § in. long 
Panicles numerous, terminal and axillary 
Bracts ovate (small) 

Flowers in small heads on the branches of a panicle. 
Leaves to the flower-clusters (or bracts) narrow, not 



enclosing the calyx. 

Sepals j'g-'^ in. long, subpetaloid, hairy . 

Sepals i in. long, linear, green . . . , 

Sepals '^ in. long, subulate in the upper half . 

Leaves to flower-clusters (or bracts) enclosing the 

calyx. 

Floral leaves distant, ovate, subacute 

Floral leaves imbricate, suborbicular 

1. I. glandulifera. 

2. I. nervosa. 



3. 1 . laxa. 



4. I. membranacea. 



5. I. lactea. 



6. I. Volkensii. 



7. /. parvifolia, 



8. /. somalensis 



9. /. strigosula. 



10. /. mossamhicensis. 



11.1. runssorica. 

12. I. oerstediana. 

13. I. milanjienns. 

14. I. Qregorii. 

15. /. substrobilina . 

Tseud-Adhatoda. — Anther-cells oblong, parallel, at 

nearly equal height. 
Corolla-lips as long as the tube. 

Panicle-branches few ; corolla 1 in. long . . 16, /. gr.andijiora. 

Panicle-branches very many; corolla \ in. long . 1 7. I.floribunda. 

Corolla-lips much shorter than the tube. 

Hairs on panicle, and sepal tipped with red glands . 18. T. rubescens. 

Hairs on sepals long, white, without red glands . 19. I. Ixodes. 



[Begin Page: Page 229] 

Isoglossa.] xcviii. acanthace'^ (clarke). 229 

1. I. glandulifera, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 54. Herb, 

4-1 ft. high. Leaves ii by 1 '^ in. (or sometimes up to 8 by 3 in.); 
elliptic, acuminate, very sparseJy hairy, base very narrowly truncate, 
subauricled ; petiole up to 1-2 in. long ; upper leaves smaller, often 
sessile, subcordate. Panicle often (J by 3 in., terminal, very loose, 
sparsely glandular hairy ; bracts '^ in. long, linear. Calyx ''.. in. long, 
subequally 5-fid nearly to the base; segments linear-lanceolate, with 
few scattered glandular many-celled white hairs, otherwise glabrous. 
Corolla |-1 in. long, light red, nearly glabrous ; tube cylindric-funnel- 
shaped, much longer than the lips. Anther-cells muticous, widely 
separated one over the other; pollen globose, compressed, smooth. 
Capsule § in. long (whereof J in. is a cylindric stalk), narrow, 4-seeded; 
seeds small, scabrous with long tubercles. — Lindau in Engl. '^ PrantI, 
Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 344. 

Upper Guinea. Cameroous: Buea, 5000 ft., Freuss, 746! near MimbiH, 

3900 ft., Freuss, 1062 ! Cameroon Mountain, 7000 ft., Mann, 1972! Johnston, 62! 

Kaibreyer, 134, ! Fernando Po, 4000 ft., Mann, 579 I 

2. \. nervosa, C, B. Clarke. Herb, 5 ft. high. Leaves up to 

3 J by 2 in., rhomboid-ovate; nerves beneath' prominent, scabrous 
hairy; base acuminate; petiole l'^ in. long; uppermost leaves smaller, 
nearly sessile, subcordate. Panicle up to 12 by 8 in., glandular hairy. 
Corolla J in. long, white ; tube longer than the lips ; otherwise nearly 
as/, glandulifera. 



Upper Guinea. Cameroon Mountain, 7000-8000 ft., Mann, 2009 ! Jolnnston, 
63! 

"Neariy aiiied to, if not identical with, I. iaxa," Oiiv. in Trrns. Linn. So-:, 
ser. 2, Bot. ii. 346. 

3. I. iaxa, Oiiv. in Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Bot. ii. 345. 
Brandies giabrate, witli many iongitudinai cystoiitlns. Leaves 3 by 
IJ in., narrowed at botli ends, giabrate; petioie J in. iong. Panicie 
7 by 3 in., terminal, iax, liaiiy ; fiorai leaves up to J by yV in., mostly 
small, linear ; pedicels 2V~tV '^°* '^'^'^gi bracteoles U or most minute. 
Calyx J in. long, divided subequally nearly to the base; segments 
linear, obtuse, pubescent, and with long several-celled scarious hairs. 
Corolla J-§ in. long ; tube about as long as the lips, sparingly hair}* 
without, pink. Filaments glabrous; anther-cells oblong, tail-less, one 
entirely below the other; pollen lenticular, with one stopple in the 
centre of each face. Capsule J in. long, stalked, perfecting 4 seeds 
(not seen ripe). — Engl. Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr. 394 ; Lindau in Engl. 
<fe PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 344, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 372. 

Mozamb. BIst. German East Africa : Kilimanjaro, 7000 ft., Johnston, 1 1 ! 

On the lower portion of the stems it is probable, from the analogy of allied species, 
that long petioles occur ; but Oliver's statement, " petioles '^-1 in. long," was taken 
from a fragment. 

\O.T.'pilosa, Schweinf. in Hohnel, Zum Rudolph-See u. Stephanie-See, Sondei- 



abdr, 7; Engl. Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr. 394; Lindau in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 372. 



[Begin Page: Page 230] 

230 xcviii. ACANTHACEJE (clarke). [Isoglossa. 

Irile Ziand. British East Africa : Leiklpla, 6500 ft., Hohnel. 

There Is not one word of description given to this variety by Schwelnfurth. 

4. I. membranacea, C. B. Clarke. Leaves 7 by 2J In., much 
tapering at either end, membranous; petiole 1 -2 J In. long. Calyx 
I- In. long; otherwise as 7. laxa. 

Mozamb. I>lst. British Central Africa : Nyasaland ; Masuka Plateau, 6500- 
7000 ft., Whyte ! 

The calyx Is about half the length of I. laxa, the corolla Is somewhat smaller. 
The large very thin leaves may be due principally to a shady moist habitat. 

5. I, lactea'^ Lindau In Engl. Jahrh. xx. 55. Leaves up to 4 by 

If In., ovate, narrowed at either end, nearly glabrous; petiole up to 
l| In. long. Peduncles axillary and subtermlnal, slender, bearing a 
lax nearly glabrous panicle 1-3 In. long; bracts yV In. long, linear. 
Calyx '^-J In. long, divided nearly to the base ; segments linear, sub- 
equal, minutely scabrous-hairy. Corolla exceeding J In. long, cream- 
white (or violet In the form /. violacea), nearly glabrous ; tube shorter than 



the lips. Filaments glabrous, or in Lindau's figure dilate on one side ; 
antlner-ceiis muticous, one beiow tine otiier ; poiien ienticuiar, witli one 
stoppie on eacli face. Pistii glabrous. Capsule J in. long, stalked, 4- 
seeded ; seeds tubercular-scabrous. — Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflan- 
zenfam. iv. 3 B. 344, fig. 107, B, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 372. 
/. Jiava, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xxii. 125. /. violacea, Lindau in 
Engl. Jahrb. xxii. 125. 

Wile Z.and. British East Africa: Toru; Kivata, 8000 ft., Scott-Elliot, 
7664! 

Mozamb. DIst. German East Africa : Usambara : Nguelo, Solst, 2,212 ! 
Lutindi, Hoist, 3252 ! Uluguru, 3300-5500 ft., Stuhlmann, 9032 ! 8S22 ! 

Lindau says the corolla-tube in /. violacea is only y'^ in. long ; it appears to me 
scarcely shorter than in \. lactea. Scott-Elliot's 7664 has a few scattered hairs on 
the upper surface of the leaves. 

6. \. Volkensii, Lindauin Engl. Jahrh. xx. 55. Leaves 4 by 1 J in., 
elliptic, acuminate at either end, glabrous. Flowers laxly panicled, 
clear rose colour; bracts very small. Calyx J in. long, finely hairy. 
Corolla-tube more than J in. long ; lips § in. long, rather broad. Capsule 
J in. long, 4-seeded ; otherwise as /. lactea. — Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, 
Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 344, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 372. 

Mozamb. DIst. German East Africa : Kilimanjaro, 8000 ft., Volkens, 990 ! 

7. L parvifolia, Rendle in Journ. Bot. 1 896. 41 1 . Branches 

1 8 in. long, slender. Leaves f by J in., ovate, pubescent on the nerves 



beneath ; petiole J in. long. Panicle small, few-flowered, very lax. 
Sepals J in. long, linear, scabrous. Corolla j in. long. One anther- 
cell below the other, distant from the other, both muticous. Capsule 
3 by y\ in., narrowly oblong, 4-seeded ; seeds rough, glabrous. 



[Begin Page: Page 231] 

Isoglossa.] xcviii. ACANTHACEIE (clarke). 231 

Nile Z.and. Somaliland : Sheik Husein, Donaldson Smith ! 

8. I. somalensis, Lindau in Ann. Istit. Bot. Roma, vi. (18'JC) H2. 
Leaves up to 4 J by 1 j in., ovate, pubescent ; petiole 1 in. long. 
Panide terminal, 3 by H in., very minutely hairy; bracts scarcely 
yV in. long. Sepals nearly J in. long, linear, puberulous. Corolla 
puberulous ; tube J in. long ; lips J in. long. One anther-cell far below 
the other. 

Wile Ziand. Somaliland: between Algbe and Oi, Riva, 1293! 

" Allied to /. lactea " (Lindau)'; and does not differ much, except that the leaves 

are minutely hairy on the upper surface. 

9. \. strigosula, C. B. Clarke. Branches terete, with one or two 

hairy lines or glabescent ; cystoliths many, small, longitudinal. Leaves 
up to If by I in., acuminate at either end, strigose-hairy on the nerves 
beneath ; petiole J in. long ; many upper leaves smaller, subsessile. 
Panicles terminal and many axillary, loose, slender ; pedicels 0-J in. 



long. Calyx \-\ in. long, subequally 5-partite nearly to the base ; 
segments linear, minutely scabrous-hairy. Corolla J in. long ; very 
hairy without ; tube about as long as the lips. Filaments glabrous ; 
anther-cells muticous, one completely below the other ; pollen lenticular, 
a stopple on each face. 

IVIozaznl). DIst. British Central Africa : Nvasaland ; Masuka Plateau, 6500- 
7000 ft., Whyte, 288 ! 

Allied to I, lactea'^ but more pubescent. 

10. I. mossambicensis, Lindau in Engl. Ffl. Ost-Afr. C. 372. 
Branches glandular-pubescent. Leaves up to 4 by 1 in., elliptic-lanceo- 
late, with glandular many-celled hairs near the basal margin and con- 
tinued down the petiole. Spikes axillary and terminal, 1 in. long, about 

1 0-flowered ; floral leaves '^-i in. long, ovate or obovate, acuminate. 
Sepals '^-i in. long, glandular-hairy. Corolla 'i in. long, glabrous ; tube 
hardly -J in. long. Anther-cells muticous, divaricate, one somewhat 
above the other. — Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 344, 
and in Engl. Jahrb. xxiv. 324. 

Alozaxub. Bist. Portuguese East Africa : Gorongoza, Carua/Ao. 

This differs from its neighbours principally in the broad (thougl small) floral 

leaves. 

11 . L ninssorica, Lindau in Engl. Jahrh. xx. 5G. Stem with 

many longitudinal cystoliths, hairy along two lines or glabrate. Leaves 
6 by 2J in., acuminate at either end, nearly glabrous ; petiol''^ '>-]'^ in. 



long. Panicle branches 6 by '^ In., pubescent ; flowers In distant 
clusters; bracts less than \ In. long, linear, glabrous. Calyx '^'.'^ J In. 
long, divided nearly to the base, scarlous, subpetalold ; segments linear- 
lanceolate, with minute hairs but no cystollths. Corolla \ In. long. 
Anther-cells one above the other ; pollen lenticular, with one stopple on 



[Begin Page: Page 232] 

232 xcvlll. ACANTHACE/E (clarke). [Isoglosstt. 

each face and no distinct girdle. Pistil glabrous. — LIndau In Engl, cfe 
PlantI, Pflanzenfam. Iv. 3 B. 344, and In Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 372. 

lO'lle Zland. British East Africa : Ruwenzorl ; Toru district. In WIml Valley, 
7000-8000 ft., Scott-Elllot, 7836! and In Butagu Valley, 6000-8000 ft., Scott- 
Elllot, 7915 ! Sttlhlmann, 2474 ! 

12. I. oerstedlana'^ LIndau In Engl. Jahrh. xx. 56. Calyx- 
segments \ In. long, nearly free, linear, green, subulate and curved In 
the upper half, with cystollths. Capsule J In. long, 4-seeded ; seeds with 
rough oblong tubercles ; otherwise as /. runssorlca. — LIndau In Engl. 
k PrantI, Pflanzenfam. Iv. 3 B. 344, and In Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. 
C. 372. 

xrUe land. Abyssinia, Schlmper ! British East Africa : RaomI River, 7000 ft., 
Scott-Elllol, 6767 ! 



XWEozaxub. 3>ist» German East Africa : Kilimanjaro, 4500-9000 ft., Voikens'^ 
1121! 1123 1382! 1387 I 1852! 1936! Jolinston, i\i'^\ Usambara, iZoZ'^'^ 523 ! 

Tine difference of this piant from I. runssorica is smaii. Lindau iays stress on tlie 
pubescent panicie brandies of /. runssorica, but tine ])anicie brandies of tlie present 
species are simiiariy pubescent. 

13. I. miianjiensis, S. Moore in Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Bat. iv. 
33. Caiyx-segments '^ in. iong, in fruit neariy J in. iong, neariy free, 
linear, green, minutely hairy, subulate and curved in the upper half. 
Corolla J in. in total length ; otherwise nearly as /. oerstediana and 

/. runssorica. — Lindau in Engl. &, PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 344, and 
in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 372. 

Mozamb. X>lst. British Central Africa : Nyasaland ; Mount Mlanje, 6C00 ft., 
JFhi/ie ! 

14. I, Gregoriiy Lindau in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 372. Leaves 

1 1 by 1 in., ovate, nearly glabrous. Inflorescence terminal up to 4 by 
J in. ; flowers in small sessile clusters ; outer bract (of S. Moore) 
J-J in. long, ovate, enclosing 3-1 flowers; bract J in. long, linear. 
Calyx J in. long, and upwards, pubescent. Corolla-tube '^ in. long; 
lips J in. long. Anther-cells one much lower than the other. Pistil, 
capsule, and seeds of the genus. — Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzen- 
fam. iv. 3 B. 344. Ilomilacanthus Gregorii, S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 
1884, 129, t. 343. 

Wile Xiand. British East Africa : Mount Kenia, 7000 ft., Gregory I 



S. Moore regarded the floral-leaves {traghldtter) which enclose the flower-clusters 

us bracts (deck-blatter)', and therefore supposed this species must fall among Bentham's 

subtribe Dielipterece. 

15. I. substrobilina, C. B. Clarke Branches quadrangular, with 
a strong line of deflexed white hairs. Leaves up to 3 J by 1 1 in., 
acuminate at either end, when mature nearly glabrous except on the 
nerves ; cystoliths many on both faces ; petiole J to J in. long. Spikes 



[Begin Page: Page 233] 

Isogloesa.] xvciii. ACANTHACEIE (clarke). -•'^•> 

terminal (and also on short lateral branches), J-IJ by '^ — J in., dense, 
almost strobilate, softly white hairy ; bracts J in. long and broad, nearly 
orbicular. Sepals 1 in." long, linear. Corolla-tube -/u- J in. long ; 
anticous lip '^ in. long, broad-elliptic, subentire ; posticous lip '^ in. 
long, oblong, subentire. Anther-cells muticous, one completely over 
the other ; pollen globose compressed, with one stopple on each smooth 
face. Pistil of the genus. 

Wile Land. British East Africa : Man, 7000-8000 ft., Scott-Elliot, 6769 ! 

16. L grandiflora, C. B. Clarke. Stem pubescent, glandular 
upwards. Leaves up to 5 by 2 J in., acuminate at either end, when 



mature minutely pubescent on the nerves beneath ; cystoliths numerous, 
small ; petiole 0-J in. long. Panicle terminal (leafy below), viscid with 
many-celled gland-tipped hairs ; branches 2.'^ by J in. ; flowers in clusters 
on the branches ; lower clusters distinct, upper running into a dense 
spike; bracts \ in. long, oblong. Calyx '^-J in. long, divided nearly to 
the base ; segments 5, subequal, linear, glandular-hairy. Corolla-tube 
-'^- in. long ; lips '^ in. long, subentire, rather broad, curved. Stamens 2 ; 
filaments glabrous ; anther-cells linear-oblong, muticous, parallel, one a 
very little below the other ; pollen lenticular, with one stopple on each 
smooth face. Pistil glabrous ; style very shortly 2-fid. Capsuk 
-|- in. long, flattened; stalk short, thick; seeds 4, with rough oblong 
tubercles. — ?Jcteinanthus grandijioruSj T. Anders. MS. 

Mozamb. Bist. British Central Africa : Nyasaland; Shibisa (Chickwawa) to 
Tshinmuze, 2000-4000 ft.. Kirk ! Mount Sochi, Meller ! 

The corolla and the anthers of this plant are nearly those of Adhatoda, Beuth. 
{Duvernoia, Lindau). The habit, leaves, bracts, pollen, and seeds are those of 
Isoglossa. 

17.1. floribunda, C. B. Clarke. Upper leaves subsessile, minutely 
pubescent. Panicle 17 by 5 in., terminal, nearly leafless, viscid-hairy, 
repeatedly divided ; ultimate branches 3-4 in. long, on which the few- 
flowered distinct clusters form long one-sided spikes ; bracts '^V ^"- '^o'^S" 
linear. Calyx xV~8 '^'^- '^<'^'^gj segments 5, hnear, nearly free, viscous 
hairy. Corolla-tube I in. long, much inflated in the upper half ; lips 
\ in. long, subentire," rather broad. Stamens 2 ; filaments glabrous ; 
anther-cells oblong, parallel, scarcely mucronate at the base, one slightly 



below the other; pollen globose compressed, with a stopple In the centre 
of either face. Pistil glabrous. Capsule J In. long, ellipsoid, com- 
pressed, 4-seeded; stalk cyllndrlc, solid, short; placenta not rising 
elastlcally from the base of valves ; seeds rugose-tubercular 

XVSozamb. BIst. Portuguese East Africa : Lower Zambesi ; Shupauga, 
Kirk! 

The very compound large leafless mauy-flowered panicles has caused this pirxnt to 
be referred doubtfully In the Herbarium to Ehin acanthus, from which genus tile 
shape of the corolla removes It. 

18. I. rubescens, Lhldau In Engl. Jahrb. xx. 57. Stem quad- 
rangular, clothed upwards, as Is the whole panicle, with hairs tipped by 



[Begin Page: Page 234] 

23 I xcvlll. ACAXTHACE.E (clarke) [Isoglossa. 

red glands. Leaves 4 by 1 J In., ovate, hairy on both surfaces ; nerves 
reticulated beneath ; petioles short. Panicle terminal, branched ; 
flowers clustered, running into continuous spikes towards the tips of 
the branches ; floral leaves lanceolate, larger in the lower part of the 
panicle. Calyx -I in. long. Corolla rose ; tube f in. long ; lips '^ in. 
long, both deeply lobed. Anther-cells at nearly equal height ; pollen of 
the genus. — Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. :5 B. 344, and 
in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 372. 



KTIIe liand. British East Africa : Ruwenzori, 9300-10,000 ft., StuJdmann'^ 
2397 '. 2424a ! 

I[). I. Ixodes, Lindau in EmjI. Jahrln. xxii. 124. Brandies 
pubescent upwards. Leaves 2 by | in., ovate, margins near tine base 
hairy ; petiole l-'^ in. long. Panicle terminal, of closely contracted 
cymes ; flowers sessile ; floral leaves J-f in. long, ovate, acuminate, 
sessile ; bracts \ in. long, linear. Sepals J in. long, with long white 
multicellular hairs at the tip. Corolla glabrous, cannine ; tube | in. 
long, cylindric ; lips nearly |- in. long. Anther-cells muticous, some- 
what divaricate, one slightly below the other ; pollen of the genus. 
Pistil glabrous, of the genus. 

Mozamb. Bist. German East Africa : Ukami ; Uluguru Mountains, near 
Lukwangulu, Stuhlmann, 9174 ! 

49. CHLAMYDOCARDIA, Lindau in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. xx. 39. 

Sepals 5, small, linear. Corolla slender, 2-lipped ; tube narrow- 
cylindric ; anticous lip o-lobed, posticous emarginate. Stamens 2 ; 
anther-cells 2, elliptic, placed obliquely, nearly at equal height, not tailed 
at the base ; pollen spherical, with 6 equatorial pores and meridional 
lines of raised points. Stigma subcapitate. Capsule small, stalked, 4- 
seeded ; placentje not rising elastically from the base of valves. — Herbs. 
Panicles terminal, linear-cylindric (or nearly reduced to racemes) ; 
floral leaves (in the two well-ascertained species) spathulate or obovate, 
prominent. 



Species 2 or 3, endemic. 

This differs from Isogiossa in tine poiien and in tine infiorescence, to wiiicii tine 
pecuiiar fiorai ieaves give a marked clnaracter. 

Leaves pubescent ; petioie — | in. iong . . . ] . C. Bucitneri. 

Leaves giabrous ; petioie '^-l in. iong . . . 2. C. sulirlnomboidea. 

1 . C. Buettneri, Lindau in Emji. Jalirli. xx. ;)0. Stems 12-16 in. 
iong, weak, creeping, rooting at tine base, witli 2 iines of minute 
crisped liair. Leaves up to S'^ by \i in., ovate-acute, mucin tapering at 
tine base, minuteiy puV>escent on tine nerves ; cystoiitlis on upper 
surface many, smaii ; petioie 0-J in. iong. Panicies terminai, up to 4 
by 2 in., neariy giabrate ; fiowers in 1-4 ciusters on tine brandies, 
sessiie ; fiorai ieaf (or bract), \-\ in. iong, obcordate, sub-3-iobed, 
apicuiate, on a iinear petioiuie, mostiy 1 -fiowered, minuteiy giand-liairy 
on tine margin ; fruiting panicie-branclies ioose, but iower bracts imbri- 



[Begin Page: Page 235] 

CIniamydocardia.'] xcviii. ACANTHACEiE (ciarke). 235 

cated, aimost substrobiiate. Sepais 5, i in. iong, iinear, minuteiy 
pubescent. Coroiia-tube \ in. iong, iinear ; iips I" in. iong. Stamens 
2 ; antlier-ceiis 2, one siiglitiy liiglier tlian tine otiier, muticous ; poiien 
giobose, minuteiy tubercied on aii sides, tine tubercies in meridionai 



lines ; stopples 6, equatorial. Style nearly glabrous ; stigma sub- 
capitate. Capsule J in. long, 4-seeded, glabrous; stalk -/j in. long, 
solid ; placentae not rising elastically ; seeds tubercular-scabrous. — 
Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 329. 

Upper Guinea. Caineroons : Bipiiule, 300 ft., Zenker, 1228 ! Victoria, P/vt/jv, 
1383! 

JtO'weT Guinea. Gaboon: Munda; Sibange Farm, '^ii/'^ner, 169 ! 

2. 0. subrhomboidea, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xxii. 110. Herb, 
16 in. high. Leaves 4| by If in., ovate, acuminate at either end, 
glabrous ; petiole '^-l in. long. Panicle terminal ; floral leaves laxly 
imbricate, -^ by i in., rhomboid-ovate, subacute ; bracts | in. long, 
subulate. Sepals 5, | in. long, subulate. Corolla J in. long ; tube very 
slender ; lips short. Anther-cells muticous, nearly at equal height ; 
pollen globose, obscurely subhexagonal, with many meridional lines of 
tubercles and 6 equatorial pores. 

Upper Guinea. Caineroons : between Victoria and liimbia, Prenss, 1309 ! 

Doubtful species, 

3. C. (?) nuda, C. B. Clarke. Bush, 6 ft. high. Stem minutely 

and sparsely pubescent ; internodes long. Leaves 5 J by 2 J in., elliptic, 
acuminate, nearly glabrate, margin entire undulate, base slightly 
unequal, nearly cordate; cystoliths small on both faces; petiole h-'^^l in. 
long. Panicle linear, terminal, G by J in., closely and minutely pube- 



scent ; floral leaves h by -'^'^ In. ; cymes 1-4-tlowered, hardly V In. long ; 
bract and bracteoles '^ In. long, linear. Sepals 5, subequal, nearly | In. 
long, linear, acute. Corolla J In. long, narrow, pubescent. Stamens 2 
filaments glabrous; anthers 2, oblong, subequal, parallel, one some- 
what above the other, dilate at the top ; pollen globose, with 1 2 
longitudinal equidistant ribs not reaching the pores. Style slightly 
hairy towards the base. 

Xlower Guinea. Gaboon : Como River, Safes, 494 ! 

It Is worth remark that Bates, 495, where the stamens are 4 and the genus 
Flletia, Is superficially extremely like this plant. 

The present plant does for Chlamydocardia, but wants the characteristic bracts. I 
think there are 6 equatorial pores to the pollen, which, further, will not do for Isoglossa, 
whether there are 6 pores or 3. 

50. ECBOLIUM, Kurz ; Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PI. II. 1 1 IH. 

Sepals 5, nearly free, linear or narrow-lanceolate, small. Corolla 
distinctly 2-llpped ; tube long and Hnear In Eu-Kchollum, shorter and 
funnel-shaped or sub-cyllndric In the section (Jhoananthm ; antlcous lip 



[Begin Page: Page 236] 



286 xcvlll. ACANTHACE'^ (clarke). [EcboUum. 



deeply 8-lobed ; posticous lip subentlre. Stamens 2, without rudiments 
of others ; anther-cells 2, linear, mutlcous, nearly at equal height ; pollen 
globose, with 3 meridional lines or bands and stopples. Ovary glabrous 
or hairy ; ovules 2 In each cell ; style branches 2, subequal, very small. 
Capsule ovoid, much flattened, 2-seeded, on a solid stalk ; placentae not 
rising elastlcally from the base of the valves ; seeds In Eu-Ecbollum 
rather large, much flattened, tubercular scabrous, without hairs, but In 
Choananthus often without tubercles, smooth or papillose or with 
minute hairs. — Shrubs, glabrous or hairy. Leaves entire, rather thick. 
Spikes terminal, many-flowered ; bracts large, ovate or obovate. Imbri- 
cate, enclosing the small calyx (In the Tropical African species) ; 
bracteoles linear, a little longer than the calyx. 

Species 12 ; In Africa, Madagascar, Arabla-and India. 

Kurz grounded his genus Echollum mainly on the shape of the corolla, which 
approaches that of Rhinacanthus. The subgenus Choananthus here added might, 
almost equally well, be attached to Megalochlamys. 

*Eu-EcBOLIUM. — Corolla-tube long, linear ; posticous lip 
narrowed from an ovate base to a linear tip. 
Bracts longer than the calyx. 

Petiole short ; leaves tapering Into the petiole . . 1 . J?, Ilnneanum. 
Petiole 0. 

Leaves glabrous, hastate, amplexicaul . . . 2. U. amjplexicaule. 
Leaves hairy. 



Leaves narrow at the bqse, auricled ... 3. J&. auriculatum. 

Leaves broad at the base, subcordate . . '^. E. suhcordatum. 

Bracts rather shorter than the calyx . . . . b. E. parvihracteatvm. 

**CHOANANTHirs. — Corolla-tube narrowly funnel-shaped or 
cylindric ; posticous lip oblong. 
Bracts not 3-nerved. 

Petiole \-\ In. long Q. E. striatum. 

Petiole rarely attaining \ in., usually very short. 

Seeds tubercular-scabrous, without hairs . . 7. E. barlerioides. 

Seeds smooth, without tubercles. 

Seeds shining, without hairs .... 8. '^. Anisacanthus. 
Seeds with scattered glochidiate hairs . . 9. E. revolutum. 
Seeds shining, with very minute hairs . , 10. E. hamatum. 
Bracts distinctly 3-nervcd 11 . '^. trinervium. 

1 . E. linneaniuny Kurz inJourn. As. Soc. Beng. xl. part 2 (1 871 ), 
75. Leaves often 3 by J in., tip triangular, obtuse, base narrowed, 
glabrous or obscurely puberulous ; petiole O-'^ in. long ; leaves varying 
from narrowly oblong to broadly ovate, also much in size. Spikes 
often 4 by 1 in., strobilate; bract J by f in., ovate, apiculate, often 



pubescent, entire or nearly so in the African exampies, often strongiy 
tootlied in tine Indian; bracteoles\ in. long, linear, hairy. Calyx 
\ in. long. Corolla-tube J-1 in. long, linear to the top ; lobes of anti- 
cous lip 3, J- J in. long, elliptic ; posticous lip J- J by -'^ in. upwards, 
notched at the tip. Pollen globose ; meridional smooth depressions very 
narrow, not reaching the poles. Ovary glabrous; style-base hairy. Capsule 
whole length f in. ; stalk linear-cylindric ; head compressed, J in. in 



[Begin Page: Page 237] 

Bcboliwn.] XCVIII. ACANTHACEiE (clarke). 237 

diam., containing 2 thin discoid margined slightly rough seeds. — Boiss. 
Fl. Or. iv. 526 ; C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iv. 544 ; 
Schweinf. & Volkens, Liste PI. Somalis, 17 ; Lindau in Engl. <k PrantI, 
Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 338, Fig. 135, G, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 
371 . Justicia Echolium'^ Linn. Sp. Plant. 1 5; Bot. Mag. 1 . 1 847; Wight, 
let. 463 ; Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 426 ; Solms-Laub. in Schweinf. Beitr. 
Fl. Aethiop. 111. Eranthemum Ecbolium, T. Anders, in Thwaites, Enum. 
PI. Zeyl. 235. 

Mile land. Nubia : coast region, 3000-4000 ft,. Bent ! between Suakin and 
Berber ; Singat, Schweinfurth, 277 ! and near Suakin, Schweinfurth, 127 ! Eritrea 
Massowa, Hildehrandt, 724! Schweinfurth " Riva, 110! 210! Habab, 6000 ft., 
Hildehrandt, 465! Abyssinia: Wadi Togodele, Ehrenherg ! and witbout precise 
locality. Salt ! Somaliland ; Ahl Mountains, 5000 ft., Hildehrandt, 860 ! Dauadid 
Torrent, Ohika ! British East Africa : Ukamba, Machakos, Scott-Elliot, 6737 ! 



Taita; Maungu Mountain, Scoft-Mliot, 6163 ! Lamu Island, Kirk! 

Also in Arabia and India. 

This plant, from the linear corolla-tube, stanaens, and leaves, has been often sorted 
into Eranthemum'^ from which its large bracts should readily distinguish it. 

2. E. amplexicaule) a'^. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1894, 136. Leaves 

5 in. long, sessile, amplexicaul, panduriform-oblanceolate, obtuse, 
glabrous. Anthers very shortly mucronate at the base. Capsule 
pubescent ; otherwise as E. linneanum. — Lindau in Engl. Pfl. Ost- 
Afr. C. 371. 

Xile Xiand. British East Africa: Sabaki River, 1300 ft., Gregory! Teita- 
Wanga, Fischer, 489 ! 

ILower Guinea. Angola •. Loanda, Welwitsch, 5203 ! 5124 ! Ambriz, Mon- 
teiro ! 

3. E. auriculatom, G. B. Clarke. Leaves up to 4J by 1 in., 
lanceolate, acuminate at both ends, hairy on both surfaces, subsessile, 
auriculate, '^J in. wide at the base. Corolla-tube 1 1 in. long, linear to 
the top ; lobes f in. long ; otherwise as E. linneanum. 

Mozamb> BIst. German East Africa : Mararao, Stuhlmann'^ 6987 ! Usambara, 
Hoist, 608a ! and without precise locality, Hannington ! 

4. E. subcordatum, C. B. Clarke. Leaves up to 3 by 1 J in., 
subsessile, hairy on both surfaces, base broad, truncate or subcordate. 



Spike and bracts as of E. linneanum, but more hairy. 

JTIIe Xiand. Britisli East Africa : Ukamba (?) Gregory ! Duruma, Hildelirandt, 
2318! 

5. E. parvibracteatuniy Rendlein Journ. Bot. 1897, 879. Leaves 
up to 5 by 2 J in., ovate, Inairy on botln faces, tip sliortly acute, base 
obtuse. Petiole Jin. long, closely white-pubescent. Spike U-IH in. 
long, rather dense; bracts '^\ in. long, elliptic or oblong; shorter than 
the calyx. Corolla and capsule as of E. linneanum. 

Xile Xiand. Somaliland : Waggar Mountains, Mr*. Lort-Phillip* ! 



[Begin Page: Page 238] 

238 xcviii. ACANTHACE'^ (clarke). [EchoHum. 

C. E. striatum, Balf.f. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinh. xii. 89. Leaves 
1 '^ by § in. (up to 4'^ by 2 in. in Thomas, 11), ovate-elliptic or oblong, 
obtuse at either end, glabrous; petiole \-l in. long. Spikes up to 5 by 
\ in. ; bracts § by h in., more or less pubescent. Sepals \ in. long. 
Corolla white {Thomas) ; tube h in. long, narrowly funnel-shaped nearly 
from the base ; lips \ in. long, posticous broadly oblong and scarcely 
emarginate. Anther-cells at equal height, linear-oblong, muticous, 
divaricate at the base ; pollen globose, meridional smooth depressions 
very narrow, not reaching the poles. Capsule hardly exceeding J in. in 
length, hairy; stalk ] in. long; seeds 2, ovoid, discoid, \ in. in diam.. 



papillose-scabrous, without hairs. — Balf. f. in Trans. Roy. Soc. 
Edin. xxxi. 22 G, t. 77 (excluding var. /3 minor, and left-hand plant on 
t. 77) ; Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 338 ; S. Moore 
in Journ. Bot. 1894, 137. 

Nile Hand. British East Africa : Sabaki River, 1300 ft., Gregory ! Tana 
River, Thomas, 11 ! 

Also in Socotra. 

7. E. barlerioides, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 42. Younger 
branchlets and leaves closely covered with minute hairs. Leaves up to 
1 1 by § in., yellowish-green, narrowed at either end, obtuse, when 
mature glabrate ; petiole \ in. long. Spikes terminal, strobilate, up to 
2 by J in. ; bracts | by nearly J- in., obovate, acuminate, base narrow 
cuneate. Calyx scarcely \ in. long. Corolla-tube |-§ in. long, sub- 
cylindric or somewhat funnel-shaped at the top ; anticous lip 3-lobed ; 
posticous oblong, scarcely emarginate. Pollen globose, with 3 broad 
meridional bands continuous to the poles, and 3 large stopples. Capsule 
l'^ by \ in. ; 2-seeded, much flattened, minutely hairy to the base ; stalk 
solid ; placenta) not rising elastically ; seeds large, much flattened, 
tubercular-scabrous, not hairy. — Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzen- 
fam. iv. 3 B. 338, and in Ann. Istit. Bot. Roma, vi. (1890) 81. Isoglossa 
barlerioides, S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1877, 70. 

Nile Hand. Eritrea : Keren, Steudner, 1503 ! Somaliland : Serrut Mountains, 
Hildebrandt, 1401 ! Ahl Mountains, 1250 ft., Hildehrandt, 860a! Ganane River, 
Riva, 1110! Schebele River, Donaldson Smith ! 



8. E. Anisacanthus, C. B. Clarke. Small woody shrub ; 
branchlets terete, minutely and densely white-hairy. Leaves 1 J by J in., 
narrowed at either end, densely and minutely hairy ; petiole 0-| in. 
long. Spikes terminal. If by J in., 8-12-flowered, hardly strobilate; 
bract J by \-\ in., elliptic, acute at either end, mucronate, minutely 
and sparsely hairy ; bracteoles 2, linear, scarcely '^V in. long. Calyx 
\-\ in. long ; sepals 5, united I their length ; two anticous often more 
highly united so that the calyx is 2-lipped, sub-4-fid. Corolla-tube J in. 
long, linear-cylindric ; limb 2-lipped, nearly as long ; anticous lip 3- 
lobed ; posticous lip shortly 2-fid. Stamens 2, rudiments ; filaments 
minutely scabrous-hairy; anthers linear-oblong, muticous, parallel at 
equal height ; pollen subglobose, smooth, with 3 very narrow bands (on 
which are stopples) not reaching the poles. Ovary glabrous ; ovules 



[Begin Page: Page 239] 

Ecbolium.] xcviii. ACANTHACEiE (clarke). 230 

2 in each cell, lower smaller and soon shrivelling up ] style slightly 
hairy towards the base; stigma shortly 2-lobed. Capsule \ in. long, 
obovoid, compressed, 2-seeded, hairy ; stalk solid ; placenta.* not rising 
elastically from the base ; seeds yellow, shining, very hard, smooth, 
without hairs or tufts. — Jicsticia Anisacanthiis, Schweinf. in Verb. 
Zool.-Bot. Gesell. Wien, xviii. 678. Schivahea Anisacanthus, Lindau in 
Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 340, and in Ann. Istit. Bot. 
Roma, vi. (1896) 82. Monechma ciliatum, Hochst. ex Nees in DC. 



Prod. xi. 411 . M. violaceum, Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 41 1 partly. 

Nile Hand. Nubia : between Suakin and Berber, Schweinfttrth, 130, 287 ! 

425 ! Somaliland, Riva, 129, Eohecchi, 305 ! Donaldson Smith ! Keller, 206 ! 213 ! 

2] 5 ! 21 6! Abyssinia, 3000 ft., Schimper, 62 ! 1 005! 1 298a ! 

Schweinfarth observes that this plant is an Echoluim, but he inchides Echolium 
as a section in Juslicia. It is not clear why Lindau has put it in Schu-aheo, as the 
seeds entirely want the two tufts of hairs on which that genus is poised, and the 
anther-cells are with.out tails. 

9. E. revolutum, C. B. Clarke. Bracts broadly lanceolate, acute, 
imbricate, puberulous. Capsule sparsely hairy ; seeds covered all over 
by very distant glochidiate hairs; otherwise as E. Anisacanthns. — 
Schtcahea revoluta, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 59, in Engl, k PrantI, 
Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 346, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 372. BarUrice 
sp., Schweinf. in Hohnel, Zum Rudolph-See u. Stephanie-See, Sonder- 
abdr. 6. 

IVIozamb. DIst. German East Africa : Usambara ; to the West of Pare 
Mountains, 600-2200 ft., HiJhnel, 8 ! 

10. E. hamat-um, C. B. Clarke. Shrub; branches minutely tomen- 
tose-pubescent. Leaves up to H by J in., oblong, pubescent ; petiole 
0-J in. long. Spikes terminal, short; bracts imbricate, up to | by 

J in., ovate, much acuminate, hairy ; bracteoles i in. long, linear. 
Sepals J in. long, gland-hairy. Corolla-tube | in. long, subcylindric ; 
Hps I in. long, anticous 3-lobed, posticous oblong and subentire. Anther- 
cells muticous ; pollen ellipsoid, pores 3. Capsule J in. long, 2-seeded ; 



seeds hairy. — Blechum hamattcm, Klotzsch in Peters, Reise Mossnmb. 
220. Petalidium (?) Iiamatum, Lindau in Engl. S: PrantI, Pflanzenfam. 
iv. 3 B. 299, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 367. Schwabea ecbolioides, 
Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 58, and in Engl, k PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 

3 B. 346, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 372. 

Wile Ziand. British East Africa: Taita; Ndara Mountain, Hildehrandt, 2436 1 

XVIozamb. I>i8t. German East Africa : Pangani Steppe, 2700 ft., Volkens, 

552 ! and without precise locality, Fischer, 296 ! Portuguese East Africa : Lower 

Zambesi ; Sena, Peters ! British Central Africa : North Kalahari Desert, mar 

Chukutusa Salt Pan, Lugard, 223 ! 

11 . E. trinervium, C. B. Clarke. Leaves 1 '^ by J in., rhom- 
boid-ovate, obtuse. Bracts J by. \ in., broad-elliptic, narrowed at 
the base, distinctly 3-nerved, tip acuminate ; otherwise as E. hamatum. — 
Schwabea ecbolioides, var. tomentosa. Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 59. 

Mozamb. Bist. German East Africn, Fischer, 284! 



[Begin Page: Page 240] 



240 xcviii. ACANTHACE'^ (clarke). [Jlegalochlami/s. 

51. MEGALOCHIiAMYS, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xxvi. 345. 

Sepals 5, nearly distinct, small, subequal, linear or linear-lanceo- 
late. Corolla 2-lipped ; tube linear-cylindric, rather shorter than 
the lobes; anticous lip 3-fid; posticous lip ovate-oblong, subentire. 
Stamens 2 ; anthers long-exserted, 2-celled, muticous ; cells linear- 
oblong nearly at equal height ; pollen ellipsoid, smooth, with 
two stopples. Pistil glabrous; ovules 2 in each cell; style very 
shortly and equally 2-lobed at the tip. Capsule stalked, ovoid, 
much flattened, usually 2-seeded ; placentae not rising elastically 
from the base of the capsule-valves ; seeds rather large, much com- 
pressed, glabrous, somewhat tubercular-scabrous. — Shrubs. Leaves 
entire. Inflorescences terminal and axillary ; floral leaves imbricated, 
with (commonly) 3 flowers in the axil of 1 or 2 of the upper ; bracts 
and bracteoles 'or only represented by bristles hardly ~ in. long. 

Species 3, endemic. 

Engler & Schinz referred these plants to DicHptera, which is untenable, as the 
placentae do not rise elastically from the capsule valves ; the inflorescence, moreover, 
is totally different, being that of Phaylopsis. The genus differs from Scholium, sect. 
Choananthus, mainly in the inflorescence. 

Glabrous, or nearly so. 

Leaves ovate, '^ in. wide . , . . . 1 . P. Marlothii. 



Leaves oblong, \ in. wide 3, P. Unifolia. 

Plant hairy all over 2. P. strobilifera. 

1 . M. Marlothiiy Lindau in Engl. Jahrh. xxvi. 345. Glabrous, 
except the calyx. Leaves 1 J by J in., tip triangular, base obtuse ; 
petiole O-'^ in. long. Inflorescences J-1 in. in diam., nearly enclosed 
by the two lowest floral leaves, which are f by f in., ovate, acute, 
with reflexed margins ; upper floral leaves '^ by J-J in. ; flowers 3-1 
in the axil of the penultimate floral leaf (and sometimes of 1 or 2 
adjacent). Calyx \-\ in. long, minutely pubescent. Corolla |-1 in. 

in total length. Filaments glabrous. Capsule '^ in. long, upper 
flattened part \ in. broad ; seeds discoid, tubercular-scabrous, not 
hairy. — DicUptera Marlothii'^ Engl, in Engl. Jahrb. x. 266. D. schu- 
manniana, Schinz in Verhandl. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. xxxi. 204. 

lioxver Guinea. Angola : Monhinos, Newton ! German South-west Africa : 
Amboland ; Okasima-Ka-Namutenya, Schinz, 60 ! Oshando, Schinz, 100 ! Herero- 
land, 3300 it.,Marloth, 1313! 

2. M. strobilifera, C. B. Clarke. Hairy all over. Leaves 2| by 

-| in., tip subacute, base obtuse; petiole — J in. long. Inflorescences 
Ij by I in. ; outermost floral leaves f by J in., obovate-elliptic, acumi- 
nate ; upper gradually smaller, several containing 3-1 flowers in each 
axil ; bracts and bracteoles 0. Corolla blue, with purple veins. Fila- 
ments granular-scabrous ; pollen exactly as of P. Marlothii. 

BSozamb. SIst. Portuguese East Africa: Lower Zambesi; near TetCj Kirk! 



There is no fruit of tliis species, but it is cioseiy aiiied to tine foregoing. Tine 



[Begin Page: Page 241] 

Megaioclniamya.'] xcviii. acantlnace.e (ciarke). 241 

antlner-celis are linear-oblong, exactly parallel, and at equal height, which does not 
satisfy Anderson's diagnosis of his genus Ecteinanthus {RhijI i(/lo-ssa) ; the inflorescence 
is really remote from that of Ecteinanthus. 

3. M. linifolia, Lhtdau in Engl. Jahrh. xxvi. o4G. Shrub, 
woody, much branched, glabrescent. Leaves J by J in., oblong, obtuse, 
subsessile, smooth, margins recurved, midrib glandular at the base. 
Axillary floral leaves J by J in., cofrdate, yellow-green, glabrous ; inner 
floral leaves narrower with 2-3 flowers in the axil of each ; flower 
bract and bracteoles or minute. Sepals yV in. long, linear, scabrous. 
Corolla not seen. Capsule \ in. long, 2-seeded, glabrous ; stalk short ; 
placentse not rising elastically ; seeds tubercular, scabrous, hispid. — 
Dicliptera (?) linifolia, Lindau in Ann. Istit. Bot. Roma, vi. (IHIHI) 8(). 

Wrile Hand. Somaliland; Ahl Mountains, 1800-3300 ft., Hildefjramlf, 830 \ 
Merehan, Robecchi, 249 ! 250 ; Bela, Riva, 1462 ! 

52. GRAPTOPHYLLUM, Nees ; Benth. et Hook. f. C^en. 
PI. ii. 1118. 

Calyx small, divided nearly to the base into 5 subequal linear seg- 



merits. Corolla definitely 2-llpped, moderately large, red ; tube funnel- 
shaped, curved ; antlcous lip of 8 ovate reflexed lobes (central lobe out- 
side in the bud) ; posticous lip ovate-oblong, very shortly 2-fid. 
Stamens 2 (2 rudiments added) ; anther-cells 2, linear-oblong, mutlcous, 
placed at equal height ; pollen very short-ellipsoid, with o broad bands 
reaching the poles. Ovules 2 in each cell ; style clavate, hardly 2-fld at 
the tip. Capsule (in Australian species) ellipsoid, 4-8eeded, on a .'^hort 
solid cylindric stalk ; placentae not rising elastically from the base of 
the valves ; seeds glabrous, nearly smooth, obscurely rugose-tubercular. 
— Glabrous shrubs. Panicles (almost racemes) many-flowered, terminal, 
sessile, rather dense ; flowers pedicelled and subsessile, in clusters ; 
bracts and bracteoles very small. 

Species 2, in Malaya, Australia, and Polynesia, besides the subjoined. 

1 . G. hortense, Xees in Wall. PL As. Ear. ill. 1 02. Leaves up to 

by 2J in., shortly narrowed at either end, entire ; petiole J in. long. 
Panicles 1-2 in. long, 1 0-40-flowered ; pedicels 0-J in. long. Calyx 

1 in. long. Corolla-tube J in. long; lips '^ in. long. — DC. Prod. xi. ;»2H ; 
T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 51 ; C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. 
Brit. Ind. iv. 545; Lindau in Bolet. Soc. Brot. x. 147. 0'. pictum, 

Griflf. Notul. iv. 180; Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 
827, fig. 132, A-D. Justicia picia, Linn. Sp. PL ed. 11. 21 ; J'^ot. 
Mag. t. 1H70 (var. luridosanyuinea). 

upper Guinea. Sierra Leone : in gardens. Barter ! near Kitchoni, .Scoff- 
Elhot, 4326 ! Cameroons, JPreussi, 376 ! 401 ! Staudf, 4551 ! 

This plant, often cultivated with blotched leaves, is doubtless only introduced at 



Sierra Leone; its native liabitat is uncertain. Bentlnam gives, for tlie genus 
Graptoplni/llum, capsule usually 2-seeded. The capsules in the Australian species arc 
4-8eedecl. 



[Begin Page: Page 242] 

242 xcviii. ACANTHACE/K (cLARKE). [Sckaueria. 

5o. SCHAUERIA, Nees ; Beiith. et Hook. f. Gen. PI. ii. UK). 

Calyx divided nearly to the base into 5 subequal linear segments. 
Corolla distinctly 2-lipped ; tube slender ; anticous lip divided deeply 
into oblong lobes ; posticous lip subentire. Stamens 'J, without rudi- 
ments ; anther-cells 2, oblong, at equal height, rounded at the base ; 
pollen ellipsoid, with o very narrow smooth bands that do not reach the 
poles. Ovules 2 in each cell ; style minutely 2-lobed. Capsule (in the 
American species) stalked; seeds 4, rugose. — Leaves entire. Panicle 
terminal, dense, with many flowers ; bracts linear. 

Species 8, Brazilian; besides the one subjoined. 

1 . S. populifolia, C B. Clarke. Herb, 4-5 ft. high, nearly 
glabrous. Leaves 4 j by 2| in., elliptic, somewhat parallel-sided, acumi- 
nate, when matui-e gJabrate, base rounded cordate ; cystoliths numerous, 
small; petiole '^-J in. long. Panicle 2 by A in., minutely puberulous ; 
bracts J in. long, linear, nearly glabrous, with a very few long-stalked 
glands. Calyx | in. long ; lobes subulate, dilated and connate at the 



base. Corolla reMish. {Zenker)) tube J in. long, very slender ; lobes 
i in. long. Filaments glabrous ; anther-cells slightly hairy at the top. 
Pistil glabrous. Capsule not seen. 

Upper Guinea. Cameroons : Bipiude, Zenker, 1205 ! Fernando Po, Mann, 
1426! Vogel! 

54. PERISTROPHE, Nees; Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PI. 11. 1121. 

Calyx small ; segments 5, subequal, nearly separate, linear-lanceolate. 
Corolla lips 2, long, posticous entire or emarginate. Stamens 2 ; anthers 
2-celled ; cells one more or less above the other, muticous ; pollen 
ellipsoid, with 3 smooth bands and stopples, not tubercled. Ovules 2 in 
each cell ; style filiform, with 2 very short oblong branches. Capsule 
4-seeded, with a cylindric stalk ; placentae not rising elastically ; seeds 
discoid, smooth or minutely papillose. — Herbs. Leaves entire. Spikelets 
2-1- (rarely ;:»-) flowered, in heads or scattered; bracts to the 2 lower 
flowers subopposite, enclosing the calyx, from linear to ovate ; bracteoles 
2 to each flower, linear-lanceolate, longer than the calyx. 

Species 20, in the warmer regions of the Old World extending from Cape Verd 
Islands and the Cape to Malaya. This genus in habit and in every point is Bicliptera, 
except that the placenta? do not rise elastically from the base of the capsule-valves in 
the ripe fruit. 

Spikelets in more or less lax panicles. 

Panicles 12-18 in. long \. P. Incalycidata. 



Panicles denser with more numerous spikelets . . 2. P. Hensii. 

Spikelets in spikes. 

Stout ; spikes 3 by 1 in. ; corolla §-1 in. long . . 3. P. luteoviridis. 

Small ; spikes 1 by :'' in. ; corolla \ in, long . . 4. P. usta. 

1 . P. bicalyculata, Nees in Wall. PL As. liar. ill. 113. Glabrous 
or very thinly hispid. Branches up to 2-4 ft. long, 4-7 -angular. 



[Begin Page: Page 243] 

Perist7'ophe.] xcviii. acanthace,*: (clarke). 2 4:^^ 

Leaves up to 4 by IJ in., elliptic-lanceolate; petiole J in. long; leaves 
usually smaller and very few in the inflorescence. Panicles often 1 2- IS 
in. long, very lax, much divided, spikelets with but one perfect flower ; 
bracts I in. long. Calyx scarcely | in. long, minutely puVjerulous. 
Corolla J in. long, pale purple. Capsule .\ in. long, hairy at the top ; 
seeds minutely papillose. — DC. Prod. xi. 41)6; Benth. in Hook. Nipt'r 
Fl. 4S4 ; A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii. KK); T. Anders, in Journ. Linn 
Soc. vii. 47 ; Solms-Laub. in Schweinf. Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. 1 1 :"), 244; 
C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iv. 504 ; Lindau in Engl. <k 
PrantI, Pflanzenfara. iv. 3 B. :]81, in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. ;)71, and in 
Ann.lstit. Bot. Roma, vi. (1S9G) 80. P. kotschyana, Nees in DC. Prod. 



xi. 497 ; A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii. 160 ; Zarb, Cat. Spec. Bot. Pfund, 
32. DiantJiera hicahjcidala'^ Retz. in Acta Hoim. 1775, 297, t. 9. D. maia- 
barica, Linn. f. Suppl. H5. Justicia liicalyculata, Valnl, Symb. ii. LI 
J. ligulata, Lam. 1 1 1 . t. 1 2, tig. 2 ; Cav. Ic. i. 52, t. 71 . 

Upper Guinea. Cape Verd Islands: St. lago, Welwitsch, 51761 Senegal, 
Leiievre I Perroitei I Roger! Gambia, Boteler ! Cape Verd, Smith! Niger 
Territory : Borgu, Barter, 767 I Bornu ; Kuka, Vogel, 34 I 

Wile Xiand. Nubia : coast region. Bent I Schweinfi(rt?i, 348 I Khartoum, Schtceui- 
furtk, 772 1 795! Kordofan, FfuncI, 405! 406! 438! Kotschy, 50! 161 ! Eritrea: 
Acrur, 6000 ft., Schioeinfurth Sf Sir a, 726! Bogos; Tsad Amba, Steudner, 1517! 
Sarat, Steudner, 1516 ! Keren, Steudner, 1514 ! Abyssinia : Jelajeranne, Schimper, 
694 ! Haramat district near Geraz, Schimper, 1095 ! Jaja, Schimper, 289 ! Togodele, 
Ehrenherq ! and witliout precise locality. Salt ! Schimper, 666 ! 1511 ' Somaliland, 
Rohecchi,242!251! 

liower Guinea. German South-west Africa : Hereroland, 3300 ii., Marloth, 
1312 ! Amboland ; Oshando, Schinz ! 

Mozamb. 3>ist. German East Africa : Kilimanjaro, Volkens, 452 ! British 
Central Africa: Stevenson Road, 4000-5000 ft., Scott-Elliot, 8247! Eastern 
Bechuanaland : Tati, Hohih ! 

2. P. Hensii, C. B. Clarke. Panicle large with strongly hexagonal 
branches, much denser, with larger spikelets ; otherwise as P. bicaly- 
culcita. — Dicliptera Hensii, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xxii. 120. 

South Central. Lower Congo : Stanley Pool, 1000 ft.. Hens, 53 ! 



This is a Peristroplie (cioseiy aiiied to P. bicaii/cuiata, wlnicli lias invariabiy 
a more straggiing panicie) identicai witii one from Natai and Kaffraria. 

:i P. iuteoviridis, C. B. Ciarke. Stout iierb, giabrous except 
tine infiorescence, yeiiow-green. Leaves up to '^'^'^J by 1 in., narrowed at 
botli ends; petioie \ in. iong. Ciusters of fiowers approximated in 
ratlier dense spikes ?> by 1 in. ; floral leaves up to '^ by \ in., intermixed. 
Spikelets 1 -flowered; bract J'^-h in. long, lanceolate; bracteoles \ in. 
long, linear. Calyx \-\ in. long. Corolla ;|-1 in. long, rose, purple- 
spotted (/S'c/iZ'-em/wr'^/i).' Anther-cells at nearly equal height, rounded 
at the base ; pollen ellipsoid with :> stopples, on the longitudinal smooth 
bands are single rows of minute spots, one row on each side of eacli 
stopple. Capsule J in. long, stout, solid-stalked; seeds 4, discoid, 
smooth. — Xicoteha lanceolata, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. ''^X, and m 
Engl, k PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. A B. 329. 



[Begin Page: Page 244] 

244 xcviii. ACANTHACEIE (ciarke). [Peristrophe. 

irile ]Land. Dar Fertit : at Dem Bekir, Schweinfurth, ser. 3, 23 ! Niamniam, 
Schweinfurth, 2885 ! 

4. P. usta, C. B. Clarke. Dusky, pubescent. Branches 8-5 in. 

long, very numerous, arising after a grtiss-fire from the woody rootstock. 

Leaves up to 1 by J in., tip hardly acute, base narrowed ; petiole up to 



1 in. long. Spikelets 1 -flowered, in mainly terminal spikes up to 1 by 
\ in., lax; floral leaves \ in. long, linear-oblong. Calyx scarcely J in. 
long. Corolla J in. long, slender. Stamens 2; anther-cells 2, one 
clearly above the other; pollen as of P. luteoviridis. Capsule f in. 
long, slender, 4-seeded, the linear stalk exceeding J in. in length. — 
Duvemoia pumila, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 44, and in Engl. & 
PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 3P><.), and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 372. 

Mozamb. BIst. British Central Africa : Nya?aland ; Mount Zomba., 4000- 
6000 ft., Whyte ! Buchanan'^ 127 ! Tanganyika Plateau, Carson ! 

55. HYPOESTES, R. Br.; Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PI. ii. 11 22. 

Sepals 5, equal, small, scarious, minutely puberulous, free or united 
J-| their length, lanceolate. Corolla small (in Tropical African species), 
2-lipped half its length, rose-purple to white (often spotted) ; tube 
slender, dilated near the top ; anticous lip 3-fid ; posticous lip 2-fid, 
emarginate or entire, within in the bud. Stamens 2 ; anthers 1 -celled, 
muticous; pollen ellipsoid, longitudinally banded, bands and stopples 
usually 3. Style filiform, shortly and equally 2-fid at the tip ; ovary 
glabrous or somewhat hairy upwards, with 2-1 ovules in each cell. 
Capsule small, stalked, 4- or 2-seeded ; seeds smooth or pustular- 
tubercled. — Herbs or shrubs. Leaves entire, wavy, or (in H. micro- 
phylla) obscurely toothed. Inflorescences axillary and terminal, or 
running into terminal spikes or panicles. Spikelets in c}Tnes, elongate 
or subcapitate ; floral leaves resembling reduced vegetative leaves often 
present ; spikelets with two bracts, lower containing a flower, upper 
empty or with a rudimentary flower; the 2 bracts free or connate 



J-| their length ; bracteol'^s to the lower bract 2, shorter than It, 
oblong ; bracteoles to the upper bract usually 0. 

Species 60, extending from Africa to Australia. 

*Apoltton. — Two opposite bracts to the splkelet free, 

equal, or somewhat unequal. 

Two bracts of the splkelet with long linear green points 

(sometimes not very long In H. cancellata). 

Seeds smooth. 

Heads subglobose, chiefly axillary. 

Leaves 1'^ In. long \. H. arlstata. 

Leaves 2-4 In. long 2. H. antennlfera. 

Leaves 6 In. long, glabrate .... 3. -ff. Insularls. 

Heads subglobose, many subtermlnal approximate 4. H. Staudtll. 

Inflorescences elongate, lax 5. JT. Barterl. 

Seeds tubercled ; heads dense, oblong, compound . 6. M. cancellafa. 
Two opposite bracts of splkelet obtuse or acute, scarcely 
mucronate. 



[Begin Page: Page 245] 



Hi/2)oestes.'\xcviii. acanthace'^e (clarke). 245 

Spikelets 1 -5 together, laxly capitate. 

Leaves usually much exceeding \ in. in length. 
Two outer bracts narrowly obovate, subequal . 
Two outer bracts obovate, larger, unequal 
Two outer bracts narrowly elliptic-oblong 
Leaves \ in. long, obscurely toothed . 
Inflorescences densely strobilate, compound . 

**Hkmi( VLJNDKis. — Two opposite bracts to spikelet con- 
nate \-% their length into a tube (" involucre" of 
Lindau). 

Spikelets in short unilateral cymes, rather densely 
approximate. 
Bracts without long white hairs, glabrate or minutely 

scabrous hairy 12. '^. Forskalei. 

Stem and leaves minutely caneseent . . .13. 11. Ilildebrandtii. 

Pubescent. (Calyx larger, \ in. long) . . .14. H. mlanjensjs-. 

Bracts with (more or less numerous) spreading long 

white hairs. 

Leaves ovate or elliptic, narrowed on the petiole 15. H. verticillaris. 



Leaves elliptic, long acuminate .... 16. H. PreussU. 
Spikelets in lax cymes ; cymes in compound panicles. 

Spikelets rather small 17. H. violaceolincta. 

Spikelets \ in. long, mostly solitary and distant . 1 8. H. tamianyikensiy. 

1 . H„ aristata, It. Br. Prod. 474. Small pubescent shrub, S-o(> in. 
high. Leaves 1-2 by '^-l in., ovate, narrowed at both ends; petiole 
0-f in. long. Heads globose, axillary, distant, of numerous one- 
flowered spikelets, frequently with reduced petioled leaves J in. long ; 
upper heads not running into linear or oblong inflorescences. Spike- 
lets with 4 free bracts ; 2 outer opposite, 4- in. long, oblong, with a 
subulate scabrous tail \ in. long; inner bracts (bracteoles) lateral, 

l-l in. long, oblong. Sepals nearly free. Corolla | in. in total length. 
Filaments and style nearly glabrous. Capsule J in. long, glabrous ; 
seeds 4, smooth. — Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 500 ; T. Anders, in Journ 
Linn. Soc. vii. 4S ; Lindau in Engl, k PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. o B. 
3S3, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. ;)71 . Justicia arisiata, Vahl, Syml). 
ii. 2. 

Mozamb. I>ist. German East Africa: Kilimanjaro, ex Lindau; Ulncruru, 
Stuhlmann, 9128 1 British Central Africa : Nyasaland ; Nyika Mouarains, 4000- 
6000 ft., Whtfte ! 

Also in South Africa, 

2. H. antennifera, IS. .Uom-e in Journ. Bot. 1880, 41. Leaves up 



to 4 by 2 in. Outer bracts A-1 in. long. Corolla 1 in. long or rather 
more; otherwise as //. arisiata. — Oliv. in Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, 
iJot. ii. o4G; Lindau in Engl, c'^' PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 H. :{;;;], 
:tnd in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 371 . //. aristatu, var. macrophylla,. 
Nees in DC. Prod. xi. r)10, //. plumosa, Drege, Zwei. Pfl. Docum. 
153, 159, name only. 

Wile Xiand. British East Africa : Taita ; Ndi Mountain, llildehraudt, 2563 1 

and Maungu Mountain, 2000 ft., Johnston ! Lykipia, 60<X>-80U0 ft., Thomson .' 

VOLV* 



[Begin Page: Page 246] 

246 xcviii. ACANTHACE'^ (clarke). [Ili/poestes. 

Ukairba, 5000-6000 ft., Scott-Elliot, 6485! West of Lake Albert, Stuhlmann, 
3009! 

ItCozamI). BIst. German East Africa: Kilimanjaro, 6000 it., Johnston, 165! 
Usambara ; Kwa Mshuza, HoLst, 8918 \ British East Africa : Nyasaland ; between 
Mpata and Tangranyika Plateau, 2000-3000 ft., Whyte ! Kondowe to Karonga, 
2000-6000 ft., Whyte ! Masuka Plateau, 6500-7000 ft., Whyte, 307 ! Nvika Moun- 
tains, 4000-6000 ft., Whyte! Nyika Plateau, 6000-7000 ft., Whyte! 

Also in South Africa. 

S. Moore says that in Hildehrandt, 2563, the seeds are tuberculate ; I find them 



smooth. 

0. H. insularis, 1\ AncUrs. in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 49. Very 
sparsely liairy. Brandies 15 in. long. Leaves G hy 2 J in., thinly 
hairy on the nerves and margin ; petiole | in. long. Heads globose, 
axillary, distant, of numerous 1 -flowered spikelets; upper heads hardly 
running into oblong inflorescences. Spikelets with 4 bracts ; 2 outer 
opposite, \ in. loilg, with a subulate scabrous tail \ in. long. Sepals 
nearly free. Corolla 1 in. in total length, purple. Filaments thick, 
nearly glabrous, minutely scabrous. 

Upper Guinea. Cameroons : Kio del Rey, Johnston! Cameroon Mountain, 
2500 ft., Mann, 1931 ! Fernando Po, Mann, 179 ! 

Xio'^rer Guinea. Gaboon ; Como River, Bates, 482 ! 

Closely allied to //. aristata, K. Br. 

4. H. Staudtii, Lindau in Engl. Jahrh. xxii. 122. Leaves 5 by 

2 in., nearly glabrous. Heads numerous, approximated in the upper 
part of the branches. Corolla about f in. long. Capsule nearly 
glabrous ; seeds 4, smooth ; otherwise as H. insularis. 

Upper Guinea. Cameroons : Yaunde, 2500 ft., Zenker Sf Sfaudt, 36 ! 
Possibly a variety of H. insularis, T, Anders. 

5. H. Barter!, T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 49. Minutely 
pubescent. Leaves up to by 2J in., glabrate or minutely hairy on the 



nerves ; petiole up to | in. iong. Spikes simpie or panicies iinear, 
axiiiary and terminal, often 2 J by J in. and iax, sometimes 5 by | in. com- 
pound, denser and iong-peduncied. Spikeiets of 2 bracts, 2 bracteoies 
and 1 purpie-red fiower; 2 bracts opposite, free, | in. iong, obiong, witli 
a subulate tail " in. long. Sepals free. Corolla | in. long. Filaments 
and pistil glabrous. — Lindau in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 
333. LI. triticea, Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 51 , and in Engl. & PrantI, 
Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. ?)33. 

Upper Guinea. Lagos: Eppah, on the Kradu Lagoon, Barter, 3285! and 

without precise locality, Millen, 35 of 1896 collection ! Cameroons : Victoria, Buch- 

holz ! Preuss, 1164! 

6. H. cancellata, Nees in DC. Prod. xi. oUo. More or less hairy. 
Stems up to 2 ft. long, geniculate. Leaves up to 2 by J" in., oblong, 
narrowed at either end ; cystoliths transverse, not conspicuous ; petiole 
0-J- in. long. Heads mainly terminal (a few axillary added) up to 11 
by I in., very dense, in congested panicles, prominently yellow-hispid ; 



[Begin Page: Page 247] 

Hypoestes.\xcviii. acanthace.-i-: (clarke). 247 

outer floral leaves narrow, hardly imbricate. Spikeiets I - flowered ; 
bracts free, '2 outer V]'^ in. long, oblong, with a linear tail /'^-] in. 
long. Corolla |-J in. long, red. Pollen oblong-ellijjsoid, more elongate 
than in the preceding species. Capsule | in. long, very slender ; seeds 



4, small, tubercled. — Benth. In Hook. Niger Fl. \X\. II. calllcolaa, 
8. Moore In Journ. Bot. 1880, 41 ; LIndau In Engl. &I PrantI, 
Pflanzenfam. Iv. :) B. 3o;5. Justlcia cancellata'^ Wllld. ex Xees In DC. 
Prod. xl. r)06. 

Upper Guinea. Sierra Leone : Wallla, Scott -Elllof^ 1265 I Lester Peak, 
Scott-Elllot, 3843 ! and without precise locality, Afzellus ! 

wrile XIand. Bongo : AtUlal, Schwelnfurth, 2525 ! 

Ilolnrer Guinea. Angola : Bembe Mountain, Monteiro ! Malange, Marques, 
312! 

South Central. Lunda : Alukenge, Po<jge,'^0'o\ 1201 ; Monbuttu, Schtcein 
flirt h, 3392 ! 

This plant superficially resembles closely Justlcia procumhens, Linn. Tile 
length of the tall to the 2 outer bracts varies u good deal, and the distribution of 
the species Is unusually scattered. 



o» 



7. H. triflora, Roem. et Schultes, Syst. I. 141. Stems 1-4 ft. Ion 
more or less hairy. Leaves up to o by 1 J In., ovate, entire or crenulate, 
obscurely toothed, hispid with scattered white 1-4-celled halTs ; cysto- 
llths Irregularly scattered, many transverse, conspicuous ; petiole j-l] 
In. long. Heads of 1-5 (often 3) 1 -flowered splkelets, often apparently 
terminal on lateral branches '^-2 In. long ; flol-al leaves much reduced, 
often shorter than the splkelets. Outer 2 bracts of splkelet free, \ In. 



long, narrowly obovate-oblong. Sej'^als fi-ee. Corolla J in. in total 
length, pink or white. Filaments glabrous. Style with a few long 
hairs. Capsule h in. long, with 4 tubercled seeds. — Nees in DC. 
Prod. xi. b()'o ; A." Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, ii. 162 ; T. Anders, in Jounr. 
Linn. Soc. vii. 50 ; C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. iv. 557 ; 
Solms-Laub. in Schweinf. Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. Ill, 24;-) ; Engl. Hochge- 
birgsfl. Trop. Afr. 894 ; Lindau in Engl, k PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. '6 B. 
8oo. II. adoensis, A. Rich. Teat. Fl. Abyss, ii. Uii'^ ; Engl. Hochge- 
birgsfl. Trop. Afr. 394 and var. Andersoni, Engl. I.e. -W^') ; Lindau in 
Engl, k, PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. o B. 333. //. simensis'^ Hochst. ex 
Solms-Laub. in Schweinf. Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. Ill ; Engl. Hocligebirgsfl. 
Trop. Afr. 395. //. incerjualis, Lindau in ICngl. Jahrb. xx. 'tO. II. ciliata, 
Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xx. 51 , and in Engl, i'^i' PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 
3 B. 333. Jl. acuminata, Hochst. ex Nees in DC. Prod.xi. 5(>('». Justkin 
triflora, Forsk. Fl. .-Egypt .-Arab. 4 ; Vahl, Synib. i. 3. 

Upper Guinea. Canieroons : Buea, (1500-8000 ft., Prems, 732 ! 745 ! 
Cameroon Mountain, 7000 ft., Mann, 1979 ! Fernando Po. 5000 ft., Ma»n, 580! 

Nile Hand. Eritrea: iSaganeiti, in Goua Gorge, G800-7100 ft., Schtcfiufurth 

4' Riva, 1290! Abyssinia, Salt! Pearce ! Schimper. 108! 149! 340! 386! 389! 

418! 600! 61 11926 19341939! 1 104! 1 1 1 1 ! 1491 ! 1985! 2818! Quarfin- 

Dillon Sc Petit I Petit! Both, 484'^1 British East Africa : Huwenzori, 5000-6(.HX> ft. 

Scott-Elliot, 7856 ! 8000-9000 ft., Scott-Elliot, 7560 ! 

Extending eastward to India. 



[Begin Page: Page 248] 

248 xcviii. ACANTHACE.t: (clarke). 

H.ciliata, Lindau, is described as Inaving tine calyx divided only half-way down, 
but I find it divided to tlu; base in the type speciinen. K. adocnsis, Solm3-Laub. in 
Schweinf. Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. Ill, is said to be Diclipicra roxljurghiana , Nees. This 
latter is a typical Diclipfera, abundant in Indin, and though not yet known from 
'JVopical Africa, several of the Tropical African Dirliptercs are very near it. If, 
however, Hiipoextes (idoeusis'^ Solnis-Lauh., was really one of these, it was not con- 
generic even with Hypoeslcs aducn.sis, A. Rich. 

8. H. phaylopsoides, >S'. Moore in Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Hot. iv. 
84. Two outer bracts of the spikelet unequal, lower often 2 '^Y \ ii'^-j 
elongate-obovate, upper \ in. long, otherwise as H. trifora. — Lindau in 
Eng. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. o71 . //. kilimandsdiarica , Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. 
xix. Leibl. No. 47, 47, and in Engl. Pfi. Ost-Afr. C. 'M\. 

XMEozamb. BIst. Gennan East Africa: Kilimanjaro, 3300 ft., Volkens,\'^Q'i ! 
British Central Africa : Nyasaland, Masuka Plateau, 6500-7000 ft., JVhi/te ! Mount 
Mlanje, mij/te, 126 I 

This species is very near the large-leaved states of //. injiora, but the lower 
bract to spikelet is broader and leaflike. 

9. H, rosea, JJeauv. Fl. Oioar. ii. (57, t. 100, Jic/. 1. Sparsely hairy 
or glabrate. Upper leaves Ih by | in., ovate, acuminate, short- 
petioled ; lower leaves up to (Ji by 2| in. with a petiole Ij in. long. 



Heads of 1-5 1 -flowered spikelets, terminal or axillary, sessile or 
peduncled ; floral leaves narrow oblong, usually much shorter than the 
spikelet, sometimes '^ by '^^^ in. Outer 2 bracts of spikelet free, J- A in. 
long, oblong, narrowed in the upper half. Corolla | in. in total length, 
rose ; otherwise nearly as Jl. trijiora. — Nees in L)C. Prod. xi. 500 ; 
Benth. in Hook. Niger Fl. 484. //. conscmgulnea, Lindau in Engl. 
Jahrb. xx. ."10, and in Engl. & PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. ;» B. ?>?)?>. 

Upper Guinea. Togoland, Bilttner, 315! Klin<j. 180! Benin, Beain-ois. 
Cameroons: Buea, Preuss, 599 ! 

liower Guinea. Island of St. Thomas, Don ! 

Bentham says that G. Don's example has no flowers, and refers it here with 
a query. But it has good buds and inflorescences. It shows some linear-oblong 
floral leaves outside the head of spikelets ; throughout Hiipoestes the absence or 
prominence of these reduced leaves varies much on one plant. 

10. H. microphylla, Xees in DC. Prod. xi. 5(»4, not of Baker. 
Small, woody, much-branched, viscous hairy. Leaves J by I in., sub- 
sessile, toothed. Spikelets 1 -flowered, l-o together, scattered, sub- 
sessile ; bracts free, '1 outer -J- in. long, oblong, obtuse. Sepals '^ in. 
long, nearly free. Corolla A in. in total length. Capsule scarcely |-in. 
long, viscous hairy; seeds 4, tubercled. — A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss, 11. 
1 (14. //. unijioo-a, T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 48 ; Hochst. in 
Flora, 1S4]. i. Intell. :^4, name only. 

ZTile Ziand. Abyssinia: Amba Sea, ScJdmper, 573 1 Mount Sholoda, near 



Adowa, Schimper, 400 I and without precise iocaiity, Scliimper, 1623 

11. H. strobiiifera, S. iMoore in Joum. Bot. 1S80, 40. Cioseiy 
pubescent. Stems i-i'^ ft. iong. Leaves li'^ by In in. iinear-obiong, base 
often rounded ; cystoiitiis on botli surfaces many, prominent ; petioie 



[Begin Page: Page 249] 

Hijpoestes?'^ xcviii. acantlnace.k (c iakke). 2 40 

0-J- in. iong. Heads 1-1| in. iong, ovoid, terminai, denseiy strobiiate ; 
outer fiorai ieaves spatlnuiate-obovate, suddeniy acuminate, rigid, ciolieiy 
imbricate, witli 18 spikeiets under eacli. Jiracts free, '1 outer ! in. 
long, obiong. Sepais J in. iong, free. Coroiia \ in. iong. Pistii 
giabrous except for a few Inairs near tine top of the ovary. Capsule 
\-\ in. long; seeds 4, tubercled. — Lindau in Engl. iV PrantI, Ptian 
zenfam. iv. ;] B. .')3y. 

Wile liand. Bongo: Addai, Schiveinfuvth, ser. 3, 30! 2553 1 

12. H. Forskaleiy R. Br. Prod. 474, in obs. Small shrub, 1-2 ft. 
high, nearly glabrous except the inflorescence. Leaves 2 by 5 in., elliptic- 
lanceolate, acuminate to an obtuse point, midrib glabrous beneath in 
the type form (Steiodner, l''^24), or minutely scabrous hairy in the forms 
called II. annua and //. Kothii : petiole (»-.\ in. long. Inflorescences 
axillary, and running into a narrow terminal panicle ; spikeiets mostly 
in unilateral cymes v,-lj in. long; floral leaf to spikelet mostly ^-1. in. 



long, ovate. Two outer bracts of spikelet united for half their length 
into a tube (involucre of Lindau), their free portions lanceolate, sub- 
obtuse, minutely pubescent, without glands or long white hairs. Calyx 
'^ in. long, tubular for J its length, minutely pubescent, scarious : seg- 
ments 5, lanceolate, subacute. Corolla \-\ in. long, hairy without. 
Filaments rather thick, glabrous above, hairy below ; pollen ellipsoid, 
with ;> stopples. Pistil glabrous in the type form ; sometimes with a 
few hairs near the top of the ovary and on the base of the style. Cap- 
sule I in. long, those seen 2-seeded ; seeds smooth. — A. Rich. Tent. Fl. 
Abyss, ii. 163 ; T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 49 ; Solms-Laub. in 
Schweinf. Beitr. Fl. Aethiop. 1 1 1 ,24;) ; B. Br. in Salt, Abyss. Apj'^end. 
(;2 ; Xees in DC. Prod. xi. 507 ; Zarb, Cat. Spec. Bot. Pfund. ;)2 ; Engl. 
Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr. 394 ; Lindau in Engl, tk Prantl. Pflanzen- 
fam. iv. :] B. 3;)o, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 371 , and in Ann. I.'^tit. 
Bot. Boma, vi. (1 S96) 81 . //. annua, Steud. Nomencl. ed. '1 . i. 791 . 
H. Rothii, T.Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 49. Justicia panicvlaUt, 
Forsk. Fl. '^'^gypt.-Arab. 4. ,/. Forskalei, Yahl, Symb. i. 2. 

Wile Ziand. Kordofan : Abou Hefe, Pj'und. Kritrea : Keren, Stctiduer, 1524 I 
1529 : Kazen, 8000 ft., Rohlfs Sf Sleeker ! Habab, 7000 ft., Hildehrandt, 456 ! 
Abyssinia, widely spread, b(i00-9000 it., Schimper, 29! 35! 241 \ 350 1 390! 405! 
1861 ! Roth, 485 ! Petit ! Salt ! Pearce ! Plowden ! Somaliland : Berbera. Riva, 
111! between Lafaru and Merer, Riva, 29! Danna Torrent. i?n-ff, S38 1 Ogaden. 
Robecclu,241 ! 246 ! 257 ! 

lioiver Guinea. Angola : Huilla, Newton, 120 I Antunes, 84 ! 

Mozamb. Dist. British Central Africa : Xyasaland. Kondowe to Karongii , 
2000-6000 ft., 7'^'%'^''^'.' 



Also in Arabia. 

Tliis piant is aiso said to grow on Kiiimanjaro by Lindau ; but, as it lias bfcn cun- 
sidered mereiy a gliibrescent form of H. verticiiidris, K. Br., it is not possible 
to separate out either the synonymy or the distribution completely. The plant above 
referred here from Nyasaland may belong: to II. rerlicinaris, K. Hr., var. ijlahra, 
S. Moore. 

13. H. Hildebrandtii, Lindau in Emjl Jahrh. xx. 4S. Stt>ms, 

and nearly the whole plant, densely and minutely canescent. Leaves 



[Begin Page: Page 250] 

250 xcviii. ACANTHACEiE (clarke). [Hypoestcs. 

oblong, or naiTOw-elliptic, obtuse ; otherwise as II. Forskalei. — Engl. cV: 
PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 833, and in Ann. Istit. Bot. Roma, vi. 
1896,81. 

wile Land. Eritrea : Saganeiti, 7000 ft., Schweinfurtk Sf Riva, 1209 ! 1716 ! 
Mount Kube, 6000 ft., Schweinfurtk '^ Uiva, 1515! Somaliland : Golis Range, 
'^Irs, Lort- Phillips ! Miss JSdith Cole ! Dononati, Riva, 415 ! Barasi Desert, Rivu, 
1435 ! Lrtferug, James '^ Thnipp ! Ahl Mountains, 6500 ft., Hildebrandt, 860d '. 
Serrut Mountains, near Maid, Hildebrandt, 1405 ! Milmil, Donaldson Smith ! Harai 
Rohecchi, 4 ! Ogaden Steppe, Keller, 181 ! 



" Sweet-scented : all over the hills," Mrs. Lort-Fhillips. 

14. H. xnlanjensis, C. B. Clarke. Pubescent. Calyx \ in. long, 
minutely puberulous, white, rather firm ; sepals united § their length ; 
otherwise as H. Forskalei. — II. verticillaris, S. Moore in Trans. Linn. 
Soc. ser. 2, Bot. iv. 34, partly. 

If lie Ibanda British East Africa : Ukamba, Gregory ! 

Mozaxnb. Sist. British Central Africa : Nyasaland ; Mount Mlanje, 6000 ft. 
Whyte, 151 ! 

15. H. verticillaris, R. Br. Prod. 474, in ohs. Stem and leaves 

hairy or nearly glabrous. Two outer connate bracts with few or many 
long white spreading hairs. Seeds 4 or 2 to the capsule ; otherwise as 
H. Fm'skalei, R. Br. — Nees in Linnsea, xv. 37G, and in DC. Prod. xi. 
507 ; T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 48 ; Balf. f. in Trans. Roy. 
Soc. Edin. xxxi. 229 ; S. Moore in Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, Bot. iv. 34, 
partly ; Lindau in Engl. Jahrb. xviii. (53, t. 2, fig. 73, and in Engl. iV: 
PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 333, fig. 134, A-C, and in Engl. Pfl. Ost- 
Afr. C. 371 ; Rendle in Journ. Bot. 1 896, 41 1 . H. latifolia, Hochst. 
ex Nees in DC. Prod. xi. 509; Benth. in Hook. Niger Fl. 484; T. 
Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 50 ; Solms-Laub. in Schweinf. Beitr. 
Fl. Aethiop. Ill ; Lindau in Engl. &I PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 333, 
and in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 371 . H. mollis, T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. 
Soc. vii. 49 ; S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1880, 3G3 ; Lindau in Engl, k 
PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 333. II. echioides, Lindau in Engl. 
Jahrb. xx. 52, and in Engl, tk PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 333, and 



in Engl. Pfl. Ost-Afr. C. 371. Justida verticillaris, Linn. f. Suppi. 85. 
Diciiptera verticiiiaris, Juss. in Ann. Mus. Paris, ix. (1807) 208. 

Upper Guinea. Senegai, Leprieur ! Perrottet, 621 ! Senegambia, Heudeiot, 

552! Sierra Leone, Afzeiius! Togoiand, Aiafanyo, Krau.fe ! Aslianti'^ Cummins, 66! 

Lagos, Miiien, 54 ! Cross River, Jolnnston ! Cameroons : Rio del Rey, Johnston 1 

Wile Xiand. Kordofan, Kotschy, 296 ! 477 ! White Nile, Schiveinfurth, 1058 ! 
1066 ! Galabat : Matamma, Schweinf urth, 128 ! Somaliland, Keller, 182 ! 184 ! 
British East Africa : Torn, East of Ruwenzori, in Wimi Valley, 7000 ft., Scott-Ellioty 
7880 ! 7899 ! Lykipia, Thomson ! Gregory ! Kapte Plateau, 5000-6000 ft., 
Thomson ! Ukamba, Hildebrandt, 2715 ! Scott-Elliot, 6474 I Tana River, Donaldson 
Smith ! Nyika country near Mombasa, Wakefield ! 

Jtorwer Guinea. Congo, Smith! Angola: Ambriz, Monteiro I Golungo Alto, 
Welwitsch, 5118 ! 5142 15144 ! 

Soutb Central. Lunda : Lulua River, Pogge, 309 ! 

IVIozamb. ]>l8t. German East Africa : Kilimanjaro, 3300 ft., Volkens, 1652,1664 ! 



[Begin Page: Page 251] 

llypoestes.'^ xcviii. acanthaoe.*: (clarke). 251 

Smith ! Usambara ; Umba Valley, Smith ! Muoa, Hoist, 2987 ! 3075 \ Masbeua, 
Hoist, 3492 ! 8858 ! Kwa Msbuza, Hoist, 9148 ! Usaranio ; Ukwcre district, 160 ft. 



Stuhlmann, 8386 ! Ugalla River, Boehm, 279 ! Lower Plateau, nortii of Lake NvHsa, 
Thomson 1 Lake Tanganyika, Cameron! Kavaia Isiand in Lake Tanganyika, Carson! 
Portuguese East Africa : Lower Zambesi : Lupata, Kirk ! Lower Valley of the River 
Shire, Metier! British Central Africa : Urungu; Fwambo, Carson, 7jO\ !i3 I Sutt ! 
Nyasaland; between Mpata and Tanganyika Plateau, Whyte ! Tanganyika Plateau at 
Fort Hill, Whyte! North Nyasa, Whyte! Nyika Plateau, 6000-7000 tl., Whyte ! 
Kondowe to Karonga, 2000-6000 ft., Whyte! Mount Chiradzulu, MeHer, 4000 ft., 
Whyte! Shire Highlands, 5z<cAa??a», 116 ! 465! Mount Mlanje, WV/'^e .' Rhodesia: 
Leshunio Valley, Holiib, 816 ! 

Also in Arabia, Socotra and South Africa. 

I have been unable to sort this species into varieties. The plants named by 
Lindau H. latifolia, Hochst. {Hoist, 8858 ; Volkens, 1652) are identical uitii those 
named by him H. verticillaris, Solander (Hoist, 3492, 914-8), from the same 
locality : but they are not exactly H. latifolia, Hochst., which is founded on Kotschy, 
296, and has ovate glabrous leaves 4 in. broad. H. latifolia, Nees, has leaves rather 
larger than usual (attaining 4 by 1§ in.), but not diftering in form from thost- of 
H. ve7-ticillaris. H. mollis, T. Anders., from the Congo, is remarkably like the 
typical Cape H. verticillaris. The most distinct form (included in the above li'^t of 
numbers) is Schiveivfurth's 128, collected in Gallabat (there are several examples like 
it from the Mozambique region), named by Schweinfurth & Lindau H. latifolia, 
from which it appears to differ considerably ; the leaves are narrowly elliptic, much 
acuminate, the sepals are united scarcely \ their length, the 2 outer bracts are united 
scarcely \ their length, and with many spreading long white hairs. Nees says (in 
Linnaea, xv. 376) that this species " varies by having 4 didynamous stamens." 1 
have never met with 4 stamens in any plant of the Justicioid series. 

Var. § glabra, S. Moore in Journ. Bot. 1880, 363. Almost glabrous, except the 



inflorescence. Leaves attaining 1 by \-\ in. Bracts pubescent, and also witii some 
scattered white longer hairs. 

XiO-wer Guinea. Angola, Welioitsch, 5059 ! 

S. Moore is probably right in regarding this as a depauperated state of H. vi ,fi- 
cillaris ; but it is perhaps as well entitled to be made a species as any of the species 
which follow. 

10. H. Preussii, Lindau in Engl. Jahrh. xx. 4S. Leaves up to f) 
by IJ in., elliptic, long acuminate, pubescent on the nerves and with 
scattered hairs, very shortly narrowed into the petiole ; otherwise as 
H. verticillaris, R. Br. 

Upper Guinea. Cameroons : Buea, 2500 ft., Preuss-, 'too \ 

This certainly does not match any of the numerous examples above referred to 

H. verticillaris, but it is difficult to say in what its specitic difference exists. Lindau 

says the " bracteoles are adnate to the 2-toothed involucre " (which he states of some 

other species of Hypoestes). There is no union between the bi act coles and bracts; 

but, as in m'dny AcanfhacecB, the bracteoles cling or stick somewhat to the bract which 

is external to them. 

17. H. violaceotincta, Limlau in Engl. Jahrh. xxiv. :V2'.\. In- 
florescences axillary and terminal, very compound panicled. Spikelets 
small ; two outer bracts hardly exceeding j in. in length ; otherwise as 
H. vei'ticillaris, R. Br. 

Upper Guinea. Sieira Leone : Bafodeya, Scott-Elliot ! Togolai.d : Misahuhc. 



JSaumann, 476 ! 



[Begin Page: Page 252] 

252 xcviii. ACANTHACE'^ (clarke). [Ri/poestes. 

Leaves rather large. Bracts with some spreading white iong hairs. The piant 
resembies much the iarge-ieaved forms of the West African S. verticiiiaris 
(i.e. H. iatifoUa, /3 Nees). But Hoist, 2265, from Usambara (marked H. verticiiiaris 
by Lindau) appears the same as H. vioiaceotincta. 

18. H. tanganyikensiSy ('. B. Ciarke. Infiorescences axiiiary and 
terminal, very iaxiy panicied ; fiowers mostly solitary (not clustered), 
-M- in. apart, white {Whyte). Two outer bracts to the spikelet J by 
Y2 ill-) subequal, connate about J their length, linear-oblong, subspathu- 
late ; otherwise nearly as H. verticillaHs. 

nXozamb. DIst. British Central Africa: Nyasaland ; Tanganyika Plateau, 
2000-3000 ft., Wk'^fe ! Nyika Plateau, 6000-7000 ft., Whyte, 192 ! 

Imperfectly known species. 

11). H. grandifolia, Lindau in Engl. Jahrh. xx. 41 ). Stem glabrous. 
Leaves up to 4'^ by 24- in., pubescent on the nerves beneath. Two 
outer bracts of the spikelet united f their length, exceeding J in. in 
length, hairy, enclosing 2 flowers. 



Wile liand. Bongo, Schweinfurth, 2613. 

The detailed description by Lindau fits very well many of the larger examples re- 
ferred as forms to H. iierticillaris, R. Br., as, for instance, to Schweinfurth, 1066, from 
the White Nile ; but thougli in this 1 066 there is a rudiment of the second flower in 
the spikelet, I find no 2-flowered spikelets. 

The plant was not found at Berlin. 

56. RUNQIA, Nees ; Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. PI. 11. 1 1 20. 

Corolla, stamens, pistil as of Justicia, sect. Betonica. Placentae in 
ripe fruit rising elastically from the base of the capsule, throwing out 
the seeds. — Spikes strobilate ; bracts in 4 ranks (whereof 2 alternate 
are sterile), much larger than the calyx, broad with prominently 
scarious margins. 

Species 20, in the warmer parts of the Old World. 

Bentham describes the inflorescence, " primarial bracts superposed in pairs, 
lower of each pair sterile, upper bearing a flower " ; which is correct but he places 
the genus in his subtribe Diclipterece, to which he attributes "bracts 2 (or 4) val- 
vately adpressed together, including one or several flowers." This definition applies to 
Dicliptera, Peristrophe and Hypoestes, but cannot be made to apply to Rungia, 
in which the inflorescence is as that of Jv.sticia, sect. Betonica (or of Ad haioda), 
but with 2 ranks of bracts empty. 

Bracts f in. long 1 , it. grandis. 



Bracts \ in. long. 

Leaves acuminate, minuteiy pubescent . . . 2. R. paxiana. 

Leaves acuminate, giabrate 3. i2. Bnettneri. 

Leaves obtuse, Inispiduious 4. i2. congoensis. 

1 . R. grandis, T. Andei's. in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. 40. Herbaceous 
up to 10 ft. h\gh. Leaves G by 2|- in., minutely pubescent on the 
midrib beneath, nearly glabrous ; petiole f in. long. Spikes terminal, 



[Begin Page: Page 253] 

Rungia.'^ xcviii. acanthace'^ (clarke). 253 

or terminating lateral branches, sometimes very short, up to 4 by 1 in. • 
bract up to | by J in., ovate, acute, green pubescent, with very broad 
shining white margins; or the bract sometimes orbicular, 'I in. in diam., 
emarginate, owing to the great development of the scarious margin 
towards the top; bracteoles exceeding \ in. in length, boat-shaped, 
obtuse. Sepals J in. long, nearly free, linear, pubescent. Corolla 'I in.' 
long, white {Barter) ; anticous lip ovate. Filaments giabrate ; one 
anther-cell very slightly below the other, with a large clavate tail ; 
pollen ellipsoid, with 8 bands and pores, and one row of smooth 
tubercles on each side of each stopple. Pistil and lower part of the style 
hairy; style-branches 2, subequal, very short. Capsule J in. long. 



ovoid, subsessile, compressed, 4-seeded ; placentae rising elastically from 
the capsule-base; seeds cerebrose-tubercular. — Justicia (jarckeana, Biittn. 
in Verhandl. Bot. Ver. Brandenb. xxxii. (1890), 38. 

Upper Guinea. Sierra Leone, Kofiu Mountain, Scott-Elliot, 4616 ! Sngarloaf 
Mountain, 2000ft., Scott-Elliot, 3964! and without precise locality, AfzeliiisI Win- 
wood Reade ! Lagos : Otta Ifo, Rowland ! Ikirun, Millson I Eppah on the Kradu 
Lagoon, Barter, 3274 ! and without precise locality, Moloney, 16 ! Milieu. 59 ! 
Cameroons : Yaunde, Zenker '^ Staudt, 172 ! 

liower Guinea. Congo, Smit/t ! Angola : Quidando River, Marques, 336 ! 
Kuango River, Bilttner, 356 ! 

2. R. paxiana, 6'. B. Clarke. Herbaceous, up to :> ft. high. 
Leaves, up to 5 by IJ in., broad-lanceolate, acuminate at either end, 
somewhat hispidulous ; petiole | in. long. Spikes terminal and quasi- 
axillary, IJ by J in. ; bracts \ in. long, or rather more, orbicular, with 
a few long white hairs, and broad white margins ; bracteoles nearlv 
linear. Corolla hardly '^ in. long, pale purple (6*. Mann). One anther- 
cell clearly lower than the other, not tailed ; pollen as of /.'. yraiuHs. 
Capsule \ in. long, nearly glabrous, except the tip, sometimes 4-seeded ; 
placentae rising elastically from the base; seeds papillose, hardly 
tubercled. — R. jyuhescens'^ T. Anders. MS. Justicia paxiana, Lindau in 
Engl. Jahrb. xx. Go, and in Engl, ct PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. o B. 850. 

lio-vtrer Guinea. Cameroons: Buea, 3500 ft., Preuss, 9561 Cameroon Moun- 
tain, 3000-4000 ft., Mann, 1968 ! Fernando Po, 3000 ft., Mann, 588 ! 



Lindau has redistributed tine species of Rung ia, Justicia, Himantoclniius;, &c., by 
tine poiien; tlie Diciipteroid group liave " Spangen (banded) poiien," tine .Tusticioid 
liave " Knotclien (tubercied) poiien." He attributes to Rungia " piacenraj arising 
eiasticaiiy from capsuie-base," wliiie notliing is said under tine genus Justicia re- 
garding tinis cinaracter. Under tliis system, Rungia pubescens, T. Anders., appears 
S).& Justicia paxiana, \j\iidi-An', Rungia grandis, 'i\ Awders., is returned to Kevv from 
Beriin marked Justicia grandis (T. Anders.), Lindau; Rungia (?) pubinervia. T. 
Anders., is pubiislied as Himantocliiius marginatus, Lindau. Per contrn, Justicia 
tedeiia, T. Anders., is caiied Rungia Baumannii, Lindau. Tine "banded" poiien 
appears to me separable by no definite iine from tlie tubercied poiien ; tlie smootli 
bands (in tlie centre of wliicli are tlie pores) liave often " obsolete" rows of marks or 
dots which (in adjacent species) are slightly stronger and reckoned as tubercles. If 
Rungia grandis and R. pubescens, T. Anders., are transferred to Juslicia, the genus 
Rrnigia must be abandoned altogether. 

3. R. Buettneri, Luulau in EmjI. Jahrb. xx. 46. Leaves 4 by Ij 

in., narrowed at both ends, upper surface puberulous, finally glabi-ate ; 



[Begin Page: Page 254] 

254 xcviii. ACANTHACE.E (clarke). [Bungia. 

petiole 1 in. long. Spikes terminal and quasi-axillary, unilateral ; 
bracts nearly J in. long, ovate, hyaline-edged, apiculate or long-cuspi- 
date. Calyx I in. long, unequally 5-fid, hairy. Corolla J in. long. 
One anther-cell lower than the other, tailed ; pollen " banded " and also 
minutely tubercied. Capsule small, puberulous ; dissepiments separ- 



ating ; seeds tubercled. — Lindau in Engl. &. PrantI, Pflanzenfam. iv. 3 B. 

upper Guinea. Cameroons : Yaunde, Zenker Sf Siaudt, 189 ! 

Soutb Central. Cong'^o Free State : in thickets by the River Ganga, near the 
town of Muene Putu Kasongo, Bilttner'^ 456 ! 

Not in " Gaboon- Loango," as stated by Lindau ; see Proc. Royal Geograph. Soc. 
1886, p. 635. 

4. R. congoensis, C. B. Clarke. Branches 1 foot long, minutely 
pubescent. Leaves 8 by 1 in., obtuse, glabrate, base attenuate; petiole 
J in. long. Spikes terminal and many quasi-axillary, up to Ij by 
nearly J in. ; bract orbicular, J in. in diam., minutely pubescent, with a 
broad hyaline margin. Sepals 5, subequal, '^'^ in. long, linear. Corolla 
small, hardly exceeding J in. in length (not seen well expanded). Capsule 
l-| in. long ; placentae rising elastically from the base of the valves ; 
seeds minutely tuberculate. 

liower Guinea. Lower Congo: Lukungu, 700 ft.. Hens, 330! Smith, 64! 

This has been supposed possibly to be Rungia repens, Nees, a common weed in 
India; but the seeds differ, and the numerous axillary spikes give it a different 
aspect. 

57. MACRORUNGIA, C. B. Clarke. 

Sepals 5, united half-way up, or nearly free, coloured, scarious, free 
portions broad-lanceolate. Corolla red ; tube scarcely \ in. long ; 



anticous lip 1 in. or more, witlnout in tine bud, sub-.S-fid or subentire ; 
posticous lip broader, emarginate. Stamens 2 ; filaments long exserted, 
glabrous ; anther-cells 2, oblong, muticous, one placed a little below the 
other ; pollen ellipsoid, with 2 stopples and several rows of minute 
tubercles, obscurely banded. Capsule ovoid ; placentae rising elastically 
fiom the base of the valves ; seeds obscurely cerebrose-marked. — 
Shrubs, nearly glabrous. Leaves entire. Flowers in spikes; bract 
ovate, narrowly hyaline-edged ; bracteoles 0, or narrow. 

Species, besides the subjoined, 1 in South Africa. 

From the fruit, Macrorungia must stand next Rung la or be sunk in it. The 
corolla is very unlike that of Riingia, as is the comparatively large tubular hyaline 
calyx. The spikes are looser than in Rungia, less strobilate, the bracts not (or most 
obscurely) 4-ranked, some of them (not those in one definite rank) empty. 

The distinction between Anisotes and Macrorungia lies in the elastic rising of the 
placentae in the ripe capsule in Macrorungia. Lindau has placed his Symplectochiivs